1 Scuola del Gruppo Nazionale di Mineralogia: La fisica dei minerali: implicazioni Casa della Gioventù, Università di Padova Bressanone-Brixen,(BZ), 2-5-febbraio 2015 APPLICATIONS OF MINERAL PHYSICS: THE USE OF ZEOLITES IN SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY HARVESTING Giuseppe Cruciani Department of Physics and Earth Sciences University of Ferrara, Italy
3 La zeolite, il minerale che riscalda ( Zeolite, the heating mineral ) (Geo Scienza, RAI3, November 26 th, 2012)
4 The Magic of Thermal Cooling (http://www.annex34.org/the-magic-of-thermal-cooling) heat from a low T source (solar, geothermal, waste) Heat Pump ice formation useful heating regeneration from high T source useful cooling
5 A few keywords cooling and heating of ambient heat pumps low temperature driving heat renewable energy sources solar thermal energy the magic zeolite water adsorption high temperature regeneration
6 Solar Cooling: a new technology? September 29, 1878 World Exhibition in Paris: Augustin Mouchot produced the first ice block with solar energy using a periodical absorption machine of Edmund Carré
7 History of adsorption machines USA 1929: Silica gel SO 2 adsorption refrigerator Wait for 40 years Vapour compression units and CFC s are dominating the market : New interest in heat driven systems due to oil price shocks, resource limitations : First commercial products, no strong enough to survive 2000-today: Solid products developed in the EU. Many contributions from China and Japan. Still very little in USA Market deployment of solar thermal collectors in Austria (G. Faninger, 2012) Giuseppe Cruciani Harvesting, Storage and Saving of Energy using Microporous Minerals 7 of 30
8 Solar energy applications of chabazite from Bowie (USA) (Tchernev, USA, late 70 s 90 s) 6.75 kg ice/day 100 kg ice/day (Tchernev, 1978) (Tchernev, 1995) Solar heated and cooled house in Denver (Tchernev, 1995)
9 Solar cooling with synthetic NaX (FAU) F. Meunier & co-workers (Paris), late 70 s: NaX (13X) zeolite-water solar refrigerator and 12 m 3 cold store in the south of France (solar COP's in the range of 0.1 corresponding to a gross production of ice inside the evaporator of the order of 7 kg/m 2 of solar collector for an incident solar energy of 22 MJ/m 2 ).
10 Household energy consumption in Europe major part of the energy use in the EU25 is related to applications in heating and cooling which operate at temperatures far below 250 C Solar thermal energy systems will provide up to 50% of low temperature heating, cooling, and hot water demand.
11 Fossil fuels vs. Renewable energy sources Global CO 2 emissions (23,579 million tonnes/year) transport 21% buildings 14% industry 17% power generation 40% air-conditioning systems in Europe was ~11 TWh in 1996, is expected to increase to ~44 TWh by 2020 growth of World energy demand ~55% by 2030, potentially double by 2050
12 Primary & Secondary Energy sources Giuseppe Cruciani Harvesting, Storage and Saving of Energy using Microporous Minerals
13 Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (Brundtland Commission of the United Nations, 1987) It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of 'needs', in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs. Three key questions: What is an appropriate technology? In aiming to better determine the real needs of the people in developing countries and in which way technology can address these needs; How to ensure an integrated sustainable development? In promoting interdisciplinary research and establishing partnerships that bring together various actors in development, public authorities, civil society, industry, and international organizations; What are the conditions for the co-creation and transfer of such technologies? By ensuring through appropriate methods and the exchange of knowledge, the sustainability of the innovations in the field and Giuseppe Cruciani - Applications of mineral physics: the use of zeolites in solar thermal energy that their harvesting impact is beneficial to all.
14 Lack of access to energy at household level 1.4* (1.2 in 2030) billion people lack access to electricity (87% rural areas) 2.7** (2.8 in 2030) billion people rely on the traditional use of solid biomass for cooking (*~20% of global population; ** (*~40% of global population) International Energy Agency (IEA). (2011). Energy poverty. How to make modern energy access universal? Special Early Excerpt of the World Energy Outlook 2010 for the UN General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals.
15 Same technology for the rich and the poor?? International Energy Agency (IEA). (2011). Energy poverty. How to make modern energy access universal? Special Early Excerpt of the World Energy Outlook 2010 for the UN General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals. World s biggest importers of crude oil (in millions of tonnes) Source: IEA Key World Energy Statistics Oct 2011
16 Harvesting Sunlight Immediate use/daily average: Adsorption Heat Pumps (AHP) and Solar Coolers (SC) Seasonal average: Systems for Sorption Heat Storage (SSHS)
17 Rooftop solar heater: a cost effective way to heat water for a single home. Scuola GNM - "La fisica dei minerali: implicazioni The world s largest solar furnace is in Odeillo, France. Its sixty-three moving mirrors collect sunlight and direct it into a huge curved reflector. The reflector focuses a beam onto a spot on top of a tower, where temperatures can reach 3,000 C Solar power station near Toledo, Spain: thousands of solar arrays that supply electricity to the surrounding region. Parabolic mirrors at the Nevada Solar One power plant concentrate heat on pipes that contain oil, heating it to more than 700 degrees Fahrenheit.
18 Market drivers in Solar Thermal applications Scuola GNM - "La fisica dei minerali: implicazioni Solar Thermal Markets 2006 in Europe (Source: ESTIF, 2007) 1. reduce Greenhouse Gas emissions (i.e. Kyoto protocol, 1998) 2. reduce the Ozone Layer depletion (i.e. Montreal protocol, 1988) 3. achieve higher building star rating (access to green tenants) 4. benefit to the electricity system (reduced demand charges) 5. compliance with minimum renewable energy targets
19 Recent systems on the market ~10kg zeolite heating COP close to 1.35 (for water delivered at low T: C) energy saving of the order of 30% or more with respect to a conventional boiler Giuseppe Cruciani Harvesting, Storage and Saving of Energy using Microporous Minerals 19 of 30
20 SELF-COOLING BEER KEG
23 Zeolite heat storage in Munich A. Hauer (2000), ZAE Bayern, Center for Applied Energy Research, Germany Heat a school building in winter and cool a jazz club in summer time Starting operation: 1997/1998 Total cost: euro Pay-back time: 7-8 years
24 Heat Pumps: basic principles 1 st law of thermodynamics useful heating useful cooling (mechanical)
25 Mechanical vs. thermal (chemical) compression
27 Adsorption Heat Pumps (AHP): the thermodynamic cycle ln P Clausius-Clapeyron: 1 T ads, min T des, min H ln P R 4 2 vap 1 (a-b): isosteric heating (preheating) 1 T C 3 T ads, max T des, max -1/T cooling heating thermal compressor 2 (b-c): isobaric desorption and condensation 3 (c-d): isosteric cooling (precooling) 4 (d-a): isobaric adsorption and evaporation
28 Working cycles: typical conditions PREHEATING and DESORPTION adsorber bed PRECOOLING and ADSORPTION adsorber bed Condensation HEAT HEAT condenser HEAT vapor Evaporation evaporator space to be cooled HEAT
29 Advanced adsorption heat pump cycles Uniform temperature adsorber process antiphase operation of multiple adsorber tanks thermal wave cycle (F. Meunier et al. 1997)
30 AHPs: advantages and disadvantages Some important advantages of the AHPs: can directly utilize the primary thermal energy sources (e.g. solar and geothermal energies); can operate with waste heat generated in various industrial processes; can work with low temperature driving energy sources; can be employed as thermal energy storage device; do not contain any hazardous materials (environmental friendly); do not require moving parts for circulation of working fluid; operate without noise and vibration; have long life time; do not require frequent maintenance; have simple principle of working. Major disadvantages of the AHPs: have low COP values; intermittently working principles; require high technology and special designs to maintain high vacuum; have large volume and weight relative to traditional mechanical heat pump systems.
31 AHPs: problems and solutions Major difficulties and problems with the application of AHPs: intermitted principle of working; high technology for working under high vacuum; design of adsorbent bed with coupled heat and mass transfer. Research on AHPs mainly are focused on developing AHP systems which have continuous cooling or heating process; have high COP values; can operate with lower temperature driving energy; have practical design for construction and application; can technically and economically be an alternative to the conventional systems. The ongoing studies on the AHPs can be categorized into three areas: advanced adsorption cycles in order to increase COP, operate with lower temperature driving heat source and provide continuous cooling or heating process; design of an adsorbent bed for appropriate heat and mass transfer; research on adsorbent adsorbate pairs: developing new or promoting the existing materials/pairs in order to increase adsorption rate, enhance COP, decrease the temperature of driving heat source and provide economically competitive solutions.
32 The adsorbent adsorbate pair several pairs have been thoroughly tested and are in use (silica-water, zeolite water, zeolite methanol, activated carbon-methanol, etc.) The working fluid (adsorbate): working fluids must satisfy the Montreal and Kyoto protocols desirable lowest adsorption T; for the adsorption refrigerator is RT (the boiling point should be preferentially higher than 20 C) Water is an excellent working fluid for AHPs: high latent heat of vaporization and a convenient boiling point for ad/desorption cycle (typical operating T range: 80 C -150 C) available in abundance, non-toxic, non-flammable corrosion free, low cost, ease of handling it Major disadvantages: the low volumetric heat capacity (kj/m 3 ) large compressors, especially at low T extremely low saturation pressure impossible to produce evaporator temperature below 0 C.
33 Goldschmidt GEOLIFE - Geomaterials for environment, technology and human activities Adsorption on zeolites Zeolites and similar microporous minerals (and their synthetic analogues) are among the most suited adsorbing materials Exothermic enthalpy of hydration stabilizing from the thermodynamic viewpoint the otherwise metastable anhydrous zeolite structure (Navrotsky et al. 2009) endothermic nature of the dehydration phenomenon. Adsorption process in microporous minerals (zeolites and zeolite-like) is of purely physical nature ( physisorption ): weak interactions between sorbates and zeolite framework, sorbates and zeolite cations, and sorbate-sorbate interactions: short-range van der Waals forces dispersion London forces long-range electrical coulombic forces (polarization, field dipole and field quadrupole interactions) H-bonds between sorbate (i.e., water) and framework O atoms complexation of sorbate with Broensted acid sites (imp. in catalysis) complexation of sorbate electrons with sorbent active sites (fully) reversible ad/desorption some zeolite structures are not affected by adsorption and thermal regeneration processes.
34 The zeolite-water pair for AHPs The zeolite-water pair is one of the most preferred adsorbent adsorbate pairs in AHPs: extremely non-linear pressure dependence of its adsorption isotherms (isotherms saturate at low partial pressure, after which the amount adsorbed becomes almost independent of pressure) at ambient temperature zeolite can adsorb most of the vapour even at high partial pressure, (i.e. high condenser temperature). especially important in the case where a high condenser temperature and only a moderate regeneration temperature might be employed. surface sorbents (e.g. activated carbons, silica gel) adsorption depends exponentially on H/RT microporous materials (e.g. zeolites) adsorption depends exponentially on the 2 nd to the 5 th powers of H/RT
35 Nature of water in zeolites Three types suggested by Bish & Carey (2001): H 2 O continuously varying in content as a function of T and P ( true zeolitic water); H 2 O with discontinuous changes at a unique T for a given P ( similar to that in hydrates, e.g. gypsum); H 2 O sorbed to external surfaces. Water loss as a continuous function of T (or P) does not imply that H 2 O is present in a range of energies; Energetic type of H 2 O do not necessarily correspond to distinct crystallographic sites; H 2 O confined in zeolite pores show ice-like character.
36 Ice-like water confined in zeolite pores Hemingway & Robie, 1984 Geiger et al. (2010) Giuseppe Cruciani Harvesting, Storage and Saving of Energy using Microporous Minerals
37 Water and cation distribution in Li-LSX (A. Wozniak et al., 2008) Li cations at sites SII C and SIII and the first adsorbed water molecule at site W3 at low hydration of Li-LSX zeolite (8 D 2 O). Water network in the fully hydrated Li-LSX Network of W4, W5, and W6 in the super cage representing a section of the cubic Ice Ic structure. The very first water molecules which were added to the dehydrated Li-LSX material are positioned at site W3 close to the asymmetrically coordinated Li+(SIII). The cations at SIII are only weakly shielded by framework oxygen atoms and obviously present the energetically most attractive site for the water dipoles.
38 Desired adsorbent for AHPs New generation of adsorption machines requires novel adsorbent materials with optimal adsorption properties Very narrow operating range at low humidity
39 Universal relation between the three cycle T From the Truton s rule or the Polaniy principle of temperature invariance (Aristov et al., 2008)
40 Search for optimal zeolite for solar apps different solutions for different tasks, depending on: levels of 3T cycle time scale of the heat storage climatic conditions social conditions much research needed on materials: reduce the costs increase the energy storage density increase the efficiency increase the stability understand the structure interaction with cations test the (hydro)thermal stability under operating conditions explored strategies: novel synthetic materials best performances costly!!! characterization of natural zeolites performances? cost effective! ion exchange/chemical or physical upgrading developing composites/supports finishing/shaping to improve the mass and heat transport properties
41 What are zeolites? Primary Building Units (PBUs) Secondary Building Units (SBUs) Cages
42 Factors controlling adsorption (and diffusion) in zeolites and microporous materials For different zeolites (and zeolite-like materials) and a given adsorbate: framework density (FD) and topology T-atom substitution(s): Si by Al, P, Ti, Ga, Co, Zn,... Si/Al ratio (Si/Al = 8 is the cut-off between hydrophilic and hydrophobic) number of compensating E-F cations type and size of E-F cations location and accessibility of extra-framework (E-F) cations (minimal shielding by zeolite framework) size of windows (lower diffusion activation energy with larger rings) For the same zeolite, different adsorbate: molecular polarity (molecules with large polarity or polarizability are adsorbed preferentially under identical conditions) For the same zeolite and adsorbate: working temperature thermal activation profile
43 More than 200 framework topologies CHA topology FAU topology (X,Y)
44 Water content: effects of FD and E-F (Breck, 1974) Void fraction vs. FD Water content vs. ionic strengh and size of E-F cation Water Saturation Capacity vs. FD (Barrer, 1982) Clinoptilolite (Bish, 1988) Zeolite RHO (Barrer, 1982)
45 Thermal curves of chabazites TG, DTG, and curves of natural chabazites (Gottardi & Galli, 1985) DTA and TG curves of exchanged chabazites (Barrer and Langley, 1958) Affinity for water: Ca>Li>Na>K,Rb>Cs a) Sr-, Al-rich b) Na-rich c) Ca-rich
46 Heats of hydration/adsorption 1: 0.5 cat./large cage 2: 2 cat./large cage 3: 6 cat./large cage Heats of adsorption of water for zeolite 13X (Breck, 1974) Heats of hydration for zeolite 13X (Breck, 1974) Molar enthalpy of hydration vs. the ratio of Al content to the water molecules at saturation (Carey and Navrotsky, 1982)
47 Tested microporous materials for solar energy Silica gel (for comparison) Classical (Si/Al) zeolites Zeotype (Silico)Alumino phosphates Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) (Henninger et al. 2010)
48 Effects of thermal activation in zeolite Ag-LSX (Hutson et al., 2000) Ag-LSX (a) after drying at RT followed by vacuum dehydration at 450 C (b) after drying at RT followed by vacuum dehydration at 350 C (c) after drying in air at 100 C followed by vacuum dehydration at 350 C (d) after drying in air at 100 C followed by heat-treatment in air at 450 C and finally vacuum dehydration at 450 C.
49 Reversible dehydration TG /% TG /% After 30 dehydration cycles Variaz. di massa: % 90 Variaz. di massa: % Tempo /min DTA /(uv/mg) Temperatura / C exo  DTA 0.04/(uV/mg) Temperatura / C 0.02 exo  Tempo /min
50 Thermal stability upon ad/desorption cycles (Henninger et al. 2011)
51 Zeotype microporous phosphates FAM (Functional Adsorbent Materials) by Mitsubishi Chemical
52 Best performance zeotype materials (from H. Kakiuchi, Mitsubishi Chemical)
54 Thermally induced changes in zeolites Upon water removal (by heating), zeolites may undergo different kinds of structural changes: 1. Cell volume contraction due to the removal of water and/or templating organic molecules (dehydration and calcination) 2. Displacive or reconstructive phase transformation(s) to more or less metastable phase(s) 3. Dealumination 4. Breaking (and new formation) of T-O-T bonds 5. Negative thermal expansion (NTE) 6. Zeolite collapse ( collapsed zeolites retain sorption properties and a recognizable XRD patterns) 7. Polyamorphism 8. Structural breakdown (i.e. complete amorphization or recrystallization)
55 Factors controlling zeolite thermal stability no simple rules several extrinsic factors (relative umidity, near- or farther-from-equilibrium conditions, heating rate, surrounding atmosphere, crystallite size, etc.) known/suggested intrinsic factors: i. the framework Si/Al ratio (Si, Al ordering?); ii. the size and ionic potential (Z/r) of exchangeable (chargecompensating) cations; iii. the framework topology: denser frameworks, more stable; open channels (10- and 12MRs), less stable?; regular n-rings, more stable than distorted or twisted rings with same n; collapsible or non-collapsible (co- or anti-rotating hinges) frameworks?; 3MRs (highly strained), less stable?; 4MRs (with constraints on Si-O-Si angles), less stable?; D4Rs (in most cases requiring fluoride route), less stable? 5MRs more energetically stable?; presence of specific sub-units (e.g. pillars of 5-rings or double 6-rings)? iv. the coordination of bare cations after water expulsion.
56 Structural behavior upon heating by XRD ex-situ single crystal X-ray diffraction isothermal method conditions not far from the equilibrium; temperature and vacuum effects not easily discriminated; single crystals mosaicity only a few snapshot of the process. in-situ single crystal X-ray diffraction high-quality in-situ and near-equilibrium conditions; still limited number of snapshots over the heating process. in-situ time-resolved powder diffraction + Rietveld synchrotron X-rays (or neutrons); dynamic heating conditions far from the equilibrium; continuous picture of the zeolite structural response to dehydration; record non-quenchable structural modifications.
57 Thermal behavior of chabazite DTA and TG curves of chabazite (Van Reeuwijk, 1974) Continuous-heating X-ray diffraction of chabazite using Guinier-Lennè XRD powder photographs (Van Reeuwijk, 1974)
58 Energetics of hydration/dehydration of chabazite (C. Fialips et al.2004)
59 Cation migration upon dehydration in chabazite (M. Zema et al. 2008) C2 C4 C1 C3 (Ca 1.1,Na 0.4,K 0.7 )Al 3.4 Si 8.6 O H 2 O. C1: green C2: blue C3: brown C4: orange C5: purple discontinuities at 100 C and 200 C structural modifications are almost complete at 250 C breakdown of Ca/Na solvated ion at C3 whole process reversible under the study conditions
60 Thermal behavior of CHA-type willhendersonite (R.X. Fischer et al. 2008) Unit-cell parameters as a function of T under dry nitrogen (white squares) and under humid air (gray squares) K x Ca 3-x Al 6 Si 6 O 24 10H 2 O Ca coordination at RT (a) and 150 C (b) transition from triclinic to rhombohedral symmetry upon dehydration due to cation migrations partly to low-coordinated sites relaxation of the elliptically deformed 6-rings of TO tetrahedra to a more circular shape. in contrast to chabazite (same topology disordered T atoms) the 6-rings in the D6R units are twisted relative to each other in the HT form. transition temperature depends on the degree of humidity: from ~100 C (dry N 2 ) to ~200 C (humid air)
61 Energy Storage Density (Tchernev, 2001)
63 Relative merits of CHA and 13X (according to Tchernev) Zeolite 13X with working T like in SC, the use of natural chabazite is a costeffective alternative to synthetic NaX (13X) which in turn remains to be preferred for the long-term SHS (Tchernev, 2001) (Tchernev, 2000)
64 Chemical upgrading of natural chabazite (Kuznicki et al, 2007) upgraded raw prolonged digestion in an alkaline silicate mixture at temperatures varying from 60ºC to 100ºC for periods of 4 to 48 h elemental composition of purified chabazite resembling the original components at Si/Al 3.0
65 Worldwide distribution of chabazite deposits chabazite (http://www.mirofoss.com/minerals/mineral_silicates/mineral_frames/chabazite_frame.html)
66 Scuola GNM - "La fisica dei minerali: implicazioni Worldwide distribution of zeolite deposits currently, the world s annual production of natural zeolites is about 4 million tons the most important deposits are in the United States, Mexico, Ukraine, Slovakia, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Russia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Georgia, Armenia, Cuba and Croatia
67 The annual global solar radiation Global annual solar radiation (kwh m -2 yr -1 ).
69 Solar adsorption refrigerators commercially available on the market. Brissoneau et Lotz-Marine (BLM) system (daily ice production 5.5 kg) ~US $1500 The Zeopower refrigerator ~ US $1700 per unit EG Solar refrigerator ~ 900 Solaref refrigerator (based on the design developed by Dind et al. 2005), intended to be mainly commercialized in Africa, between 2600 and 3700
71 (1) solar powered zeolite 4A-water adsorption refrigerator using an array of two concentrating parabolic collectors with m 2 areas and 1.8 concentration ratio (2) hourly instantaneous COP ranges from 0.2 to 2.5; hourly insolation ranges from 34 W/m 2 to 345 W/m 2. Evaporator temperature of 11 C and maximum adsorber temperature of 110 C. Minimum daily hourly mean COP of with the corresponding maximum COP value of (2) total mean daily-hourly insolation of 170 W/m 2.
72 Not patented systems design by Needful Provision, Inc. (NPI) to meet food storage needs for remote areas and poor families not intended to be a commercial system effort made to avoid any possible patent infringement related to existing, somewhat similar, commercial solar powered refrigerators vacuum hand-pump is used to help maintain a partial vacuum no power other than solar
73 Solar-powered ice maker by a team of students from King's College in London. Ice maker designed by engineering students from San Jose State University.
74 Conclusions and future outlooks ready to start for a 4 th zeolite-supported solar boom matching market-driven (sophisticated) with cheap (potentially accessible to everyone) technologies? mature technology but still much work to be done on materials close cooperation (and mutual understanding) between thermal engineers and mineral scientists required natural zeolites might provide cheap and sustainable solutions to SC in developed and developing countries
75 Acknowledgements People: Davide Casotti & Matteo Ardit (UniFe) help with the live experiment Luigi Crema & Alessandro Bozzoli (REET group, FBK, Trento) and Andreas Hauer (Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research, ZAE Bayern, Munich), for useful discussion Funding: project SolTec Agenzia Provinciale per l Energia (APE) Trento project SoWaZe (GEO-TECH) MIUR-PRIN Giuseppe Cruciani Harvesting, Storage and Saving of Energy using Microporous Minerals 78 of 30
Project No TREN/FP7EN/218952 ALONE small scale solar cooling device Collaborative Project Small or Medium-scale Focused Research Project DELIVERABLE D5.2 Start date of the project: October 2008, Duration:
Evaluation of mobile storage systems for heat transport G. Storch, A. Hauer, A. Krönauer ZAE Bayern, Walther-Meißner-Str. 6, 85748 Garching, Germany Outline Introduction Mobile Storage Units Case Studies:
CHAPTER 7 THE DEHYDRATION AND SWEETENING OF NATURAL GAS Natural gases either from natural production or storage reservoirs contain water, which condense and form solid gas hydrates to block pipeline flow
Vicot Solar Air Conditioning V i c o t A i r C o n d i t i o n i n g C o., l t d Tel: 86-531-8235 5576 Fax: 86-531-82357911 Http://www.vicot.com.cn Cooling, heating, and domestic hot water. Return on investment
CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy
Solar Thermal TECHNOLOGY Eric Buchanan Renewable Energy Scientist West Central Research and Outreach Center Wcroc.cfans.umn.edu Solar Energy History Solar Thermal 700 BC Chinese use burning mirrors 1760
A car air-conditioning system based on an absorption refrigeration cycle using energy from exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine G Vicatos J Gryzagoridis S Wang Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Energy savings in commercial refrigeration equipment : Low pressure control August 2011/White paper by Christophe Borlein AFF and l IIF-IIR member Make the most of your energy Summary Executive summary
GEOL 2311 Midquarter Exam I Name Crystal Chemistry Score: / 100 1. Chose a subdiscipline of geology and describe how mineralogy plays a central role in that field. (2 pts) Looking for reasonable answers
Renewable Energy 23 (2001) 93 101 www.elsevier.nl/locate/renene Solar/waste heat driven two-stage adsorption chiller: the prototype B.B. Saha *, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi Department of Mechanical Systems
The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type
Training programme on Energy Efficient technologies for climate change mitigation in Southeast Asia Cogeneration Session Agenda: Cogeneration Introduction Types of steam turbine cogeneration system Types
1 Why? Chapter 1 Intermolecular Forces and Liquids Why is water usually a liquid and not a gas? Why does liquid water boil at such a high temperature for such a small molecule? Why does ice float on water?
1 Chapter 10 Liquids & Solids * 10.1 Polar Covalent Bonds & Dipole Moments - van der Waals constant for water (a = 5.28 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) vs O 2 (a = 1.36 L 2 atm/mol 2 ) -- water is polar (draw diagram)
FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS System: Quantity of matter (constant mass) or region in space (constant volume) chosen for study. Closed system: Can exchange energy but not mass; mass is constant
Feasibility Study for Mobile Sorption Storage in Industrial Applications G. Storch, A. Hauer ZAE Bayern Bavarian Center for Applied Energy Research Motivation Aim: waste heat usage for better overall efficiency
Module 2.2 Heat transfer mechanisms Learning Outcomes On successful completion of this module learners will be able to - Describe the 1 st and 2 nd laws of thermodynamics. - Describe heat transfer mechanisms.
INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chapter 13 Liquids and Solids by Christopher Hamaker 1 Chapter 13 Properties of Liquids Unlike gases, liquids do
GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION A PRIMER ON LOW-TEMPERATURE, SMALL-SCALE APPLICATIONS by Kevin Rafferty Geo-Heat Center January 2000 REALITY CHECK Owners of low-temperature geothermal resources are often interested
P a g e 1 Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Generating Electrical Energy Using Moving Water: Hydro-Electric Generation
The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase When are interparticle forces important? Ron Robertson Kinetic Theory A. Principles Matter is composed of particles in constant, random, motion Particles collide elastically
An Energy Efficient Air Conditioner System without Compressor: Application of Embedded System Poonam Shelke 1, Gajanan Malwatkar 2 Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Dnyanganga
Collector field Technological developments and market perspectives for renewable energy cooling systems Prof.Dr.habil. Ursula Eicker Centre of Applied Research Sustainable Energy Technology zafh.net University
Chapter 3.4: HVAC & Refrigeration System Part I: Objective type questions and answers 1. One ton of refrigeration (TR) is equal to. a) Kcal/h b) 3.51 kw c) 120oo BTU/h d) all 2. The driving force for refrigeration
FACTS ABOUT CLIMATE CHANGE 1. What is climate change? Climate change is a long-term shift in the climate of a specific location, region or planet. The shift is measured by changes in features associated
VGB Congress Power Plants 2001 Brussels October 10 to 12, 2001 Solar Power Photovoltaics or Solar Thermal Power Plants? Volker Quaschning 1), Manuel Blanco Muriel 2) 1) DLR, Plataforma Solar de Almería,
A NEW DESICCANT EVAPORATIVE COOLING CYCLE FOR SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING AND HOT WATER HEATING John Archibald American Solar Roofing Company 8703 Chippendale Court Annandale, Va. 22003 e-mail: email@example.com
The impact Equation where scientists and engineers fit in the picture In a series of papers in 1970-74, Paul Ehrlich and John Holdren proposed the following equation to estimate the overall impact of our
Field test of a novel combined solar thermal and system with an ice store Anja Loose Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering (ITW), Research and Testing Centre for Thermal Solar Systems (TZS),
10 Nuclear Power Reactors Figure 10.1 89 10.1 What is a Nuclear Power Station? The purpose of a power station is to generate electricity safely reliably and economically. Figure 10.1 is the schematic of
VIESMANN Sustainable water heating solutions through solar systems Murat Aydemir Managing Director Viessmann Middle East FZE Viessmann is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects
.1.1 Measure the motion of objects to understand.1.1 Develop graphical, the relationships among distance, velocity and mathematical, and pictorial acceleration. Develop deeper understanding through representations
Minerals in granite The igneous rock granite is composed of many separate grains of several main minerals Figure 2.1 What is a mineral? Naturally occurring solid Specific chemical composition Crystal structure
ENERGY PRODUCING SYSTEMS SOLAR POWER INTRODUCTION Energy from the sun falls on our planet on a daily basis. The warmth of the sun creates conditions on earth conducive to life. The weather patterns that
Nitrogen Gas Adsorption in Zeolites 13X and 5A H. Melissa Magee Mentored by Professor N. S. Sullivan Walla Walla University, 24 S. College Ave., College Place, WA 99324 Abstract. Since the discovery of
Exam 2 CHEM 1100 Version #1 Student: 1. The heat energy released or absorbed by a chemical reaction is generally determined by the difference between the energy that A. must be put in to break the bonds
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 6, Issue 12, Dec 2015, pp. 73-80, Article ID: IJMET_06_12_008 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?jtype=ijmet&vtype=6&itype=12
Exergy: the quality of energy N. Woudstra Introduction Characteristic for our society is a massive consumption of goods and energy. Continuation of this way of life in the long term is only possible if
- New technical solutions for energy efficient buildings State of the Art Report New technologies for heat pumps Authors: Heimo Staller, Angelika Tisch, IFZ Oct. 2010 Background Heat pumps are machines
Thermal Storage: Challenges and Opportunities Ravi Prasher Sheetak Inc., Austin, Texas 1 Thermal 2 Residential and Commercial Buildings Buildings use 72% of the U.S. electricity and 55% of the its natural
Modern Construction Materials Prof. Ravindra Gettu Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Module - 2 Lecture - 2 Part 2 of 2 Review of Atomic Bonding II We will continue
Study on the performance of air conditioning system combining heat pipe and vapor compression based on ground source energy-bus for commercial buildings in north China Yijun Gao, Wei Wu, Zongwei Han, Xianting
Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared
Objectives MAE 320 - Chapter 6 The Second Law of Thermodynamics The content and the pictures are from the text book: Çengel, Y. A. and Boles, M. A., Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill,
Technologies and Perspectives of Solar Cooling Systems AHK Conference Sydney, Australia, 24 th March 2014 www.efficiency-from-germany.info Dr. Uli Jakob Solem Consulting / Green Chiller Association for
Solar Energy Systems Energy Needs Today s global demand for energy is approximately 15 terawatts and is growing rapidly Much of the U.S. energy needs are now satisfied from petroleum (heating, cooling,
1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated
Int. J. Mech. Eng. & Rob. Res. 213 Jyoti Soni and R C Gupta, 213 Research Paper ISSN 2278 149 www.ijmerr.com Vol. 2, No. 1, January 213 213 IJMERR. All Rights Reserved PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF VAPOUR COMPRESSION
Applied Thermodynamics for Marine Systems Prof. P. K. Das Department of Mechanical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 1 Introduction & Some Definitions Good afternoon everybody.
The Physics and Chemistry of Water 1 The water molecule and hydrogen bonds in water Stoichiometric composition H 2 O the average lifetime of a molecule is 1 ms due to proton exchange (catalysed by acids
CHP Plant based on a Hybrid Biomass and Solar System of the Next Generation EU project No. ENER/FP7/249800/"SUNSTORE 4" Dipl.-Ing. Alfred Hammerschmid BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Austria TEL.: +43 (316)
IEA ECES and IEA SHC joint workshop» - Solar Heating and Cooling and Energy Storage«November 8, 2011, University Rosenheim, Germany Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of solar cooling systems Marco Beccali Dipartimento
An Overview of Solar Assisted Air-Conditioning System Application in Small Office Buildings in Malaysia LIM CHIN HAW 1 *, KAMARUZZAMAN SOPIAN 2, YUSOF SULAIMAN 3 Solar Energy Research Institute, University
International Journal of Students Research in Technology & Management Exergy Analysis of Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Using R12 and R134a as Refrigerants Mohan Chandrasekharan #1 # Department
TECHNICAL INFORMATION ABOUT NATURAL GAS CLEANING AND TREATMENT I / 13 1 Natural Gas Cleaning and Treatment EDL and DBI are able to offer the basic and detail engineering including selection of technology
Adsorption at Surfaces Adsorption is the accumulation of particles (adsorbate) at a surface (adsorbent or substrate). The reverse process is called desorption. fractional surface coverage: θ = Number of
Creating Efficient HVAC Systems Heating and Cooling Fundamentals for Commercial Buildings Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems account for nearly half of the energy used in a typical
Characteriza*on of Lignocellulosics by Using Separa*on of Fibre Surface Layers and Nitrogen Sorp*on Latvian State Ins,tute of Wood Chemistry COST FP1105 in Stockholm Fibres surface layers separa,on procedure
Energy Resources Stations Activity Page # 1 Station #1 Interpreting Infographs 1. Identify and explain each of the energy sources (5) illustrated in the infograph. 2. What do the white and black circles
Nuclear power is part of the solution for fighting climate change "Nuclear for Climate" is an initiative undertaken by the members of the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), the American Nuclear Society
Working Fluid Developments for HT Heat Pumps and ORC Systems at Renewable Energy, Heating and Cooling Applications -Created by- Chillventa 2010 July 2010 Contents Waste Heat Recovery What does it mean?
GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS ARE RED HOT BUT ARE THEY REALLY GREEN? Richard C. Niess 1 Gilbert & Associates / Apogee Interactive, Inc., Gloucester Point, Virginia 23062 Phone & Fax (804) 642 0400 ABSTRACT
Matter, Materials, Crystal Structure and Bonding Chris J. Pickard Why should a theorist care? Where the atoms are determines what they do Where the atoms can be determines what we can do Overview of Structure
Sixth Grade Energy, Heat, and Energy Transfer Assessment 1a. Which of the following is not one of the six forms of energy? Circle the answer. electrical chemical petroleum wave (light, sound) mechanical
Phase diagram of water Note: for H 2 O melting point decreases with increasing pressure, for CO 2 melting point increases with increasing pressure. WATER Covers ~ 70% of the earth s surface Life on earth
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 The Fremont School District uses oil to heat school buildings. Go Green! is a new project the district will implement. The superintendent has
UNEP Ozone Secretariat UNEP Ozone Secretariat Background Workshop Material on HFC for management: HFC Workshop, technical 2015 issues Bangkok, 20 and 21 April 2015 FACT SHEET 15 Glossary of terms and technical
Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Stage 4 Design & Technology FW4DT1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep
International Conference Energy Autonomy through Storage of Renewable Energies by EUROSOLAR and WCRE October 30 and 31, 2006 Gelsenkirchen / Germany Physics and Economy of Energy Storage Ulf Bossel European
Renewable Heat Pumps A guide for the technically minded How do heat pumps work? A heat pump is an environmental energy technology that extracts heat from low temperature sources (air, water, ground), upgrades
Kinetic Energy and (Kelvin) Temperature Temperature is a Kinetic Energy and (Kelvin) Temperature(2) The Kelvin temperature scale is called the Absolute Zero - Zero degrees on the 1. Highly 2. Low 3. Fills
42 The Open Renewable Energy Journal, 2011, 4, 42-46 A Critical Review of Thermochemical Energy Storage Systems Open Access Ali H. Abedin and Marc A. Rosen 1, * Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science,
Practice Test 1) Increase the pressure in a container of oxygen gas while keeping the temperature constant and you increase the A) molecular speed. B) molecular kinetic energy. C) Choice A and choice B
THERMOCHEMICAL SEASONAL SOLAR HEAT STORAGE WITH MgCl 2.6H 2 O: FIRST UPSCALING OF THE REACTOR H.A. Zondag 1,2, B.W.J. Kikkert 1, S. Smeding 1 and M. Bakker 1 1 ECN, Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands,