1 Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond are a. transferred from one atom to another. c. valence electrons. b. found only in the s-orbitals. d. in filled orbitals. 2. A covalent bond forms when the attraction between two atoms is balanced by repulsion and the potential energy is a. at a maximum. c. at a minimum. b. zero. d. equal to the kinetic energy. 3. A nonpolar covalent bond is most likely to form between two elements that have a difference in electronegativity values of a c b d. Both (a) and (b) 4. An ionic bond is most likely to form between two elements that have a difference in electronegativity values of a c b d. Both (a) and (b) 5. A polar covalent bond is most likely to form between two elements that have a difference in electronegativity values of a c b d. Both (a) and (b) 6. The correct Lewis structure for the oxygen atom has a. one pair of valence electrons and one single valence electron. b. two pairs of valence electrons and one single valence electron. c. two pairs of valence electrons and two single valence electrons. d. three pairs of valence electrons. 7. The correct Lewis structure for a Group 18 atom has a. one pair of valence electrons and one single valence electron. b. two pairs of valence electrons and one single valence electron. c. three pairs of valence electrons and one single valence electron. d. four pairs of valence electrons. 8. The correct Lewis structure for a fluorine atom in a molecule of F 2 shows a. three unshared pairs of electrons. c. one shared pair of electrons. b. an octet of valence electrons. d. All of the above 9. In a double bond, two atoms share a total of electrons. a. two c. four b. three d. six 10. The correct Lewis structure for a molecule of the compound C 2 H 2 contains a. three single bonds. c. three double bonds. b. two double bonds. d. one triple bond. 11. To indicate resonance, a is placed between a molecule s resonance structures. a. single-headed arrow c. long dash b. series of three raised dots d. double-headed arrow 4
2 Name: 12. According to VSEPR theory, which of the following shapes is possible for a molecule with the molecular formula of AB 3? a. linear c. trigonal pyramidal b. trigonal planar d. Both (b) and (c) 13. According to VSEPR theory, the molecular shape of H 2 O is classified as a. linear. c. trigonal planar. b. bent. d. trigonal pyramidal. 14. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance is called a. its atomic number. c. its mass number. b. Avogadro s number. d. its gram-atomic number. 15. What can be said about 1 mol Ag and 1 mol Au? a. They are equal in mass. b. They contain the same number of atoms. c. Their molar masses are equal. d. They have the same atomic mass. 16. An Avogadro s number of any element is equivalent to a. the atomic number of that element. c particles. b. the mass number of that element. d. 12 g of that element. 17. Using a periodic table, what is the average atomic mass of zinc? a amu c amu b amu d amu 18. The atomic mass of hydrogen is amu. The reason that this value is not a whole number is that a. hydrogen only exists as a diatomic molecule. b. the mass of hydrogen is the sum of the masses of the protons and electrons in the atom. c. the mass of a proton is not exactly equal to 1 amu. d. hydrogen has more than one isotope. 19. Changing a subscript in a correctly written chemical formula a. changes the number of moles represented by the formula. b. changes the charges on the other ions in the compound. c. changes the formula so that it no longer represents that compound. d. has no effect on the formula. 20. A formula that shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a compound is the a. molecular formula. c. structural formula. b. ideal formula. d. empirical formula. 21. The molar mass of an element is the mass of one a. atom of the element. c. gram of the element. b. liter of the element. d. mole of the element. 22. To determine the molar mass of an element, one must know the element s a. Avogadro number. c. number of isotopes. b. atomic number. d. average atomic mass. 23. What is the molar mass of magnesium? a g c g b g d g 24. What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 43.6% phosphorus and 56.4% oxygen? a. P 3 O 7 c. P 2 O 3 b. PO 3 d. P 2 O 5 2
3 Name: 25. A compound contains 27.3 g of C and 72.7 g of O. What is the empirical formula for this compound? a. CO c. C 2 O b. CO 2 d. C 2 O What is the percentage composition of CF 4? a. 20% C, 80% F c. 16.8% C, 83.2% F b. 13.6% C, 86.4% F d. 81% C, 19% F 27. Knowledge about what products are produced in a chemical reaction is obtained by a. inspecting the chemical equation. c. laboratory analysis. b. balancing the chemical equation. d. writing a word equation. 28. A chemical reaction has NOT occurred if the products have a. the same mass as the reactants. b. more energy than the reactants. c. less energy than the reactants. d. the same chemical properties as the reactants. 29. The word equation solid carbon + oxygen gas carbon dioxide gas + energy, represents a chemical reaction because a. the reaction releases energy. b. CO 2 has chemical properties that differ from those of C and O. c. the reaction absorbs energy. d. CO 2 is a gas and carbon is a crystal. 30. The state of matter for a reactant or a product in a chemical equation is indicated by a a. coefficient before the formula. c. symbol after the formula. b. subscript after the formula. d. superscript after the formula. 31. The reaction, C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O, will occur most rapidly if a. C 2 H 5 OH is a liquid and O 2 is a liquid. c. CO 2 is a gas and H 2 O is a liquid. b. C 2 H 5 OH and O 2 are in close contact. d. CO 2 is a gas and H 2 O is a gas. 32. An insoluble solid produced by a chemical reaction in solution is called a. a precipitate. c. a molecule. b. a reactant. d. the mass of the product. 33. The products of the reaction, C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O have the same as the reactants. a. atoms. c. molecules. b. coefficients. d. subscripts. 34. Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g)? a. 1, 1, 1 c. 2, 6, 3 b. 1, 3, 1 d. 3, 1, Which equation is NOT balanced? a. 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O c. H 2 + H 2 + O 2 H 2 O + H 2 O b. 4H 2 + 2O 2 4H 2 O d. 2H 2 + O 2 H 2 O 36. Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation NH 4 NO 2 N 2 + H 2 O? a. 1, 2, 2 c. 2, 1, 1 b. 1, 1, 2 d. 2, 2, A reaction of a hydrocarbon, in which carbon dioxide and water are produced, is classified as a a. decomposition reaction. c. double-displacement reaction. b. combustion reaction. d. synthesis reaction. 3
4 Name: 38. In what kind of reaction do two or more substances combine to form a new compound? a. decomposition reaction c. double-displacement reaction b. ionic reaction d. synthesis reaction 39. In what kind of reaction does a single compound produce two or more simpler substances? a. decomposition reaction c. displacement reaction b. synthesis reaction d. ionic reaction 40. The reaction 2KClO 3 (s) 2KCl(s) + 3O 2 (g) is a(n) a. synthesis reaction. c. combustion reaction. b. decomposition reaction. d. ionic reaction. 41. In what kind of reaction does one element replace a similar element in a compound? a. displacement reaction c. decomposition reaction b. combustion d. ionic reaction 42. The reaction Cl 2 (g) + 2KBr(aq) 2KCl(aq) + Br 2 (l) is a(n) a. synthesis reaction. c. displacement reaction. b. ionic reaction. d. combustion reaction. 43. What is the name of a list of elements arranged according to the ease with which they undergo certain chemical reactions? a. reactivity list c. activity series b. reaction sequence d. periodic list 44. An element in the activity series can replace any element a. in the periodic table. c. above it on the list. b. below it on the list. d. in its group. 45. What can be predicted by using an activity series? a. whether a certain chemical reaction will occur b. the amount of energy released by a chemical reaction c. the electronegativity values of elements d. the melting points of elements 46. A precipitate forms in a double-displacement reaction when a. hydrogen gas reacts with a metal. b. positive ions combine with negative ions. c. water boils out of the solution. d. a gas escapes. 47. If mol of Na + combines with mol of Cl to form NaCl, how many formula units of NaCl are present? a c b d How many atoms of fluorine are in a molecule of carbon tetrafluoride, CF 4? a. 1 c. 4 b. 2 d What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 53.3% O and 46.7% Si? a. SiO c. Si 2 O b. SiO 2 d. Si 2 O A compound contains g of F and 40.8 g of C. What is the empirical formula for this compound? a. CF 4 c. CF b. C 4 F d. CF 2 4
5 Name: 51. A compound contains 64 g of O and 4 g of H. What is the empirical formula for this compound? a. H 2 O c. H 4 O 4 b. H 2 O 2 d. HO 52. What is the empirical formula for a compound that is 36.1% Ca and 63.9% Cl? a. CaCl c. CaCl 2 b. Ca 2 Cl d. Ca 2 Cl To find the molecular formula from the empirical formula, one must determine the compound s a. density. c. structural formula. b. formula mass. d. crystal lattice. 54. A molecular compound has the empirical formula XY 3. Which of the following is a possible molecular formula? a. X 2 Y 3 c. X 2 Y 5 b. XY 4 d. X 2 Y The molecular formula for vitamin C is C 6 H 8 O 6. What is the empirical formula? a. CHO c. C 3 H 4 O 3 b. CH 2 O d. C 2 H 4 O A compound s empirical formula is NO 2. If the formula mass is 92 amu, what is the molecular formula? a. NO c. NO 2 b. N 2 O 2 d. N 2 O What is the percentage composition of CuCl 2? a. 33% Cu, 66% Cl c % Cu, 34.50% Cl b. 50% Cu, 50% Cl d % Cu, % Cl 58. The percentage of sulfur in SO 2 is about 50%. What is the percentage of oxygen in this compound? a. 25% c. 75% b. 50% d. 90% 59. What is the percentage of OH in Ca(OH) 2? a. 45.9% c. 75% b. 66.6% d. 90.1% 60. Which observation does NOT indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred? a. formation of a precipitate c. evolution of energy b. production of a gas d. change in total mass of substances 61. In the unbalanced formula equation CO + O 2 CO 2 + energy, energy a. is absorbed. c. is released. b. can be considered a reactant. d. Both (a) and (b) 62. The word equation for the formula equation shown is C 2 H 5 OH + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O + energy a. carbon dioxide + water ethanol + oxygen + energy. b. ethanol + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy. c. ethanol + oxygen + energy carbon dioxide + water. d. ethanol + oxygen + energy carbon dioxide + water + energy. 63. How would oxygen be represented in the formula equation for the reaction of methane and oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water? a. oxygen c. O 2 b. O d. O 3 5
6 Name: 64. After the correct formula for a reactant in an equation has been written, the a. subscripts are adjusted to balance the equation. b. formula should not be changed. c. same formula must appear as the product. d. symbols in the formula must not appear on the product side of the equation. 65. To balance a chemical equation, it may be necessary to adjust the a. coefficients. c. formulas of the products. b. subscripts. d. number of products. 66. A chemical equation is balanced when the a. coefficients of the reactants equal the coefficients of the products. b. same number of each kind of atom appears in the reactants and in the products. c. products and reactants are the same chemicals. d. subscripts of the reactants equal the subscripts of the products. 67. After the first steps in writing an equation, the equation is balanced by a. adjusting subscripts to the formula(s). b. adjusting coefficients to the smallest whole-number ratio. c. changing the products formed. d. making the number of reactants equal to the number of products. 68. What is the balanced equation when aluminum reacts with copper(ii) sulfate? a. Al + Cu 2 S Al 2 S + Cu c. Al + CuSO 4 AlSO 4 + Cu b. 2Al + 3CuSO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3Cu d. 2Al + Cu 2 SO 4 Al 2 SO 4 + 2Cu 69. Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2? a. 2, 1, 2 c. 1, 2, 1 b. 1, 2, 3 d. 1, 1, Which coefficients correctly balance the formula equation Zn(OH) 2 + CH 3 COOH Zn(CH 3 COO) 2 + H 2 O? a. 1, 2, 1, 1 c. 1, 2, 1, 2 b. 2, 1, 2, 1 d. 2, 1, 1, The equation A + X AX is the general equation for a(n) a. combustion reaction. c. synthesis reaction. b. ionic reaction. d. double-displacement reaction. 72. The equation A + BX AX + B is the general equation for a a. double-displacement reaction. c. displacement reaction. b. decomposition reaction. d. combustion reaction. 73. If metal X is lower than metal Y in the activity series, then metal X a. replaces ions of metal Y in a solution. b. is more active than metal Y. c. is less active than metal Y. d. forms positive ions more readily than does metal Y. 74. A balanced chemical equation allows one to determine the a. mole ratio of any two substances in the reaction. b. energy released in the reaction. c. electron configuration of all elements in the reaction. d. mechanism involved in the reaction. 6
7 Name: 75. The coefficients in a chemical equation represent the a. masses, in grams, of all reactants and products. b. relative numbers of moles of reactants and products. c. number of atoms in each compound in a reaction. d. number of valence electrons involved in the reaction. 76. How many mole ratios can be correctly obtained from the chemical equation 2NO N 2 + O 2? a. 1 c. 4 b. 3 d In the reaction Ca + Cl 2 CaCl 2, what is the mole ratio of chlorine to calcium chloride? a. 2:3 c. 1:2 b. 2:1 d. 1:1 78. In the reaction N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3, what is the mole ratio of nitrogen to ammonia? a. 1:1 c. 1:3 b. 1:2 d. 2:3 79. In the reaction 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O, what is the mole ratio of oxygen to water? a. 1:2 c. 8:1 b. 2:1 d. 1:4 80. What is the mole ratio of oxygen to phosphorus(v) oxide in the reaction P 4 (s) + 5O 2 (g) P 4 O 10 (s)? a. 1:1 c. 5:1 b. 1:5 d. 4: In the chemical equation wa + xb yc + zd, if one knows the mass of A and the molar masses of A, B, C, and D, one can determine a. the mass of any of the reactants or products. b. the mass of B only. c. the total mass of C and D only. d. the total mass of A and B only. 82. If one knows the mass and molar mass of reactant A and the molar mass of product D in a chemical reaction, one can determine the mass of product D produced by using the a. mole ratio of D to A from the chemical equation. b. group numbers of the elements of A and D in the periodic table. c. estimating bond energies involved in the reaction. d. electron configurations of the atoms in A and D. 83. What is needed to calculate the mass of ammonia gas produced from 2.0 L of nitrogen gas in excess hydrogen gas in the reaction below? N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) a. one molar mass and one mole ratio b. one molar masses and two mole ratios c. two molar masses, one density, and one mole ratio d. two densities, two molar masses, and two mole ratios 84. A chemical reaction involving substances A and B stops when B is completely used. B is the a. excess reactant. c. primary reactant. b. limiting reactant. d. primary product. 85. The substance that restricts the participation of other reactants in a chemical reaction is known as the a. limiting reactant. c. excess reactant. b. limiting product. d. excess product. 7
8 Name: 86. To determine the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction, one must know the a. available amount of one of the reactants. b. amount of product formed. c. available amount of each reactant. d. speed of the reaction. 87. What is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100%? a. mole ratio c. molar yield b. percentage yield d. excess yield 88. What is the measured amount of a product obtained from a chemical reaction? a. mole ratio c. theoretical yield b. percentage yield d. actual yield 89. The actual yield of a chemical reaction is a. less than the theoretical yield. c. equal to the percentage yield. b. greater than the theoretical yield. d. greater than the percentage yield. 90. For the reaction SO 3 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4, calculate the percentage yield if 500. g of sulfur trioxide react with excess water to produce 575 g of sulfuric acid. a. 82.7% c. 91.2% b. 88.3% d. 93.9% 91. For the reaction Cl 2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br 2, calculate the percentage yield if 200. g of chlorine react with excess potassium bromide to produce 410. g of bromine. a. 73.4% c. 90.9% b. 82.1% d. 98.9% 92. For the reaction 2Na + 2H 2 O 2NaOH + H 2, calculate the percentage yield if 80. g of water react with excess sodium to produce 4.14 g of hydrogen. a. 87% c. 92% b. 89% d. 98% 93. For the reaction 2Na + Cl 2 2NaCl, calculate the percentage yield if 200. g of chlorine react with excess sodium to produce 240. g of sodium chloride. a. 61.2% c. 83.4% b. 72.8% d. 88.4% 94. In the chemical equation wa + xb yc + zd, how many correct mole ratios can be obtained that relate only the products? a. 1 c. 4 b. 2 d In the chemical equation wa + xb yc + zd, a comparison of the number of moles of A to the number of moles of C would be a a. mass ratio. c. electron ratio. b. mole ratio. d. energy proportion. 96. To determine the limiting reactant in a chemical reaction involving known masses of the two reactants, A and B, which of the following calculations would be the most useful? a. determining the masses of 100 mol A and 100 mol B b. finding the masses of the products c. calculating bond energies d. calculating the mass of a single product formed from each reactant 8
9 Name: Completion Complete each statement. 97. In a covalent bond, shared electrons move within a space called a(n) orbital. 98. In the compound HF, the atom of the element carries a partial negative charge. 99. Bonds that result in the attraction between the electrons in the outermost energy level of each metal atom in a solid substance and all of the other atoms in the metal are classified as bonds A covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons is called a bond In a Lewis structure of a molecule, a(n) bond is correctly represented by a long dash A covalent bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons is called a(n) bond In a Lewis structure of a molecule, a pair of long, parallel dashes correctly represents a(n) bond VSEPR theory is short for valence-shell electron pair theory Because the boiling point of H 2 O is much higher than that of C 2 H 2, you can conclude that is composed of a more polar molecule If you have atoms of nickel, you have as the amount of nickel The element that has an atomic mass of amu is The average atomic mass of cobalt is Comparing the average atomic masses of copper and zinc, the average atomic mass of is larger In one mole of acetic acid, CH 3 COOH, there are moles of hydrogen atoms Two moles of carbon atoms are present in of C 6 H The unit used for molar mass is A compound s empirical formula is N 2 O 5. If the formula mass is 108 amu, its molecular formula is The percentage of oxygen in NaOH is A solid produced by a chemical reaction that then separates from the solution is called a(n) In writing a formula equation for a reaction that produces hydrogen gas, the correct representation of hydrogen gas is When balancing a chemical equation, insert coefficients to make the number of atoms of each of the in the products equal to that of the reactants When the formula equation CuSO 4 (aq) + Fe(s) Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + Cu(s) is correctly balanced, the coefficient of CuSO 4 (aq) is The reaction 2HgO(s) 2Hg(l) + O 2 (g) is classified as a(n) reaction. 9
10 Name: 120. When placed in water, a metal more active than hydrogen will form two substances, a metal hydroxide and gas In a(n) reaction, ions of two compounds exchange places in aqueous solution to form new compounds A catalyst for a reaction is indicated by a written over the arrow in a chemical equation The mass of the products of the reaction C 2 H 5 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O equals the mass of the reactants because the products are made up of the same as the reactants In an equation, the symbol for a substance in water solution is In the chemical equation 2AlCl 3 (aq) + 3Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) 3PbCl 2 (s) + 2Al(NO 3 ) 3 (aq), the state of PbCl 2 is a(n) The small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a chemical equation is called a(n) The branch of chemistry that deals with the numerical relationship of elements and compounds as reactants and products in a chemical reaction is known as The unit of the following expression is. 100gH 2 O mol H 2 O g H 2 O 129. The unit of the following expression is. 100gH 2 O 1 molar mass H 2 O 130. The expression below converts the quantity, mass HCl, to the quantity, The conversion factor mass. mass HCl 1 molar mass HCl 1molCl 2 2molHCl molar mass Cl 2 1 density H 2 O can be used to find the of water if you know its 132. The expression below converts the quantity, volume C 5 H 12, to the quantity,. volume C 5 H 12 density C 5 H 12 1 molar mass C 5 H 12 2molH 2 1molC 5 H 12 molar mass H The substance that controls the quantity of product than can be formed in a chemical reaction is the The substance that is not used up completely in a chemical reaction is the The measured amount of a product of a reaction is called the Almost all of the gas inside an inflated automobile safety air bag is molecular. 10
11 Name: 137. The function of the carburetor in a small internal combustion engine is to control the ratio of to oxygen One of the functions of a(n) is to increase the rate of the decomposition of NO(g) and NO 2 (g) found in the exhaust gases of a car into N 2 (g) and O 2 (g) The unit g/km is often used to express measurements of air found in the exhaust gases of automobiles In the equation N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3, the ratio 2:1 relates mol NH 3 to mol In the equation N 2 + 3H 2 2NH 3, the mole ratio of NH 3 to N 2 is The expression below converts the quantity, mass HCl, to the quantity,. mass HCl 1 molar mass HCl 1molCl 2 2molHCl 143. Unwanted reactions that can use up reactants without making the desired products are called reactions 144. Reactions that are started by the sun s ultraviolet light and involve nitrogen oxides emitted from car engines form smog. Short Answer 145. Explain why the conversion factor 3 g Mg (OH) 2 6gH 2 O 3Mg(OH) 2 (aq) + 2NH 3 (g). cannot be used for the reaction Mg 3 N 2 (s) + 6H 2 O(l) 146. Why must a chemical equation be balanced to solve stoichiometry problems? 147. Why should you use moles in stoichiometry problems? 148. Explain the difference between a limiting reactant and an excess reactant What factor could most affect the choice of a limiting reactant for a production process? 150. How does the actual yield of a chemical reaction compare to the theoretical yield? 151. How is density used in stoichiometry? 11
12 Name: 152. Comparing limiting and excess reactants, explain why the flame would go out in the Bunsen burner if the indicated valves were tightened too much. Problem 153. How many grams of ammonium sulfate can be produced if 30.0 mol of H 2 SO 4 react with excess NH 3 according to the equation 2NH 3 (aq) + H 2 SO 4 (aq) (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 (aq)? 154. What mass in grams of sodium hydroxide is produced if 20.0 g of sodium metal react with excess water according to the chemical equation 2Na(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2NaOH(aq) + H 2 (g)? 155. What volume of hydrogen gas is produced if 20.0 mol of Zn are added to excess hydrochloric acid according to the equation Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g)? (Assume the density of H 2 is g/l) 156. How many silver atoms can be produced if g of Cu are reacted with excess AgNO 3 according to the equation Cu(s) + 2AgNO 3 (aq) 2Ag(s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq)? 157. The reaction of 100. g of salicylic acid, C 7 H 6 O 8, with excess acetic anhydride produces 50.0 g of aspirin, C 9 H 8 O 4, according to the equation. What is the percentage yield for this reaction? C 7 H 6 O 3 + C 4 H 6 O 3 C 9 H 8 O 4 + C 2 H 4 O In the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, the percentage yield of oxygen is 93.0%. What is the actual yield in grams of oxygen if you start with 100. g of H 2 O 2? The reaction proceeds according to the equation 2H 2 O 2 (l) 2H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g). 12
13 Chemistry Final Study Guide Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ:
14 41. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ:
15 87. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: COMPLETION 97. ANS: molecular PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: fluorine PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: metallic PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: single PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: single PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: double PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: double PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: repulsion PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: H 2 O PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: two moles PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: Ca PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ:
16 108. ANS: amu PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: copper PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: four PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: 0.33 mol one-third mole PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: g/mol PTS: 1 OBJ: ANS: N 2 O 5 PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: 40.00% PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: precipitate PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: H 2 (g) PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: elements PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: 3 PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: decomposition PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: hydrogen PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: double-displacement PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: chemical formula PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ:
17 123. ANS: atoms PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: (aq) PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: solid PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: coefficient PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: stoichiometry PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: mol H 2 O PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: mol H 2 O PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: mass Cl 2 PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: volume PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: mass H 2 PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: limiting reactant PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: excess reactant PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: actual yield PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: nitrogen PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: fuel PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: catalytic converter PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ:
18 139. ANS: pollutants PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: N 2 PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: 2:1 PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: mol Cl 2 PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: side PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: photochemical PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: SHORT ANSWER 145. ANS: This conversion factor uses coefficients to compare masses directly. Ratios of moles must be used to solve stoichiometry problems. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: Only a balanced equation reveals the correct mole ratios of the reacting substances. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: The mole is used because the coefficients in the balanced equation show the number of moles of reactants and products in the chemical reaction. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: In a reaction that goes to completion, a limiting reactant is used up, and an excess reactant is not used up. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: The most expensive chemical would probably be the limiting reactant, so it will be used up in the reaction with no excess as waste. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: The actual yield is always less than the theoretical yield. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ:
19 151. ANS: Density is used to make conversions between mass and volume. This is often important when a gas or liquid is a product or reactant. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: If air is restricted, oxygen becomes the limiting reactant. If the gas is restricted, it becomes the limiting reactant. Either way, the removal of any reactant will cause the reaction to cease. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: PROBLEM 153. ANS: 30.0 mol H 2 SO 4 1mol(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 1molH 2 SO g (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 1mol(NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 = 3960 g (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: 20.0 g Na 1molNa g Na 2 molnaoh g NaOH 2MolNa 1 molnaoh = 34.8 g NaOH PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: 20.0 mol Zn 1molH 2 1molZn 2.02 g H 2 1molH 2 1L H g H 2 = 449L H 2 PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: g Cu 1molCu g Cu 2molAg 1molCu atoms Ag = atoms Ag 1molAg PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: 1 molsalicylic acid 100 g salicylic acid salicylic acid 1molaspirin g aspirin = 130 g aspirin 1 mol salicylic acid 1 mol aspirin percentage yield = 50.0 g 100 = 38.5% 130. g PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ:
20 158. ANS: 100 g H 2 O 2 1molH 2 O g H 2 O 2 1molO 2 2molH 2 O g O 2 1molO 2 = 47.0 g O g O gO g O 2 =43.7gO 2 PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ:
21 Chemistry Final Study Guide [Answer Strip] D 12. B 25. D 38. D 51. B 13. B 26. A 39. C 52. C 1. B 14. C 27. B 40. B 53. C 2. B 15. D 28. A 41. D 54. A 3. C 4. C 16. B 29. C 42. C 43. C 55. D 56. B 5. C 6. D 17. D 18. C 30. B 31. B 44. A 45. D 57. B 58. C 19. A 32. B 46. A 59. D 7. D 8. C 9. D 20. D 21. D 22. A 33. A 34. D 35. A 47. C 48. D 60. C 61. B 62. D 10. D 11. C 23. D 24. B 36. B 37. B 49. A 50. C 63.
22 Chemistry Final Study Guide [Answer Strip] B 64. B 75. C 86. A 65. D 76. B 87. B 66. D 77. D 88. B 67. B 78. A 79. A 89. D 90. B 68. C 80. C 91. D 69. C 70. C 71. C 72. C 73. A 81. A 82. C 83. C 92. B 93. B 94. A 95. A 74. B 84. D 96. A 85.
Chapter 3 Insert picture from First page of chapter Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 3.1 Molecular and Formula Masses Molecular mass - (molecular weight) The mass in amu
Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an
SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample
Calculations and Chemical Equations Atomic mass: Mass of an atom of an element, expressed in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit (amu): 1.661 x 10-24 g Atomic weight: Average mass of all isotopes of a given
Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and
Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Student: 1. An atom of bromine has a mass about four times greater than that of an atom of neon. Which choice makes the correct comparison of the relative
Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.
Sample Exercise 3.1 Interpreting and Balancing Chemical Equations The following diagram represents a chemical reaction in which the red spheres are oxygen atoms and the blue spheres are nitrogen atoms.
Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.
Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions 5.1 The Mole Collection Terms A collection term states a specific number of items. 1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts 1 ream of paper = 500 sheets 1 case = 24 cans 1
Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses B. Calculations of moles C. Calculations of number of atoms from moles/molar masses 1. Avagadro
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TEKS REVIEW 8B Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS 8B READINESS Use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample TEKS_TXT of material. Vocabulary
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Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen
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CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students
Name: Tuesday, May 20, 2008 1. What is the molecular formula of a compound with the empirical formula PO and a gram-molecular mass of 284 grams? 2 5 1. P2O 5 3. P10O4 2. P5O 2 4. P4O10 2. Which substance
The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole
Introduction Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical reactions occur all around us. How do we make sense of these changes? What patterns can we find? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including
CHEMICAL REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms in which some of the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed to give different chemical structures. In a chemical reaction,
AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #1 Atomic Structure 1. a) For the ion 39 K +, state how many electrons, how many protons, and how many 19 neutrons are present? b) Which of these particles has the smallest
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Molecular Formula: Example A compound is found to contain 85.63% C and 14.37% H by mass. In another experiment its molar mass is found to be 56.1 g/mol. What is its molecular formula? 1 CHAPTER 3 Chemical
MOLES AND CALCULATIONS USING THE MOLE CONCEPT INTRODUCTORY TERMS A. What is an amu? 1.66 x 10-24 g B. We need a conversion to the macroscopic world. 1. How many hydrogen atoms are in 1.00 g of hydrogen?
35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product
Name: Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015 Score: Instructions: Clearly circle the one best answer 1. Valence electrons are electrons located A) in the outermost energy level of an atom. B) in the nucleus of
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CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A. SF 4 has ¼ as many sulfur atoms as fluorine atoms. B. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 has six times as many oxygen atoms as calcium ions. C.
The Mole Concept Ron Robertson r2 c:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 final slides for web\mole concept.docx The Mole The mole is a unit of measurement equal to 6.022 x 10 23 things (to 4 sf) just like there
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1. How many iron atoms are present in one mole of iron? Ans. 6.02 1023 atoms 2. How many grams of sulfur are found in 0.150 mol of sulfur? [Use atomic weight: S, 32.06 amu] Ans. 4.81 g 3. How many moles
Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often
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Chapter 3 Formulas, Equations and Moles Interpreting Chemical Equations You can interpret a balanced chemical equation in many ways. On a microscopic level, two molecules of H 2 react with one molecule
Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues) is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations
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CHAPTER THREE: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance A. Molecular Mass and Formula Mass. (Section 3.1) 1. Just as we can talk about mass of one atom of
Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 4 24 September 2013 Calculations and the Chemical Equation The Mole Concept and Atoms Atoms are exceedingly
Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key 1) How many are there in 24 grams of FeF 3? 1.28 x 10 23 2) How many are there in 450 grams of Na 2 SO 4? 1.91 x 10 24 3) How many grams are there in 2.3
Chem. I Notes Ch. 12, part 2 Using Moles NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. 1 MOLE = 6.02 x 10 23 representative particles (representative particles
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Worksheet # 11 1. A solution of sodium chloride is mixed with a solution of lead (II) nitrate. A precipitate of lead (II) chloride results, leaving a solution of sodium nitrated. Determine the class of
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1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)
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Skills Worksheet Problem Solving Stoichiometry of Gases Now that you have worked with relationships among moles, mass, and volumes of gases, you can easily put these to work in stoichiometry calculations.
Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,
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96 Chapter 7: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are written showing a few individual atoms or molecules reacting to form a few atoms or molecules of products.
Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. A chemical equation is a concise shorthand expression which represents the relative amount of reactants and products involved in a chemical
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44 Section 43 Questions 1 Define Avogadro s constant, and explain its significance in quantitative analysis 2 Distinguish between the terms atomic mass and molar mass 3 Calculate the mass of a molecule
Pre- AP Chemistry Chemical Quan44es: The Mole Mole SI unit of measurement that measures the amount of substance. A substance exists as representa9ve par9cles. Representa9ve par9cles can be atoms, molecules,
The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation