# ISA HELP BOOKLET AQA SCIENCE NAME: Class:

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1 ISA HELP BOOKLET AQA SCIENCE NAME: Class:

4 PLANNING Research You must write down the full details of any webpage/ website you use. You must write down the title of any book and include the authors and publisher You will be asked to compare 2 sources and say which source was better and why. What should you cover on your planning sheet? consider the variables (independent, dependent and control) that you will need to manage during the investigation Consider the sources used for your research outline two possible methods from your research to investigate the hypothesis give reasons for why one method is preferable to the other o Always include: Independent and dependant Variables What are your controls and why are you controlling them Step by step method that a year 7 can follow Include how you will measure the results and units (Time) How long are you doing the investigation for safety How many repeats will you have identify possible hazards and write down how the risks may be minimised

5 SECTION 1 EXAM PAPER USING YOUR PLANNING SHEET Advice on tables One of the most important parts of investigative science is recording measurements clearly and accurately. This nearly always means organising results in a neat and tidy table. You are probably aware that in your ISA you need to prepare beforehand a blank table ready for use in the ISA practical. This table should be marked by your teacher before you fill in your data. There is one simple rule for tables: they must have quantities and units in headings. Let's take a look at a simple table, with some results added: The above table has clear headings with the quantities measured neatly indicated. However, the units used are only indicated in the first row of table data. This is not accepted and is sloppy presentation. This is much better: This second table is more than enough to get you full marks: the headings all have quantities and units indicated. Furthermore, the student has decided to repeat measurements of the extensions so he can take an average. Brilliant!

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10 DRAWING A GRAPH There are some rules that you must follow when you are drawing a graph. 1) ALWAYS use as much of the graph paper as possible. 2) ALWAYS use a pencil to draw a graph, NEVER pen. 3) ALWAYS make sure that your axes have a consistent scale (e.g. the markings are equally spaced apart i.e. 5 small boxes each or 10 small boxes each etc and go up in 5s or 10s etc. You do not normally need to start your graphs at zero. So if your data runs from 102 to 104 don't start at 0, most of your graph will be empty! Your scales will (almost always) be linear, so that each square represents the same change in value. Scales of three are a little awkward and should be avoided. ALWAYS label your axes. The independent variable will go on the horizontal axis, the dependent variable will go on the vertical axis. 4) Choose a line graph for continuous data (e.g. experiments that produce results that are a range of numbers like temperature, time etc.). Bar graphs are for data that is in categories e.g. dry, damp, hot, cold. 5) Use (X) to mark the points on a line graph NOT 6) Draw a line of best fit to show the pattern of the points, DO NOT connect the points together.

11 SECTION 2 EXAM PAPER USING YOUR RESULTS AND GRAPH FOR ANALYSIS - Describing line graphs Use these words: Vertical axis (dependent variable what you measure) Origin Horizontal axis (dependent variable what you test) Goes up steadily Stays the same Goes down steadily Goes up slowly at first then rapidly Goes up rapidly at first then slowly Reaches a minimum Reaches a maximum

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13 SECTION 2 - EXAM PAPER ANALYSING EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS You will need to use your own results AND (where requested) the secondary results given to you for this task. You will need to discuss the pattern that you see with your results, using your graph. What to say about your conclusions: Causal Link If you change a variable and it has an effect on another variable then there is a causal link between them. The independent variable causes the dependent variable to change. For example: When the voltage across a resistor is increased the current through the resistor increases too. More voltage causes the current to increase. Association If two variables change because of a third variable; it is associated to both variables. For example: It can be seen that when it is rainy it is usually windy, but both are driven by a third variable; changes in atmospheric pressure. Chance When two variables change but there is no link between them. Directly Proportional When the dependent variable is doubled the dependent doubles too. (Straight line graph that goes through the origin.) Linear When the dependent variable increases at a constant rate. (Straight line graph.) Predictable When a clear relationship is established reading outside the range tested can be predicted. Complex A pattern or trend is clear but it is not directly proportional or linear. (A curved line on a graph.)

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