1 Aspects of Leadership Mark T. Green MEd, MBA, MS, PhD Chair, Leadership Studies Our Lady of the Lake University
2 Aspects of Leadership Personality
3 Aspects of Leadership Personality Frames
4 Aspects of Leadership Personality Frames Transformational Leadership
5 Aspects of Leadership Personality Frames Transformational Leadership Servant
6 Personality and Leadership
9 Agreeableness is the degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good natured, cooperative, forgiving, compassionate, understanding, and trusting. (Trust, Modesty, Compliance, Altruism, Straightforwardness, Tender-Mindedness)
10 Agreeableness is the degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good natured, cooperative, forgiving, compassionate, understanding, and trusting. (Trust, Modesty, Compliance, Altruism, Straightforwardness, Tender-Mindedness) A leader who scores high on agreeableness seems warm and approachable, whereas one who is low may seem cold, distant, and insensitive.
13 Conscientiousness refers to the degree to which a person is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement-oriented. (Competence, Self-Discipline, Achievement- Striving, Dutifulness, Order, Deliberation) A conscientious person is focused on a few goals, pursued in a purposeful way, whereas a less conscientious person is easily distracted and impulsive. This dimension relates to the work itself, not to relationships.
14 Extraversion Emotional Stability Openness to New Experiences Conscientiousness Agreeableness
17 Openness to experience is the degree to which a person has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, and willing to consider new ideas. (Fantasy, Aesthetics, Feelings, Actions, Ideas, Values) These people are intellectually curious, and seek out new experiences. People lower in this dimension have narrower interests and stick to the tried-and-true ways of doing things.
18 Openness to experience is the degree to which a person has a broad range of interests and is imaginative, creative, and willing to consider new ideas. (Fantasy, Aesthetics, Feelings, Actions, Ideas, Values) These people are intellectually curious, and seek out new experiences. People lower in this dimension have narrower interests and stick to the tried-and-true ways of doing things. Open-mindedness is important to leaders because leadership is about change rather than stability.
19 Extraversion Emotional Stability Openness to New Experiences Conscientiousness Agreeableness
22 Neuroticism / Emotional stability refers to the degree to which a person is well-adjusted, calm, and secure. Neuroticism includes (Anxiety, Hostility, Depression, Self- Consciousness, Impulsiveness, Vulnerability) A leader who is emotionally stable handles stress well, is able to handle criticism, and generally doesn t take mistakes and failures personally.
23 Neuroticism / Emotional stability refers to the degree to which a person is well-adjusted, calm, and secure. Neuroticism includes (Anxiety, Hostility, Depression, Self- Consciousness, Impulsiveness, Vulnerability) A leader who is emotionally stable handles stress well, is able to handle criticism, and generally doesn t take mistakes and failures personally. Leaders, low in emotional stability, are likely to become tense, anxious, or depressed.
24 Extraversion Emotional Stability Openness to New Experiences Conscientiousness Agreeableness
27 Extroversion refers to the degree to which a person is outgoing, sociable, talkative, and comfortable meeting and talking to people. (Warmth, Gregariousness, Assertiveness, Activity, Excitement-Seeking, Positive Emotions) This dimension also includes the characteristic of dominance. These people are self-confident, seek out positions of authority and are competitive and assertive..
28 Extroversion refers to the degree to which a person is outgoing, sociable, talkative, and comfortable meeting and talking to people. (Warmth, Gregariousness, Assertiveness, Activity, Excitement-Seeking, Positive Emotions) This dimension also includes the characteristic of dominance. These people are self-confident, seek out positions of authority and are competitive and assertive. Both dominance and extroversion could be valuable for a leader, but not all effective leaders have a high degree of these characteristics.
29 Which are Important Extraversion Emotional Stability Openness to New Experiences Conscientiousness Agreeableness
30 Personality and Leadership
31 Frames of Reference
34 The Structural Frame The organization as a machine is the dominant image in the structural frame; leaders strive for machine-like efficiency and make decisions based on economic efficiency. Plans and goals are the primary tools of management, and leaders rely heavily on power and authority granted through their position to influence others. A structural frame places emphasis on goal setting and clarifying job expectations as a way to provide order, efficiency, and continuity.
35 The Structural Frame Leaders emphasize job descriptions, hard data, specific polices, accepted standards, and the bottom line. Acceptance to rules brings order and logic to organizations. Task-oriented leadership styles, some of the contingency approaches, and transactional leadership rely on this frame. Carried to an extreme, the structural frame leads to rigidity and even tyranny among leaders.
37 The Human Resource Frame According to the human resource frame, people are the organization's most valuable resource. This frame defines problems and issues in interpersonal terms and adjusts the organization to meet human needs. Leaders focus on relationships and feelings, lead through empowerment and support and encourage open communication.
38 The Human Resource Frame Effective leaders use the human resource perspective to involve others and give them opportunities for personal and professional development. They value people, are visible and accessible, and serve others. This frame can be ineffective if the leader bends to the whims of others, using caring and participation to avoid leadership responsibility.
40 The Political Resource Frame The political frame of reference views organizations as arenas of ongoing conflict or tension over the allocation of scarce resources. Leaders spend their time networking and building alliances and coalitions to influence decisions. These leaders strive to build a power base and frequently exercise both personal and organizational power to achieve their desired results.
41 The Political Resource Frame Carried to an extreme, this frame can lead to deception, dishonesty, and power plays for the purpose of selfinterest. Yet, effective political leaders use their negotiating, bargaining, and coalitionbuilding skills to serve organizational needs. Power and politics are an important, although often hidden, part of all organizations. Power is a reality, and political schemes are a natural part of organizational life.
43 The Symbolic Frame To use full leadership potential requires that leaders also develop the symbolic frame, in which leaders perceive the organization as a system of shared meaning and values. The symbolic leader focuses on shared vision, culture, and values to influence others and lead the organization. Charismatic and transformational leadership rely on this frame. Leaders use rituals, ceremonies, stories, and symbols to create and reinforce a corporate culture.
44 The Symbolic Frame Symbolic leaders inspire people to higher levels of performance and commitment; however, this frame can lead to the messiah complex by relying too heavily on symbols. Symbols can be used for dishonest, unethical, and selfserving purposes. Symbolic leaders are effective when they articulate a vision that is widely shared and understood, and when they support the deepest concerns and values of followers.
45 The Symbolic Frame Symbolic leaders inspire people to higher levels of performance and commitment; however, this frame can lead to the messiah complex by relying too heavily on symbols. Symbols can be used for dishonest, unethical, and selfserving purposes. Symbolic leaders are effective when they articulate a vision that is widely shared and understood, and when they support the deepest concerns and values of followers. Our People are our greatest Resource
47 People want rules, structure and stability
48 People though, are messy, and the rules need to be interpreted
49 If people are messy, groups of people are even messier. Your people want you to represent.
51 Transformational Leadership Transformational Transforming Ownership Transactional Lets Make a Deal Passive Non-Leadership
68 Servant Leadership Followers Leader
69 Servant Leadership Listening. The leader has a deep commitment to listening intently to others. Listening also encompasses getting in touch with one's own inner voice and seeking to understand what one's body, spirit and mind are communicating. Listening, coupled with regular periods of reflection, is essential to the growth of the servant-leader. Empathy. The servant-leader strives to understand and empathize with others. People need to be accepted and recognized for their special and unique spirits.
70 Servant Leadership Healing. Learning to heal is a powerful force for transformation and integration. One of the great strengths of servant leadership is the potential for healing one's self and others. Awareness. General awareness and especially self-awareness, strengthens the servant-leader. Persuasion. A servant-leader relies on persuasion, rather than using one's positional authority.
71 Servant Leadership Conceptualization. Servant-leaders seek to nurture their abilities to 'dream great dreams'. The ability to look at a problem (or an organization) from a conceptualizing perspective means that one must think beyond day-to-day realities. Foresight. The ability to understand the lessons from the past, the realities of the present, and likely consequences of a decision for the future.
72 Servant Leadership Stewardship. Holding something in trust for another. Commitment to the growth of people. The servant-leader is deeply committed to the growth of each individual within his or her institution. Building community. Among those who work within a given institution.
73 Putting it All Together Work on Extraversion Work on Emotional Stability Work on Political Frame Work on Symbolic Frame Work on Transforming Followers Inspirational Motivation Role Modeling Individualized Consideration Intellectual Stimulation
74 Homework.. Complete the Personality Inventory Complete the Frames Inventory Complete the MLQ Complete the Servant Leadership Inventory
75 Aspects of Leadership Mark T. Green MEd, MBA, MS, PhD Chair, Leadership Studies Our Lady of the Lake University
76 Aspects of Leadership Mark T. Green MEd, MBA, MS, PhD Chair, Leadership Studies Our Lady of the Lake University
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