CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE HOTEL INDUSTRY BIG DATA AND TOURISM: NEW INDICATORS FOR TOURISM MANAGEMENT

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1 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE HOTEL INDUSTRY BIG DATA AND TOURISM: NEW INDICATORS FOR TOURISM MANAGEMENT

2 Authors Victor Oliver Sust Enrique García Illera Albert Solana Berengué Roberto González García María Victoria Peláez Alonso Maria José Tomé Torres Genis Roca Verard Oriol Lloret Albert Xavier Capellades Ramos Pablo Rodríguez Rodríguez Editorial coordination Anna Miracle Fandos Design and layout: Hodei Ensunza Maria Berga A publication by: and This report is the property of Telefónica I+D and RocaSalvatella. Commercial use of neither the original work nor any derivative works is permitted. Copying or diffusion is not permitted without the express consent of Telefónica I+D and RocaSalvatella; recognition and mention of its authors is also necessary. Barcelona, May / 48

3 Index 1. Executive summary 4 2. Introduction Purpose of the study The problem of data for the tourist industry Strengths for the tourism industry of using Big Data Detailed analysis Specific recommendations for hotels Visitors Comparison of visitors between Barcelona and Madrid Length of stay Average stay Average stay in Barcelona Average stay in Madrid Comparison between the average stays in Barcelona and Madrid Distribution of nationalities by length of stay Travel between Madrid and Barcelona Accommodation Areas of the city Distances from the city centre Spending Cumulative average spending by card throughout the stay Average daily spending Cumulative average spending on accommodation by card during the stay Average daily spending on accommodation Introduction Spending-based hotel category methodology Overall recommendations Specific action for hotels in Barcelona star hotels in Barcelona (total daily price of more than 140) star hotels in Barcelona (total daily price between 100 and 140) star hotels in Barcelona (total daily price less than 100) Specific action for hotels in Madrid star hotels in Madrid (total daily price of more than 140) star hotels in Madrid (total daily price between 100 and 140) star hotels in Madrid (total daily price less than 100) Methodological note 5.1. Description of the datasets BBVA dataset Telefónica s dataset Privacy Annex List of tables List of figures / 48

4 1. Executive summary 1. Executive summary Big Data: the potential for data to improve service and business management Big Data and Tourism is a study produced by Telefónica and RocaSalvatella, which provides a new methodology for improved analysis and knowledge of the Spanish tourism industry. The purpose of the study is to make use of the opportunities for the sector, in particular the hotel industry, of incorporating macrodata collected from the electronic activity of anonymous foreign tourists into their market research. Analysis of the vast amount of data produced by digital activity opens up a wide range of opportunities for companies to enhance the services they offer and the management of their business. This study is a first step in understanding the possibilities of Big Data. In this specific case, we are looking to contribute and add value to what is a key sector for the Spanish economy. However, it can be replicated in another economic and social sectors. The document has been able to gather together and crossreference data from two different companies: Telefónica Móviles España and BBVA One of the document s main strengths lies in having been able to gather together and cross-reference data from two different companies: Telefónica Móviles España and BBVA. The former provided data about the activities of foreign handsets that used Telefónica s infrastructure between 7 and 21 October 2012 in Madrid and Barcelona; while BBVA provided data on electronic payments by foreign cards sent through the bank s terminal network in those cities during the same period. RocaSalvatella and Telefónica I+D have worked on analysing the data and producing the report s conclusions and recommendations. The set of tourists who visited Barcelona or Madrid during the analysed period were selected from the following 21 countries included in the study: France, Italy, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Portugal, Switzerland, Sweden, Poland, the United States, Belgium, Russia, Norway, Brazil, Denmark, Argentina, Japan, China, India, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. 680,928 mobile handsets and 168,921 cards were included in the study. Conclusions based on actual activity not on surveys or stated intentions Previous studies on tourism in Spain have mostly been based on surveys or interviews with experts carried out by the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism, the main public organisation, or by private companies. This means that, generally speaking, the industry does not have real data about tourists and can only take samples from the population as a whole. 4 / 48

5 1. Executive summary In contrast, the innovative approach achieved through this study is to introduce data based on real actions by users and not on surveys. In other words, real actions have been analysed instead of stated intentions or answers to questions. This incorporates a type of information that increases knowledge of the industry s target market produced by the tourists themselves (their mobile phone connecting to the telecom network and their bank card connecting to the POS terminal) into a tourism sector study. A methodology that guarantees users privacy The conclusions drawn have been generated from anonymised, aggregate data that have then been extrapolated through a statistical process ensuring they are completely disassociated pursuant to Spanish law (LOPD 15/1999 and its developing regulations, RD 1720/2007, and Ley General de Telecomunicaciones Ley 32/2003). This completely prevents the identification of any individual based on the data used and so guarantees users privacy. Main Conclusions Many different indicators were used to carry out the study. On the one hand, we studied indicators traditionally used by the tourism industry and others that could not be quantified without Big Data analysis. The study has made it possible to obtain information about the following aspects: Visitors main country of origin The country of origin of tourists who opt for Madrid and those who opt for Barcelona Length of stay by country of origin Journeys between the two destinations, Barcelona and Madrid Days and areas where foreign visitors prefer to stay Average daily spending and cumulative spending throughout the entire stay. The main conclusions drawn concerning each of the variables analysed are set out below. Although the report doesn t deal with absolute numbers, it could help to gain a further insight on key points: Visitors countries of origin The main tourists who visit Barcelona and Madrid are French, Italian and British. These three nationalities made up 5 of the total number of visitors during the analysed period. It is not until the ninth position that we find a non-european country, the United States, with a volume of around 4% of total visitors. In terms of preference between the two cities, Argentinians, Brazilians and Portuguese prioritise Madrid while visitors from Nordic countries choose Barcelona. 5 / 48

6 1. Executive summary Length of stay: Overall, the average stay in the cities analysed is a total of 2.24 days. Generally speaking, the length of stay increases by 2 if the visitor arrived on a working day. Nordic visitors tend to stay longer than tourists from countries such as Russia, Saudi Arabia or the Arab Emirates. Japanese and American citizens limit their visit to 2 days. In Barcelona, visitors from Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway and Sweden) stay longer than average while in Madrid people from Singapore, India and Saudi Arabia stay longer than average. People from the same country may behave in contrasting ways depending on the city. For example, India is one of the countries with the longest stays in Madrid but the shortest stays in Barcelona. Travel between Madrid and Barcelona: Out of the total number of mobile phones analysed, 66% stayed in Barcelona while 3 stayed in Madrid. Just 4% were in both cities during the analysed period. Accommodation: As a general rule, visitors from countries farther away such as Japan, China and Brazil tend to stay in hotels closer to the centre of the cities, while visitors from nearby countries such as Portugal, France and Belgium choose accommodation farther from the centre. Visitors to Barcelona are mainly concentrated in 3 areas of the city (Ciutat Vella, Eixample and Sant Martí) and also outside of the city. In Madrid there is one predominant district, Centro, in the city centre, where almost half of visitors to the city stay. The other half is very fragmented among the rest of the districts. Visitors from non-european countries and non-latin American countries mostly stay in 5-star hotels. Switzerland is an exception as it is also in the 5-star list. Visitors from European countries mainly stay in 4-star hotels, except for French and Portuguese visitors who stay in lower category hotels. Brazil and Argentina are the only non-european countries that stay in 3-star or lower accommodation. Sweden is a surprise in that unlike the rest of Nordic countries they also stay in 3-star accommodation together with the French and Portuguese. 6 / 48

7 1. Executive summary Spending: Average cumulative card spending by each visitor during their stay was and average card spending per day was The visitors who spent the most during their entire stay were those from Singapore, China, Japan and the Arab Emirates in that order. Visitors who spent the least money were those from nearby countries such as Portugal and France, Nordic countries such as Sweden and Denmark, and Argentina. As far as the difference between cities is concerned, visitors from Denmark, Norway and Sweden spend more in Madrid than in Barcelona. Tourists from India and Singapore spend more in Barcelona. Spending on accommodation If one analyses only spending on accommodation, average spending for the entire stay is around 300 and the average daily expenditure or price per night is 129. It is important to highlight that average spending on accommodation is higher than overall average spending on all expenditure headings. That is because the total volume of transactions is far higher than the volume of transactions for accommodation alone. The exact figures are given in point The group of countries from the Middle East and India spend practically twice as much on accommodation as the rest of countries. Argentinians, French, Portuguese and Brazilians spend the least on accommodation. That is in spite of the fact that 1 of tourists from these countries stay in Madrid or Barcelona for more than 6 days. Spending on accommodation by tourists in Barcelona is notably higher than in Madrid (around 2). Part of this additional spending could be due to visitors staying longer in Barcelona than in Madrid, 2.28 days versus 2.15 days. One should also consider that hotels in Barcelona could be more expensive than those in Madrid. 7 / 48

8 1. Executive summary Main recommendations for the hotel industry: Based on the conclusions drawn from data analysis, the study ends with a series of tactical and strategic recommendations for hotel managers. These recommendations focus on: Winning more customers and pinpointing the countries on which it is recommended to focus marketing Detecting areas of the city in which commercial transactions are carried out, Specially, those referring to accommodation. Ensuring you provide an attractive product suited to customers true needs (ideal length of package offers, information about complementary services demanded by nationalities, etc.) Obviously, any decision in this area should be based on more in-depth analysis covering a longer timeframe, which would make it possible to show seasonal and annual variations. The recommendations include a sample of the kinds of applications that using these data sources could have in a new business intelligence model in the industry. France, Italy, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Portugal: win these customers in their countries of origin. Due to the volume of tourists they provide, it is necessary to work to win customers in the following countries: France, Italy, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Portugal. When one analyses spending by people from these countries, both French and Portuguese have a lower level of spending than people from other countries. Therefore, it is recommended to carry out action to win customers through intermediaries or, in any case, in a very segmented manner to ensure profitability, as they have greater capillarity and expenditure is 10 variable for hotels. Bear in mind that there is great potential for growth in BRIC countries (Brazil, India, Russia and China). Madrid seems to have the greatest potential for Brazilians and Chinese, while Barcelona has the greatest potential for Russians. India is still a tiny market for both cities. Finally, it is worth highlighting the purchasing power of visitors from China, which are clearly luxury hotel customers. Specific recommendations for hotels in Barcelona We have observed the need to adapt action to win customers based on the hotel s category and the country in which the action will be carried out. For example, for 5-star hotels in Barcelona it is recommended to carry out action to win customers in countries in the Arabian Peninsula, India and China and for 3-star hotels lower-cost action is recommended in France, the Nordic countries, Brazil and Argentina. 8 / 48

9 1. Executive summary In order to adapt to tourists real needs, depending on their nationality, a central hotel should expect more visitors from Japan and countries in the Arabian Peninsula. In contrast, French, Portuguese and Argentinian visitors prefer to stay far from the centre at low prices. It is relevant to know cumulative spending by nationality and which tourists there are opportunities to sell products or services to nearby the hotel. For example, visitors from China, Russia and Japan spend a considerable amount in fashion shops and consume luxury products in Barcelona. These services may be a new source of income. Specific recommendations for hotels in Madrid 5-star hotels in Madrid that want to win customers should focus on countries such as the United States, Switzerland, China and Japan. In contrast, 3-star hotel should focus on neighbouring countries such as France, Italy and Portugal but also far-away countries such as Brazil, Argentina and Singapore. Although the conclusions mention that most visitors stay in the centre of Madrid, analysis shows that a central location is not a determining factor for visitors from the Arab Emirates or India. Finally, it is recommended to adapt offers to stays of 2 or 3 nights depending on the country of origin. For example, it is advisable to offer a 3-night package to Indian visitors and a 2-night package to Russians. It is also relevant to know cumulative spending by nationality and which tourists the hotel may sell new added services to. For example, visitors from China, Japan, the Arabian Peninsula and Russia spend significant amounts in fashion shops and consume luxury products in Madrid. These services may provide a new source of income. 9 / 48

10 2. Introduction 2. Introduction 2.1. Purpose of the study The study has a two-fold objective: on the one hand, to demonstrate the possibilities offered by analysing large amounts of data (an option that technology has made possible only relatively recently) when making decisions in an industry as important for the economy as tourism. On the other hand, the aim is to make use of the datasets that large companies such as BBVA and Telefónica can make available to society, which will undoubtedly contribute to a general improvement in decision-making, especially in urban environments. In order to achieve these two aims, the study analyses, from a business perspective, certain aspects of the behaviour of foreign visitors to Madrid and Barcelona during a very limited period of time. It does so by using duly aggregated and anonymised data, based on the location of base stations to which mobile phones connect during the day and credit card use. The conclusions were applied to one particular aspect of the tourism industry: hotels. The end result is a set of highly-specific business recommendations that a hotel could follow, which would show that having and appropriately analysing such data is relevant when it comes to making business decisions. The specific aspects of visitor behaviour analysed are based on the following categories: Visitors: how many come and where do they come from Length of stay: average time by nationality Travel between the two cities Preferred hotels Spending levels: overall and on accommodation 2.2. The problem of data for the tourist industry Previous studies on tourism in Spain have mostly been based on surveys or interviews with experts carried out by the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism, the main public organisation, or by private companies. One option for classifying these studies is to group them by the methodology used to gather data or the data source on the understanding that studies produced for the tourism industry come from data from regular samples that are non-granular in space and time. 10 / 48

11 2. Introduction First of all, studies could be classified by the data gathering methodology: Surveys: available reports include Tourist Border Movements (FRONTUR), Tourist Spending Surveys (EGATUR) and Spanish Tourist Movement (FAMILITUR), etc. Interviews with industry experts using the Delphi method. Search engine trends: the Google Insight for Search tool currently offers a service showing the volume of most repeated searches by countries and dates. Studies could also be classified by source gathering data or by the organisation gathering that data together: INE: Spanish Statistics Institute Eurostat: the European statistics office IET: Institute of Tourism Studies AENA: Spanish Airports and Air Navigation. RENFE (railway company) Spanish Port Authorities General and specialised consulting firms Banks Search engines Apart from search engines, AENA, RENFE, Port Authorities and banks, organisations that gather data use survey or interview methods, so they do not have real data from tourists and can only take samples from the population as a whole. In some cases, such as FRONTUR, they estimate results from administrative records kept by the Directorate-General of Traffic. This available administrative information shows the number of vehicles that cross the border, so it is necessary to estimate how many people are in each vehicle in order to convert the number of vehicles into the number of people. In other cases, companies such as AENA, RENFE and Port Authorities have exact data about passengers who come to Spain by air, land or sea in their databases. Although they are exact data, this information is only part of what the tourism industry needs and must be cross-referenced against data on tourists behaviour once they are in the country. As far as search engines are concerned, the information they extract is based on searches made by visitors before they arrive in the country. Although increasing attention should be given to this new source of prediction, it does not explain visitors behaviour during their stay in Spain. 11 / 48

12 2. Introduction 2.3. Strengths for the tourism industry of using Big Data The innovative approach taken in producing this report has a set of advantages over traditional methodologies. These are as follows: Reliability: the data used are based on users real actions not on surveys. In other words, real actions have been analysed instead of stated intentions or answers to questions. Representativeness: adding all of the information sources together, it can be stated that the sample size contains the following: BBVA data: 15% of all transactions are carried out with cards belonging to foreigners in the province of Madrid. 14% for the province of Barcelona. In both cases, these percentages depend on the area of the province being studied. Telefónica data: approximately one third of telephones whose SIM comes from foreign operators end up registering on Telefónica España s network. That increases the sample base on which conventional research tends to be based by several orders of magnitude. Information detail and segmentation capacity: the degree of space/time focus and the ability to describe places and the people who visit them is radically changed due to the sample size and its reliability. Hybridising data with other current or future sources: since they are structured and geopositioned data, it is possible to cross-reference them with other sources such as social media, open public data and others whether currently in production or potential information sources that may be created or released in the future. New information flows: a type of information that increases knowledge of the industry s target market produced by the tourists themselves (their mobile phone connecting to the telecom network and their bank card connecting to the POS terminal) is incorporated into a tourism sector study. Possibility of new business opportunities: the results of this analysis can be contrasted with internal data from each tourism company to determine whether the supply on offer in each area of the city is in tune with the tourists who visit it. 12 / 48

13 3. Detailed analysis 3. Detailed analysis 3.1. Visitors By analysing the number of active telephones, by country, during the study period, conclusions can be drawn about the main countries of origin of tourists who visit us and their preferred destination, Madrid or Barcelona. This list of 21 countries used throughout the report is not a continuous ranking. Nationalities have been left out that were among the top 21 so as to avoid redundant conclusions. Instead we gave room to other places of origin that are representative of important supranational areas (Persian Gulf, South America, etc.) Table 1: Unique telephones registered (Telefónica data) Country Total telephones Telephones in BCN % BCN/TOTAL 71,7% 65,9% Telephones in MADRID % MADRID/TOTAL 28, 34, , , NETHERLANDS ,9% , PORTUGAL , ,9% SWITZERLAND ,7% , SWEDEN , , POLAND ,9% , UNITED STATES ,5% ,5% BELGIUM , , RUSSIA , , NORWAY ,4% ,6% BRAZIL ,7% , DENMARK , ,9% ARGENTINA , ,7% JAPAN , ,9% CHINA ,7% , INDIA , ,9% UNITED ARAB EMIRATES ,8% , SAUDI ARABIA ,6% ,4% SINGAPORE ,4% ,6% OVERALL TOTAL , ,9% Among the nationalities selected, French, Italian and British tourists were the ones who visited us the most by far. These three countries together made up 5 of the total number of visitors from the 21 countries analysed. This applies similarly to each of the two cities analysed, Barcelona and Madrid. The United States, which is ninth in the ranking, is the non-european Union country with the highest number of visitors at 3.6 of the total. 13 / 48

14 3. Detailed analysis 17% Figure 1: Distribution of visitors by country (Telefónica data) % OTHER COUNTRIES Comparison of visitors between Barcelona and Madrid Two out of three visitors choose Barcelona (67%) as a destination and one in three choose Madrid (3). Figure 2: Distribution of visitors between Barcelona and Madrid (Telefónica data) % 67% BARCELONA MADRID MADRID When preferences between the two cities are compared by country of origin, Argentinians, Brazilians and Portuguese prioritise Madrid as a destination with percentages of more than 6 while visitors from Nordic countries choose Barcelona with percentages of more than 75% of the total. Figure 3: City preference, Barcelona over Madrid (Telefónica data) 10 75% 5 25% DENMARK NORWAY RUSSIA NETHERLANDS SWEDEN SWITZERLAND SINGAPORE POLAND BELGIUM JAPAN SAUDI ARABIA UNITED STATES UNITED ARAB EMIRATES INDIA CHINA PORTUGAL BRAZIL ARGENTINA Figure 4: City preference, Madrid over Barcelona (Telefónica data) 75% 5 25% ARGENTINA BRAZIL PORTUGAL CHINA INDIA UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES SAUDI ARABIA JAPAN BELGIUM POLAND SINGAPORE SWITZERLAND SWEDEN NETHERLANDS RUSSIA NORWAY DENMARK 14 / 48

15 3. Detailed analysis 3.2. Length of stay Average stay Analysis of the number of active telephones by country during the study period shows the average length of time that visitors stay in Spain. There are significant differences between the length of visits to Madrid and Barcelona by different nationalities. Table 2: Average stay (Telefónica data) Country DENMARK NORWAY SWEDEN SINGAPORE RUSSIA POLAND BRAZIL SAUDI ARABIA NETHERLANDS ARGENTINA UNITED ARAB EMIRATES CHINA PORTUGAL INDIA BELGIUM JAPAN UNITED STATES SWITZERLAND TOTAL WEIGHTED AVERAGE Average Total Stay 2,98 2,91 2,87 2,72 2,66 2,66 2,65 2,63 2,50 2,45 2,30 2,18 2,16 2,15 2,14 2,13 2,11 2,10 2,08 1,94 1,91 2,24 Overall, the total average stay by visitors from the 21 countries analysed is 2.24 days. Generally speaking, the length of stay increases by 2 if the visitor arrived on a working day. The Nordic countries stand out in staying longer than more far-off countries such as Russia, Saudi Arabia and the Arab Emirates. Visitors from France and Switzerland are at the bottom of the table with the shortest stays. It is surprising to see Japan and the United States at the bottom end of the table with a stay of around 2 days. People from the same country may behave in contrasting ways depending on the city. For example, India is one of the countries with the longest stays in Madrid but the shortest stays in Barcelona. 15 / 48

16 3. Detailed analysis Average stay in Barcelona Table 3: Average stays in Barcelona depending on the day on which the visits start and the total (Telefónica data) Country DENMARK NORWAY SWEDEN BRAZIL Average stay 3,18 3,16 2,94 2,92 Average stay starting at a weekend 3,76 2,63 2,66 2,47 Average stay starting on a working day 2,91 3,33 3,19 3,1 RUSSIA 2,8 2,16 2,81 POLAND 2,77 2,41 2,85 ARGENTINA 2,73 2,53 2,75 SINGAPORE 2,72 2,59 2,78 SAUDI ARABIA 2,67 2,24 2,85 NETHERLANDS 2,55 2,43 2,6 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 2,47 2,44 2,47 BELGIUM 2,23 1,71 2,42 PORTUGAL 2,22 1,74 2,35 2,17 1,93 2,17 UNITED STATES 2,11 1,61 2,41 CHINA 2,1 1,82 2,17 JAPAN 2,08 2,04 2,05 2,01 1,66 2,1 1,99 1,63 2,09 SWITZERLAND 1,95 1,72 2,03 INDIA 1,66 1,51 1,73 Visitors from Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway and Sweden) stay longer than average in Barcelona, while France, Switzerland and India are the countries with the shortest stays. 16 / 48

17 3. Detailed analysis Average stay in Madrid Table 4: Average stays in Madrid depending on the day on which the visits start and the total (Telefónica data) Country SINGAPORE INDIA SWEDEN SAUDI ARABIA Average stay 2,73 2,7 2,67 2,58 Average stay starting at a weekend 2,98 2,03 1,83 2,14 Average stay starting on a working day 2,61 2,31 2,9 2,83 BRAZIL 2,48 2,06 2,7 POLAND 2,42 2,16 2,43 NETHERLANDS 2,34 2,07 2,43 ARGENTINA 2,29 2,02 2,47 2,29 1,83 2,5 CHINA 2,25 1,94 2,34 RUSSIA 2,2 1,89 2,3 JAPAN 2,14 2,12 2,17 PORTUGAL 2,12 1,55 2,29 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 2,1 1,81 2,14 2,06 1,59 2,17 UNITED STATES 2,04 1,64 2,24 DENMARK 1,99 1,9 2,08 NORWAY 1,97 1,55 2,2 BELGIUM 1,92 1,29 2,19 1,83 1,43 2 SWITZERLAND 1,81 1,52 1,99 Singapore, India and Saudi Arabia all stay longer than the average, while nearby European countries (Switzerland, France and Belgium) have shorter stays. 17 / 48

18 3. Detailed analysis Comparison between average stays in Barcelona and Madrid Figure 5: Average stay in days in Barcelona and Madrid (Telefónica data) 2 2,28 days 2,15 days 1 BARCELONA MADRID There is a slight difference between Barcelona and Madrid with slightly longer stays in Barcelona (2.28 days) than in Madrid (2.15 days). If one compares the difference in relation to the arrival day, in Barcelona the length of stay is only 17% longer if the visitors arrive on a working day, while that difference lengthens to 3 in Madrid Distribution of nationalities by length of stay Another way of analysing stays by nationality is to show its distribution according to certain ranges of length of stay, which gives us more significant information than just the average stay figure. 7% Figure 6: Overall distribution of length of stay (Telefónica data) 14% 57% < 1 day days days 2 > 6 days It is surprising how many visitors stay less than one day, 57%, which shortens the average stay. It makes sense to think of them not only as visitors who arrive and leave the country the same day but also as people who arrive in Spain and then go to other places outside of Barcelona and Madrid. In the following points we will analyse the distribution by countries within these ranges of length of stay for each of the two cities. 18 / 48

19 3. Detailed analysis Table 5: Percentage distribution of the number of telephones in Barcelona according to four stay length ranges (Telefónica data) Country < 1 day 1-3 days 3-6 days > 6 days SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL CHINA DENMARK UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES NETHERLANDS INDIA JAPAN NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL RUSSIA SINGAPORE SWEDEN SWITZERLAND 44,7 44,4 58,6 36,8 51,6 36,5 47,28% 57,57% 62,9 47,58% 69,56% 61,95% 55,37% 33,86% 47,26% 61,54% 56,8 49,2 41,74% 36,59% 62,5 28,09% 29,09% 21,1 34,08% 36,06% 22,18% 28,5 23,67% 21,0 22,46% 16,0 22,1 34,4 26,95% 25,17% 19,3 23,26% 18,27% 29,9 29,5 20,5 19,2 17,9 11,8 21,86% 9,3 33,2 15,67% 11,86% 10,5 21,39% 4,88% 10,08% 6,8 28,4 15,5 9,1 13,65% 18,6 15,26% 24,87% 12,3 7,99% 8,58% 8,46% 7,25% 3,04% 8,09% 8,5 6,9 5,59% 8,58% 9,54% 5,85% 3,37% 10,78% 12,05% 10,0 6,28% 13,87% 13,08% 9,05% 4,69% The countries with greatest representation in the category of stays lasting less than one day are India, France and Switzerland. This category represents 55% of total visitors. Tourists who stay between 1 and 3 days account for 2 of total visitors. Chinese, Japanese and Brazilians stand out here. Those who stay between 3 and 6 days account for 15% of the total and the tourists with the highest percentages come from Nordic countries. Just 6% of the total number of visitors spent more than 6 days visiting within the two-week period analysed. Visitors from Russia, Singapore and Poland stand out in this group as those who stay the longest. Figure 7: Distribution by days spent in Barcelona (Telefónica data) > 6 days 3-6 days 1-3 days < 1 day % Telephones SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL CHINA DENMARK UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES NETHERLANDS INDIA JAPAN NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL RUSSIA SINGAPORE 19 / 48 SWEDEN SWITZERLAND

20 3. Detailed analysis Table 6: Percentage distribution of the number of telephones in Madrid according to four stay length ranges (Telefónica data) Country < 1 day 1-3 days 3-6 days > 6 days SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL CHINA DENMARK UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES NETHERLANDS INDIA JAPAN NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL RUSSIA SINGAPORE SWEDEN SWITZERLAND 46,18% 59,55% 67,76% 53,55% 49,3 62,8 60,0 62,59% 65,99% 54,65% 40,55% 52,8 46,07% 60,8 56,1 64,3 60,7 57,95% 40,56% 54,36% 67,8 30,3 18,0 16,38% 21,9 31,84% 19,1 23,17% 17,47% 20,15% 21,69% 28,89% 26,17% 41,36% 22,2 22,45% 18,04% 22,7 22,2 36,19% 21,69% 17,16% 14,7 12,65% 8,18% 14,85% 15,4 12,64% 10,9 12,45% 8,58% 17,86% 28,48% 14,07% 10,45% 12,8 11,7 6,9 10,85% 13,2 15,7 12,6 9,98% 8,78% 9,8 7,68% 9,67% 3,4 5,44% 5,9 7,48% 5,29% 5,8 2,08% 6,9 2,1 4,15% 9,7 10,7 5,74% 6,6 7,5 11,35% 5,05% The countries with the highest percentages in the category of stays lasting less than one day are Switzerland, Belgium and France. This category accounts for 59% of total visitors. Tourists from Japan, Singapore and China stand out in the set of stays lasting 1 to 3 days, which accounts for 2 of total visitors. Those who stay between 3 and 6 days account for 15% of the total and the countries with the highest percentages are India, the Netherlands and Singapore. 7% of the total number of visitors spent more than 6 days visiting within the two-week period analysed. Visitors from Sweden, Portugal and Argentina stand out in this group as those who stay the longest. Figure 8: Distribution by days spent in Madrid (Telefónica data) > 6 days 3-6 days 1-3 days < 1 day % Telephones SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL CHINA DENMARK UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES NETHERLANDS INDIA JAPAN NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL 20 / 48 RUSSIA SINGAPORE SWEDEN SWITZERLAND

21 3. Detailed analysis 3.3. Travel between Madrid and Barcelona We analysed the number of telephones that travelled between the two cities. This gives us an idea of the mobility of tourists between them. In the table below for example, B shows the telephone does not leave Barcelona and B-M-B shows the telephone moved to Madrid and back to Barcelona. Table 7: Travel between cities (B-Barcelona, M-Madrid) expressed in percentages. For example, B shows the telephone does not leave Barcelona and B-M-B shows the telephone moved to Madrid and back to Barcelona (Telefónica data) Country B B M SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL CHINA DENMARK UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES NETHERLANDS INDIA JAPAN NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL RUSSIA SINGAPORE SWEDEN SWITZERLAND 55,0 % 26,3 % 66,6 % 28,5 % 36,4 % 82,9 % 53,2 % 54,8 % 71,2 % 74,6 % 50,1 % 65,2 % 52,2 % 79,1 % 65,3 % 34,6 % 71,6 % 76,0 % 65,8 % 73,8 % 72,4 % 2,7 % 7,8 % 0,5 % 6,3 % 6,1 % 0,4 % 1,4 % 2,7 % 0,8 % 0,5 % 2,0 % 0,9 % 11,5 % 0,6 % 1,9 % 3,1 % 0,7 % 1,4 % 5,0 % 0,5 % 0,6 % B M B M M B M B M 0,4 % 0,4 % 0,1 % 0,4 % 0,6 % 0,2 % 0,5 % 0,3 % 0,3 % 0,1 % 0,4 % 0,4 % 0,5 % 0,1 % 1,7 % 0,5 % 0,1 % 1,6 % 2,9 % 0,2 % 0,2 % 36,4 % 58,1 % 32,1 % 54,9 % 48,7 % 16,0 % 43,4 % 38,9 % 26,9 % 24,1 % 43,6 % 32,7 % 25,0 % 19,6 % 26,1 % 58,2 % 26,8 % 19,5 % 18,8 % 25,2 % 26,3 % 4,8 % 5,2 % 0,6 % 7,6 % 7,6 % 0,5 % 1,2 % 2,7 % 0,7 % 0,6 % 3,1 % 0,8 % 10,3 % 0,4 % 4,8 % 2,6 % 0,7 % 1,3 % 6,6 % 0,3 % 0,6 % 0,7 % 2,1 % 0,1 % 2,4 % 0,5 % 0,1 % 0,3 % 0,6 % 0,1 % 0,1 % 0,9 % 0,1 % 0,7 % 0,1 % 0,3 % 0,9 % 0,1 % 0,2 % 0,9 % 0,0 % 0,1 % Out of the total number of mobile phones analysed, 66% stayed in Barcelona while 3 stayed in Madrid. These figures are in line with those in the first section Comparison of visitors between Barcelona and Madrid. Therefore, 96% of tourists stay in the city they arrived at. So direct mobility between the two cities does not appear to be very high, although they could visit other cities not included in the study. Just 4% of the total number of visitors visited both cities, Madrid and Barcelona. There are exceptions when visitors are analysed by their country of origin. Japanese, Brazilians and Argentinians are the tourists that had the greatest tendency to visit both cities. Danish, Norwegians and Russians stand out for their preference to visit Barcelona instead of Madrid, while Portuguese, Argentinians and Brazilians have a preference for Madrid far above the average. 21 / 48

22 3. Detailed analysis As far as travel between cities is concerned, 1. of tourists who arrive at Barcelona end up visiting Madrid. The same happens in reverse, 1. of visitors who initially arrive at Madrid end their trip in Barcelona. Japanese, Argentinian and Brazilian tourists stand out as having a far higher tendency than the rest to visit Madrid once they are in Barcelona. As far as travel from Madrid to Barcelona is concerned, Japanese, Chinese and Brazilians stand out as being far above the average. There is a small percentage of visitors, around 4%, who travel between the two cities more than once. 22 / 48

23 3. Detailed analysis 3.4. Accommodation Areas of the city Based on credit card data we have found the areas in Madrid and Barcelona where visitors stay. Accommodation preferences by areas in Barcelona In the city of Barcelona there are three districts that provide accommodation for most visitors, Ciutat Vella (28%), Eixample (24%) and Sant Martí (2). One in four visitors sleep outside the city. Table 8: Distribution of accommodation by district in Barcelona (BBVA data) País SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL Ciutat Vella 79% 18% 3 16% Eixample 5% 24% 18% 15% Sant Martí 5% 2 18% 36% Les Corts 1 7% Nou Barris 5% Gràcia Sarrià - Sant Gervasi Horta - Guinardó Sants - Montjuïc BARCELONA PROVINCIA 29% 24% 18% CHINA 24% 27% 26% 1 DENMARK 35% 16% 24% 2 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 44% 2 16% 4% 4% 1 UNITED STATES 26% 39% % NETHERLANDS 3 18% 2 24% INDIA 46% 2 19% 15% 28% 2 19% 4% 2 JAPAN 2 48% 1 6% 8% NORWAY 27% 3 15% 2 POLAND 29% 19% 2 24% PORTUGAL 8% 2 19% 48% 3 19% 25% 4% 17% RUSSIA 28% 2 25% 17% SINGAPORE % SWEDEN 48% 16% 17% 14% SWITZERLAND 37% % TOTAL 28% 24% / 48

24 3. Detailed analysis Figure 9: Percentage of overnight stays by district in Barcelona (BBVA data) 3 2 % Porcentage of overnight stays 1 Ciutat Vella Eixample Sant Martí BARCELONA PROVINCIA Les Corts Nou Barris Gràcia Sarrià - Sant Gervasi Horta - Guinardó Sants - Montjuïc Most visitors from Saudi Arabia stay in Ciutat Vella, followed by almost half of visitors from Sweden and India. As far as Japanese are concerned, almost half of them stay in Eixample, followed by the visitors from Singapore (4) and the United States (39%). The third district by number of overnight stays is Sant Martí, where 36% of Brazilians and a quarter of Chinese and British stay. Practically one in four visitors stays outside the city of Barcelona. The main countries in this group are Portugal, France and Argentina. 24 / 48

25 3. Detailed analysis Accommodation preferences by areas in Madrid In Madrid there is one predominant district, Centro, in the city centre, where almost half (44%) of visitors to the city stay. The other half is very fragmented among the rest of the districts. Table 9: Distribution of accommodation by district in Madrid (BBVA data) País SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL Centro Retiro 46% 55% 34% 45% 8% 2 18% 15% Barajas San Blas Salamanca 8% 4% 8% 1 1 8% 4% 4% 4% 5% Chamberí 4% 5% Ciudad Lineal Moncloa-Aravaca Villa de Vallecas Arganzuela Carabanchel ChamartÍn Tetuán Villaverde Fuencarral-El Pardo MADRID PROVINCIA 4% 8% 8% 7% 5% 1 4% 5% CHINA % 5% 4% DENMARK 47% 8% 9% 5% 5% 4% 8% 5% UNITED ARAB EMIRATES 27% 1 27% 5% 7% 7% 5% 4% UNITED STATES 5 9% 6% 4% 8% 6% 5% 34% 1 1 8% 6% 4% 1 NETHERLANDS 45% 14% 1 6% 4% 9% INDIA 24% 1 9% 9% 1 16% 54% 1 7% 6% 6% 7% JAPAN 4 16% 5% 9% 5% 1 NORWAY 38% 5% 19% 9% 8% 4% 4% 4% 4% POLAND 44% 6% 17% 1 4% 8% PORTUGAL 2 9% 16% 1 9% 1 14% 37% 1 1 4% 5% 5% 7% 9% RUSSIA 59% 9% 7% 5% 6% 7% SINGAPORE 69% 6% 6% 6% 1 SWEDEN 5 8% 1 6% 5% 8% SWITZERLAND 46% 1 1 6% 6% 6% 5% 5% TOTAL 44% 1 1 6% 6% 5% 4% 8% 25 / 48

26 3. Detailed analysis Figure 10: Percentage of overnight stays by district in Madrid (BBVA data) % Porcentage of overnight stays Centro Retiro Barajas MADRID PROVINCIA San Blas Salamanca Chamberí Ciudad Lineal Moncloa - Aravaca Villa de Vallecas Arganzuela Carabanchel Chamartín Tetuán Villaverde Fuencarral - El Pardo Visitors from Singapore, Russia and Argentina have a greater preference for the Centro area with percentages of 69%, 59% and 55% respectively. Just 8% of visitors stayed outside of the city; this percentage is slightly higher for visitors from Portugal, Singapore and Belgium. Comparison between Barcelona and Madrid in terms of overnight stays inside and outside of the city Barcelona Madrid Figure 11: Percentage of overnight stays inside and outside of the city (BBVA data) 10 75% 5 79% 9 Barcelona Madrid 25% 2 8% 79% 9 INSIDE OUTSIDE In Madrid practically all visitors stay inside the city (9), while in Barcelona the percentage of tourists who prefer accommodation outside of the city rises to % INSIDE OUTSIDE 26 / 48

27 3. Detailed analysis Distances from the city centre As part of the study, we analysed the distance to the centre of the city from the accommodation in which tourists stayed and we compared this between the two cities by nationality. Based on the use of foreign credit cards belonging to tourists, we identified transactions in the accommodation category in which the location of the business is logged. We observed 8,897 accommodation transactions in Madrid and 11,423 accommodation transactions in Barcelona. The distance to the city centre is measured in a straight line and the units are kilometres. We consider the following to be the city centre of each of the cities: Plaza de Cataluña in Barcelona and Puerta del Sol in Madrid. As a general rule, visitors from countries farther away such as Japan, China and Brazil tend to stay closer to the city centre, while visitors from nearby countries such as Portugal, France and Belgium choose accommodation farther from the centre. One notable exception is visitors from Singapore and the Middle East, who stayed far from the centre in Madrid but near the centre in Barcelona. Table 10: Distance (km) from accommodation to the city centre: Plaza de Cataluña and Puerta del Sol (BBVA data) Country Barcelona Madrid SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL CHINA DENMARK UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES NETHERLANDS INDIA JAPAN NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL RUSSIA SINGAPORE SWEDEN SWITZERLAND 2,31 5,62 6,27 4,03 3,31 4,79 2,79 4,07 8,02 7,01 3,22 4,79 2,53 5,5 5,33 7,48 5,72 4,75 2,76 5,09 5,03 5,37 3,66 5,53 3,56 4,15 4,43 5,6 3,47 5,85 4,73 4,2 3,58 2,78 4,22 5,2 6,44 5,23 3,68 6,87 4,4 4,08 27 / 48

28 3. Detailed analysis Barcelona: The total average distance that visitors stay from the city centre is 5.5 kilometres. Visitors from Saudi Arabia, Japan and Singapore are those that stay closest to the centre of Barcelona. French, Portuguese and Dutch visitors stay farthest from the centre. Madrid: The total average distance that visitors stay from Madrid city centre is 4.5 kilometres. Visitors from Japan, the United States and Brazil are those that stay closest to the city centre. Visitors from Singapore, Portugal and France stay farthest from the centre Spending Cumulative average spending by card throughout the stay Another interesting point to analyse is tourists spending during their stay. This allows us to detect spending patterns by nationality in each city and estimate the hotel category they stay in based on the amount they spend on accommodation. Foreign credit cards belonging to tourists show us the total amount spent by each of them during the study period. Therefore, it is the amount spent by card, i.e. the family unit, not the individual tourist. It can also be broken down by city visited and the visitor s country of origin. 79% Figure 12: Average overall spending by card throughout the study period by country and city (BBVA data) Barcelona 9 Madrid SINGAPORE CHINA JAPAN SAUDI ARABIA UNITED ARAB EMIRATES RUSSIA SWITZERLAND Barcelona INDIA BRAZIL UNITED STATES Madrid BELGIUM NETHERLANDS POLAND DENMARK ARGENTINA NORWAY SWEDEN PORTUGAL 161,5 2 The average cumulative card expenditure by each visitor in Spain during those two weeks was (dotted red line). 8% INSIDE OUTSIDE 28 / 48

29 3. Detailed analysis There are significant differences by country of origin in this section with very high amounts and very low amounts at both extremes. The visitors who spend the most are those from Singapore, China and Japan, in that order. Visitors from Switzerland, the highest-spending European citizens, are also slightly above average. Visitors who spent the least money in Spain were those from nearby countries such as Portugal and France, Nordic countries such as Sweden and Denmark, and also a non-european country, Argentina. Comparison of average spending between Barcelona and Madrid Table 11: Average spending ( ) by card during the stay broken down by nationality and city (BBVA data) Country Barcelona Madrid SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL CHINA DENMARK UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES NETHERLANDS INDIA JAPAN NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL RUSSIA SINGAPORE SWEDEN SWITZERLAND WEIGHTED AVERAGE SPENDING 276,20 98,22 121,43 143,46 419,26 112,21 291,88 140,82 105,73 107,41 181,55 122,01 298,39 139,40 124,86 92,65 116,25 204,19 378,91 94,64 161,73 152,68 293,34 105,08 122,19 137,38 459,76 107,00 201,08 131,73 115,18 117,45 170,90 125,50 299,25 101,30 110,64 90,26 114,60 198,63 532,55 92,56 182,26 174,37 Average spending during the stay by tourists in Madrid is 14% higher than the average amount spent in Barcelona ( v ). There is a very significant difference in both cities between spending during the week and spending at the weekend, with 25% higher expenditure during the week. The fact that shops are closed on Sundays could be decisive in this. The country ranking is similar in both cities with considerably higher expenditure for visitors from countries in the Middle East and Far East. 29 / 48

30 3. Detailed analysis Average daily spending Since the amount spent tends to build up the longer visitors stay, in this section we have analysed the average daily spending on each card. This allows us to determine which countries spend the most regardless of the number of days they stay in Madrid or Barcelona. Credit card data can be used to analyse the average spending by card and day, broken down by nationality. This is the result of dividing total spending by the number of days on which the card was active (the difference between the date of the last transaction and the first one). In order to avoid distortion, we have only taken into account cards used on more than one day. 79% Figure 13: Average daily spending by card broken down by country and city (BBVA data) Barcelona 9 Madrid CHINA SINGAPORE JAPAN SAUDI ARABIA SWITZERLAND UNITED ARAB EMIRATES RUSSIA UNITED STATES Barcelona Madrid 58,5 /day BELGIUM INDIA BRAZIL DENMARK NORWAY NETHERLANDS ARGENTINA POLAND PORTUGAL SWEDEN The average daily spending by each visitor in Spain is 58.5/day (dotted line). There are significant differences by country of origin in this section with very high amounts and very low amounts at both extremes. 8% INSIDE OUTSIDE The visitors who spent the most come from China, Singapore, Japan and the Arabian Peninsula. The visitors who spent the least money in Spain come from Nordic countries such as Sweden and Denmark, neighbouring countries such as Portugal and non-european countries such as Argentina. 30 / 48

31 3. Detailed analysis Table 12: Average daily spending in Barcelona by card broken down by nationality (BBVA and Telefónica data) Country Daily spending ( ) Average stay (days) Total spending ( ) SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL CHINA DENMARK UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES NETHERLANDS INDIA JAPAN NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL RUSSIA SINGAPORE SWEDEN SWITZERLAND 103,45 35,98 54,45 49,13 199,65 35,29 118,17 66,74 53,13 42,12 109,37 60,70 143,46 44,11 45,08 41,73 53,57 72,92 139,31 32,19 82,94 2,67 2,73 2,23 2,92 2,10 3,18 2,47 2,11 1,99 2,55 1,66 2,01 2,08 3,16 2,77 2,22 2,17 2,80 2,72 2,94 1,95 276,20 98,22 121,43 143,46 419,26 112,21 291,88 140,82 105,73 107,41 181,55 122,01 298,39 139,40 124,86 92,65 116,25 204,19 378,91 94,64 161,73 The order of countries does not significantly change when the cities are compared. Higher levels of spending are between 140 and 200 and the lower range is around / 48

32 3. Detailed analysis Table 13: Average daily spending by card in Madrid broken down by nationality (BBVA and Telefónica data) Country Daily spending ( ) Average stay (days) Total spending ( ) SAUDI ARABIA ARGENTINA BELGIUM BRAZIL CHINA DENMARK UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED STATES NETHERLANDS INDIA JAPAN NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL RUSSIA SINGAPORE SWEDEN SWITZERLAND 113,70 45,89 63,64 55,40 204,34 53,77 95,75 64,57 62,94 50,19 63,30 54,80 139,84 51,42 45,72 42,58 55,63 90,29 195,07 34,67 100,7 2,58 2,29 1,92 2,48 2,25 1,99 2,10 2,04 1,83 2,34 2,70 2,29 2,14 1,97 2,42 2,12 2,06 2,20 2,73 2,67 1,81 293,34 105,08 122,19 137,38 459,76 107,00 201,08 131,73 115,18 117,45 170,90 125,50 299,25 101,30 110,64 90,26 114,60 198,63 532,55 92,56 182,26 Although the order of countries is distributed similarly there is slightly higher spending by tourists in Madrid. The upper range is between 140 and 205 and the lower range is from 35 to / 48

33 3. Detailed analysis Cumulative average spending on accommodation by card during the stay Credit card analysis also shows the total spending by each of them on accommodation during the study period. This can also be broken down by city and the visitor s country of origin. It is important to mention that average spending on accommodation alone ( 298.7, see Figure 14) is far higher than total average spending ( 136.5, see Figure 12). The same applies to average daily spending, as detailed in the following point. This may initially seem to make no sense but the difference lies in the number of transactions in each case. The total volume of transactions amounts to more than 253,000, while the number of transactions on accommodation alone is approximately 20,000. Hence, when total spending is averaged out, it is diluted by low-volume transactions and therefore is lower than average spending on accommodation. Figure 14: Average spending by card on accommodation during the study period by country and city (Telefónica data and BBVA) Barcelona Madrid % Barcelona 9 Madrid SAUDI ARABIA INDIA UNITED ARAB EMIRATES CHINA SWITZERLAND DENMARK SINGAPORE UNITED STATES JAPAN RUSSIA NORWAY POLAND NETHERLANDS BELGIUM SWEDEN BRAZIL PORTUGAL ARGENTINA 298,71 2 Average total spending on accommodation on each of the visitors credit cards 8% in Spain during those two weeks was (dotted red line). INSIDE OUTSIDE As one might expect, there is polarisation here too. There are two main groups for average spending on accommodation. The group of countries from the Middle East and India spend practically twice as much on accommodation as the rest of countries. This could be explained by the fact that the groups or family units who visit us are larger so the cost is higher. Argentinians, French, Portuguese and Brazilians spend the least on accommodation. That is in spite of the fact that 1 of tourists from these countries stay in Madrid or Barcelona for more than 6 days. 33 / 48

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