Linear Algebra: Vectors


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1 A Linear Algebra: Vectors A
2 Appendix A: LINEAR ALGEBRA: VECTORS TABLE OF CONTENTS Page A Motivation A 3 A2 Vectors A 3 A2 Notational Conventions A 4 A22 Visualization A 5 A23 Special Vectors A 5 A3 Vector Operations A 5 A3 Transposition A 6 A32 Equality A 6 A33 Addition and Subtraction A 6 A34 Multiplication and Division by Scalar A 7 A35 Span A 7 A36 Inner Product, Norm and Length A 7 A37 Unit Vectors and Normalization A 9 A38 Angles and Orthonormality A 9 A39 Orthogonal Projection A 0 A30 Orthogonal Bases and Subspaces A 0 A Exercises A 2 A Solutions to Exercises A 3 A 2
3 A2 VECTORS A Motivation Matrix notation was invented primarily to express linear algebra relations in compact form Compactness enhances visualization and understanding of essentials To illustrate this point, consider the following set of m linear relations between one set of n quantities, x,, x n, and another set of m quantities, y, y 2,, y m : a x + a a j x j + + a n x n = y a 2 + a a 2 j x j + + a 2n x n = y 2 a i x + a i2 + + a ij x j + + a in x n = y i (A) a m x + a m2 + + a mj x j + + a mn x n = y m The subscripted a, x and y quantities that appear in this set of relations may be formally arranged as follows: a a 2 a j a n x y a 2 a 22 a 2 j a 2n y 2 a i a i2 a ij a in x j = (A2) y i a m a m2 a mj a mn x n y m Two kinds of mathematical objects can be distinguished in (A2) The twodimensional array expression enclosed in brackets is a matrix, which we call A Matrices are defined and studied in Appendix B The onedimensional array expressions in brackets are column vectors or simply vectors, which we call x and y, respectively The use of boldface uppercase and lowercase letters to denote matrices and vectors, respectively, follows conventional matrixnotation rules in engineering applications See A2 for conevntions used in this book Replacing the expressions in (A2) by these symbols we obtain the matrix form of (A): Ax= y (A3) Putting A next to x means matrix product of A times x, which is a generalization of the ordinary scalar multiplication, and follows the rules explained later Clearly (A3) is a more compact, short hand form of (A) Another key practical advantage of the matrix notation is that it translates directly to the computer implementation of linear algebra processes in languages that offer array data structures Largely by Arthur Cayley (82 895) at Cambridge (UK) in 858 [30] with substantial contributions from his colleague James Joseph Sylvester (84 897) See Appendix H for additional historical details related to the developmnent of FEM Curiously, vectors for mathematical physics (that is, living in 3D space) were independently created by J Willard Gibbs ( ) and Oliver Heaviside ( ) in the late XIX century [72] The overlap between matrices and vectors in n dimensions was not established until the XX century A 3
4 Appendix A: LINEAR ALGEBRA: VECTORS A2 Vectors We begin by defining a vector, a set of n numbers which we shall write in the form x = x x n (A4) This object is called a column vector We shall see later that although a vector may be viewed as a special case of a matrix, it deserves treatment on its own The symbol x is the name of the vector If n numbers are arranged in a horizontal array, as in z = [ z z 2 z n ], (A5) then z is called a row vector If the term vector is used without a qualifier, it is understood to be a column vector such as (A4) A2 Notational Conventions Typeset vectors will be designated by bold lowercase letters For example: a, b, c, x, y, z (A6) On the other hand, handwritten or typewritten vectors, which are those written on paper or on the blackboard, are identified by putting a wiggle or bar underneath the letter For example: ã (A7) Subscripted quantities such as x in (A4) are called the entries or components 2 of x, while n is called the order of the vector x Vectors of order one (n = ) are called scalars These are the usual quantities of analysis For compactness one sometimes abbreviates the phrase vector of order n to just nvector For example, z in equation (A8) below is a 4vector If the components are real numbers, the vector is called a real vector If the components are complex numbers we have a complex vector Linear algebra embraces complex vectors as easily as it does real ones; however, we rarely need complex vectors for most of our exposition Consequently real vectors will be assumed unless otherwise noted 2 The term component is primarily used in mathematical treatments whereas entry is used more in conjunction with the computer implementation The term element is also used in the literature but this will be avoided here (as well as in companion books) as it may lead to confusion with finite elements A 4
5 (a) x = [ x (b) x x 3 ] x = x 3 A3 VECTOR OPERATIONS x x Figure A Standard visualization of 2vectors and 3vectors as position vectors in 2space and 3space, respectively Example A 4 2 x = 3 0 is real column vector of order 4, or, briefly, a 4vector (A8) Example A2 is a real row vector of order 6 q = [ ] (A9) Occasionally we shall use the shorthand component notation x = [x i ], (A0) for a generic vector This comes handy when it is desirable to show the notational scheme obeyed by components A22 Visualization To help visualization, a twodimensional vector x (n = 2) can be depicted as a line segment, or arrow, directed from the chosen origin to a point on the Cartesian plane of the paper with coordinates (x, ) See Figure A(a) In mechanics this is called a position vector in 2space One may resort to a similar geometrical interpretation in threedimensional Cartesian space (n = 3) See Figure A(b) Drawing becomes a bit messier, however, although some knowledge of perspective and projective geometry helps The interpretation extends to Euclidean spaces of dimensions n > 3 but direct visualization is of course impaired A23 Special Vectors The null vector, written 0, is the vector all of whose components are zero The unit vector, denoted by e i, is the vector all of whose components are zero, except the i th component, which is one After introducing matrices (Appendix B) a unit vector may be defined as the i th column of the identity matrix The unitary vector, called e, is the vector all of whose components are unity A 5
6 Appendix A: LINEAR ALGEBRA: VECTORS A3 Vector Operations Operations on vectors in twodimensional and threedimensional space are extensively studied in courses on Mathematical Physics Here we summarize operations on ncomponent vectors that are most useful from the standpoint of the development of finite elements A3 Transposition The transpose of a column vector x is the row vector that has the same components, and is denoted by x T : x T = [ x x n ] (A) Similarly, the transpose of a row vector is the column vector that has the same components Transposing a vector twice yields the original vector: (x T ) T = x Example A3 The transpose of [ ] 3 a = 6 and transposing b gives back a is b = a T = [ 3 6] A32 Equality Two column vectors x and y of equal order n are said to be equal if and only if their components are equal, x i = y i, for all i =,n We then write x = y Similarly for row vectors Two vectors of different order cannot be compared for equality or inequality A row vector cannot be directly compared to a column vector of the same order (unless their dimension is ); one of the two has to be transposed before a comparison can be made A33 Addition and Subtraction The simplest operation acting on two vectors is addition The sum of two vectors of same order n, x and y, is written x + y and defined to be the vector of order n x + y def = x + y + y 2 x n + y n (A2) If x and y are not of the same order, the addition operation is undefined The operation is commutative: x + y = y + x, and associative: x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z Strictly speaking, the plus sign connecting x and y is not the same as the sign connecting x i and y i However, since it enjoys the same analytical properties, there is no harm in using the same symbol in both cases The geometric interpretation of the vector addition operator for two and threedimensional vectors (n = 2, 3) is the well known paralellogram law See Figure A2 For n = the usual scalar addition results For vector subtraction, replace + by in the foregoing expressions A 6
7 A3 VECTOR OPERATIONS y = [ y y 2 ] [ ] x + y x + y = + y 2 x = [ x ] Figure A2 In two and threedimensional space, the vector addition operation is equivalent to the well known parallelogram composition law Example A4 The sum of [ ] 3 a = 6 and b = [ 2 4 ] is a + b = [ ] A34 Multiplication and Division by Scalar Multiplication of a vector x by a scalar c is defined by means of the relation c x def = cx cx 2 cx n (A3) This operation is often called scaling of a vector The geometrical interpretation of scaling is: the scaled vector points the same way, but its magnitude is multiplied by c If c = 0, the result is the null vector If c < 0 the direction of the vector is reversed In paticular, if c = the resulting operation ( )x = x is called reflexion about the origin or simply reflexion Division of a vector by a scalar c 0 is equivalent to multiplication by /c The operation is written The operation is not defined if c = 0 x c x/c def = (/c)x (A4) A35 Span Sometimes it is not just x which is of interest but the line determined by x, namely the collection cx of all scalar multiples of x, including x We call this Span(x) Note that the span always includes the null vector The span of two vectors, x and y with common origin, is the set of vectors c x + c 2 y for arbitrary scaling coefficients c and c 2 If the two vectors are not parallel, the geometric visualization of the span is that of the plane defined by the two vectors Hence the statement: a plane is spanned by two noncoincident vectors, responds to this interpretation The span of an arbitrary number of vectors of common origin is studied in A30 A 7
8 Appendix A: LINEAR ALGEBRA: VECTORS A36 Inner Product, Norm and Length The inner product of two column vectors x and y, of same order n, is a scalar function denoted by (x, y) as well as two other forms shown below and is defined by (x, y) = x T y = y T x def = n i= x i y i sc = x i y i (A5) This operation is also called dot product and interior product If the two vectors are not of the same order, the inner product is undefined The two other notations shown in (A5), namely x T y and y T x, exhibit the inner product as a special case of the matrix product discussed in Appendix B The last expression in (A5) applies the socalled Einstein s summation convention, which implies sum on repeated indices (in this case, i ) and allows the operand to be dropped The inner product is commutative: (x, y) = (y, x) but not generally associative: (x,(y, z)) ((x, y), z) If n = it reduces to the usual scalar product The scalar product is of course associative Example A5 The inner product of ] a = [ 3 6 and b = [ 2 4 ] is (a, b) = a T b = ( ) + 6 ( 4) = 9 Remark A The inner product is not the only way of multiplying two vectors There are other vector products, such as the cross or outer product, which are important in many applications such as fluid mechanics and nonlinear dynamics They are not treated here because they are not defined when going from vectors to matrices Furthermore they are not easily generalized for vectors of order beyond 3 The Euclidean norm or 2norm of a real vector x is a scalar denoted by x that results by taking the inner product of the vector with itself: x def = (x, x) = n i= i sc = x i x i (A6) Because the norm is a sum of squares, it is zero only if x is the null vector It thus provides a meter (mathematically, a norm) on the vector magnitude The Euclidean length or simply length of a real vector, denoted by x, is the positive square root of its Euclidean norm: x def = + x (A7) This definition agrees with the intuitive concept of vector magnitude in two and threedimensional space (n = 2, 3) For n = observe that the length of a scalar x is its absolute value x, hence the notation x The Euclidean norm is not the only vector norm used in practice, but it will be sufficient for the present book A 8
9 A3 VECTOR OPERATIONS Two important inequalities satisfied by vector norms (and not just the Euclidean norm) are the CauchySchwarz inequality: (x, y) x y, (A8) and the triangle inequality: x + y x + y (A9) Example A6 The Euclidean norm of [ ] 4 x = 3 (A20) is x = = 25, and its length is x = 25 = 5 A37 Unit Vectors and Normalization A vector of length one is called a unit vector Any nonnull vector x can be scaled to unit length by dividing all components by its original length: x / x x x/ x = 2 / x x n / x (A2) This particular scaling is called normalization to unit length If x is the null vector, the normalization operation is undefined Example A7 The unitvector normalization of [ ] 4 x = is x/ x =x/5 = 3 [ ] (A22) A38 Angles and Orthonormality The angle in radians between two unit real vectors x and y, written (x, y), is the real number θ satisfying 0 θ π (or 0 θ 80 if measured in degrees) The value is defined by the cosine formula: cos θ = (x, y) (A23) If the vectors are not of unit length, they should be normalized to such, and so the general formula for two arbitrary vectors is cos θ = ( x x, y (x, y) ) = y x y (A24) The angle θ formed by a nonnull vector with itself is zero This will always be the case for n = If one of the vectors is null, the angle is undefined The definition (A24) agrees with that of the angle formed by oriented lines in two and threedimensional Euclidean geometry (n = 2, 3) The generalization to n dimensions is a natural one A 9
10 Appendix A: LINEAR ALGEBRA: VECTORS For some applications the acute angle φ between the line on x and the line on y (ie, between the vector spans) is more appropriate than θ This angle between Span(x) and Span(y) is the real number φ satisfying 0 φ π/2 and cos φ = Two vectors x and y connected by the relation (x, y) x y (A25) (x, y) = 0, (A26) are said to be orthogonal The acute angle formed by two orthogonal vectors is π/2 radians or 90 A39 Orthogonal Projection The orthogonal projection of a vector y onto a vector x is the vector p that has the direction of x and is orthogonal to y p The condition can be stated as (p, y p) = 0, in which p = c x x (A27) It is easily shown that c = (y, x ) = y cos θ, x (A28) where θ is the angle between x and y Ifx and y are orthogonal, the projection of any of them onto the other vanishes A30 Orthogonal Bases and Subspaces Let b k, k =,m be a set of ndimensional unit vectors which are mutually orthogonal Then if a particular ndimensional vector x admits the representation x = m c k b k k= (A29) the coefficients c k are given by the inner products c k = (x, b k ) = n i= x i b k i sc = x i b k i (A30) We also have Parseval s equality (x, x) = m k= c 2 k sc = c k c k (A3) If the representation (A29) holds, the set b k is called an orthonormal basis for the vector x The b k are called the base vectors A 0
11 A3 VECTOR OPERATIONS The set of all vectors x given by (A30) forms a subspace of dimension m The subspace is said to be spanned by the basis b k, and is called Span (b k ) 3 The numbers c k are called the coordinates of x with respect to that basis If m = n, the set b k forms a complete orthonormal basis for the ndimensional space (The qualifier complete means that all ndimensional vectors are representable in terms of such a basis) The simplest complete orthonormal basis is of order n is the ndimensional Cartesian basis b = 0 0, b2 = 0 0, bn = 0 0 In this case the position coordinates of x are simply its components, that is, c k x k (A32) 3 Note that if m = we have the span of a single vector, which as noted in A35 is simply a line passing through the origin of coordinates A
12 Appendix A: LINEAR ALGEBRA: VECTORS Homework Exercises for Appendix A: Vectors EXERCISE A Given the fourdimensional vectors x = 4, y = (EA) (a) compute the Euclidean norms and lengths of x and y; (b) compute the inner product (x,y); (c) verify that the inequalities (A8) (A9) hold; (d) normalize x and y to unit length; (e) compute the angles θ = (x, y) and φ given by (?) and (?) (f) compute the projection of y onto x and verify that the orthogonality condition (A28) holds EXERCISE A2 Given the base vectors b = 7 0, b 2 = (EA2) (a) (b) Check that b and b 2 are orthonormal, ie, orthogonal and of unit length Compute the coefficients c and c 2 in the following representation: 8 6 z = 2 = c b + c 2 b 2 26 (EA3) (c) Using the values computed in (b), verify that the coordinateexpansion formulas and Parseval s equality are correct EXERCISE A3 Prove that Parseval s equality holds in general EXERCISE A4 What are the angles θ and φ formed by an arbitrary nonnull vector x and the opposite vector x? EXERCISE A5 Show that (αx,βy) = αβ (x, y) where x and y are arbitrary vectors, and α and β are scalars (EA4) A 2
13 Solutions to Exercises Homework Exercises for Appendix A  Solutions EXERCISE A (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) EXERCISE A2 (a) x = ( 8) 2 = 00, x =0 y = 2 + ( 5) = 00, y =0 (x, y) = = 30 (x, y) =30 x y =00 x + y = ( ) 2 + ( ) 2 + ( 3) 2 = 40 x + y =0 + 0 = 20 x u = x 0 = , y u = y 0 = cos θ = (x u, y u ) = 030, θ = 0746 cos φ = (x u, y u ) =030, φ = 7254 c = y cos θ = p = c x u 04 2 = 3 04 = y p = (p, y p) = = 0 b =0 2 + ( 07) =, b = b 2 = ( 05) =, b 2 = (b, b 2 ) = = 0 (b) c = 30, c 2 = 0 (by inspection, or solving a system of 2 linear equations) (c) c = (z, b ) = = 30 c 2 = (z, b 2 ) = = 0 c 2 + c2 2 = = 000 = z =8 2 + ( 6) 2 + ( 2) = 000 A 3
14 Appendix A: LINEAR ALGEBRA: VECTORS EXERCISE A3 See any linear algebra book, eg [699] EXERCISE A4 EXERCISE A5 (summation convention used) θ = 80, φ = 0 (αx,βy) = αx i βy i = αβ x i y i = αβ (x, y) A 4
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