# Section 11.3 Atomic Orbitals Objectives

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1 Objectives 1. To learn about the shapes of the s, p and d orbitals 2. To review the energy levels and orbitals of the wave mechanical model of the atom 3. To learn about electron spin

2 A. Electron Location Energy Level Called principal energy levels Corresponds to row on periodic table As n increases, E increases and the electron is farther away from the nucleus

3 A. Electron Location Sublevel Shape of electron cloud s = spherical p = dumbbell d = too complex f = too complex 1st E level has 1 sublevel -- s 2nd E level has 2 sublevels -- s and p 3rd E level has 3 sublevels -- s, p, and d 4th E level has 4 sublevels -- s, p, d and f

4 S Sublevel Orbitals do not have sharp boundaries.

5 A. Electron Location Orbitals Describes the orientation in space within a sublevel s = 1 orbital p = 3 orbitals d = 5 orbitals f = 7 orbitals ONLY 2 electrons in any orbital!!!

6 The s and p types of sublevel

7 A. Electron Location Spin Electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins. One spins clockwise and the other spins counter-clockwise. (+1/2, or -1/2) ONLY 2 electrons in any orbital!!!

8 d - orbitals

9 What is the maximum number of electrons found in each of the following? 2p orbital 2p sublevel 4p sublevel 3d orbital E level 1 E level 3 any f sublevel 4s orbital 2d orbital

10 Energy Level # of Sublevels Total # e / E Level

11

12 Electron Configuration The way in which electrons are arranged around the nucleus according to energy specifications.

13 Electron Configuration Three rules that dictate how electrons are arranged. 1. Aufbau Principle - electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first. See diagonal chart or periodic table. Electrons do not fill in orbitals in consecutive numerical order.

14 Electron Configuration 2. Pauli Exclusion Principle - an atomic orbital can hold a maximum of 2 electrons and those 2 electrons must have opposite spins

15 Electron Configuration Orbital diagram orbital is a box grouped by sublevel containing arrow(s) to represent electrons

16 Electron Configuration 3. Hund s Rule - When electrons occupy orbitals of equal energy (same sublevel), one electron enters each orbital with parallel spin before pairing oppositely. Example: a 2p sublevel with 3 electrons a 3d sublevel with 8 electrons

17 He atom Electron configuration 1s 2 Orbital diagram

18 Li atom Electron configuration 1s 2 2s 1 Orbital diagram

19 A. Electron Arrangements in the First 18 Atoms on the Periodic Table

20 A. Electron Arrangements in the First 18 Atoms on the Periodic Table Classifying Electrons Valence electrons electrons in the outermost (highest) principal energy level of an atom Core electrons inner electrons Elements with the same valence electron arrangement show very similar chemical behavior.

21 B. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Look at electron configurations for K through Kr

22 B. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table Orbital filling and the periodic table

23 B. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

24 C. Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table Metals and Nonmetals Metals tend to lose electrons to form positive ions. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons to form negative ions.

25 C. Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table Atomic Size Size tends to increase down a column. Why? Size tends to decrease across a row. Why?

26 C. Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table Atomic size Which is smaller?

27 C. Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table Ion size Cations are smaller than their corresponding neutral atom Ca or Ca +2 Li +1 or Li Anions are larger than their corresponding neutral atom Br -1 or Br S or S -2

28 C. Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table Ionization Energies Ionization Energy energy required to remove an electron from an individual atom (gas) Tends to decrease down a column Tends to increase across a row

29 C. Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table Electronegativity tendency for an atom to attract electrons to itself when bonded to another element Tends to decrease down a column Tends to increase across a row

30 C. Atomic Properties and the Periodic Table Lewis Dot Structure shows the valence electrons for an element

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