Surface Area and Porosity

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Surface Area and Porosity"

Transcription

1 Surface Area and Porosity 1 Background Techniques Surface area Outline Total - physical adsorption External Porosity meso micro 2

2 Length 1 Å 1 nm 1 µm mm macro meso micro metal crystallite 1-1 m 1-9 m 1-8 m 1-7 m 1-6 m 1-5 m 1-4 m 1-3 m C-C bond Carbon nanotube cell membrane red blood cell human hair red ant Transistor gate 3 Techniques Mercury intrusion Physical Chemical Temperature Programmed Methods 4

3 Physical 5 Characterization via Material Characterization Physical properties Differentiate Gas Quantity adsorbed on a surface as a function of pressure, volume, and temperature Modeled properties Surface area Pore structure Non-destructuve 6

4 Static V X P X G X 7 Quantity adsorbed - always normalized for mass - cm 3 /g or moles/g Relative pressure - equilibrium pressure divided by saturation pressure - Equilibrium pressure - vapor pressure above the sample - corrected for temperature (thermal transpiration) Saturation pressure - vapor pressure above a liquid Surface energy - solid/fluid interaction, strength, and heterogeneity 8

5 Sample Preparation Clean the surface Remove volatiles Water CO2 Solvents Controlled environment! Inert purge or vacuum Temperature control Avoid Phase Changes 9 Physical Molecules from the gas phase strike the surface. At equilibrium the molecule adsorbs, lose the heat of adsorption, and subsequently desorb from surface. At equilibrium the rate of condensation = the rate of desorption Constant surface coverage at equilibrium. Surface features change the adsorption potential. Surface area models neglect the effects of localized phenomenon. Curve surfaces or roughness provide enhanced adsorption potential. 1

6 Physical Not activated (no barrier) Rapid Weak (< 38 kj/mol) Atomic/Molecular Reversible Non-specific May form multilayers van der Waals/dipole interactions Often measured near the condensation temperature Potential Energy, kj/mol Distance from Surface, Å 11 Chemical Potential Energy, kj/mol May be activated Covalent, metallic, ionic Strong (> 35 kj/mol) May be dissociative Often irreversible Specific - surface symmetry Distance from Surface, Å Limited to a monolayer Wide temperature range 12

7 Isotherm Types I II III n ads IV V VI Constant temperature Quantity adsorbed as a function of pressure Vacuum to atmospheric P Six classifications Quantity is normalized for sample mass 13 Classical View of As the system pressure is increased the formation of a monolayer may be observed. A IV q ads A 14

8 Adsorbed Layer Density The first layer begins to form below 1x1-4 The density continues to increase with pressure/adsorption The monolayer is completed below.1 15 Classical View of As the system pressure is increased (gas concentration also increases) multiple layers sorb to the surface. A B IV q ads A B 16

9 Adsorbed Layer Density The monolayer is completed below.1 The second layer continues to form as pressure is increased The third layer appears at <.5 p/ p o 17 Classical View of As pressure is further increased we may observe capillary condensation in mesopores. A B-C IV q ads A B C 18

10 Adsorbed Layer Density Layer formation continues as increases As approaches 1, the density becomes constant or nearly liquid-like 19 Classical View of As pressure approaches the saturation pressure, the pores are filled and we may estimate total pore volume. A B-C D IV D q ads A B C 2

11 Adsorptives Nitrogen Argon Krypton 21 Nitrogen Broad usage Surface area t-plot Pore size distributions BJH - bulk fluid properties NLDFT - excess density Limitations Strong interactions Slow diffusion <.5 nm pores Reduced precision for materials with < 1m 2 /g (1µmol/g monolayer) 22

12 25 ZSM-5 Faujasite 2 V ads, cm 3 /g e-8 1e-7 1e-6 1e Confinement 23 Argon Pore size distributions H-K calculations Benefits NLDFT - excess density Reduced interaction compared to N2 Molecular size < N 2 and faster diffusion due to size and T (87K) Limitations Ar molecular area not a generally accepted value Statistical t-curves based upon N2 Not used for BJH - bulk fluid methods 24

13 25 2 Nitrogen Argon Faujasite (H + ) V ads, cm 3 /g e-7 1e-6 1e Y zeolite, Ar Nitrogen Argon ZSM-5 (LN 2 ) V ads, cm 3 /g e-8 1e-7 1e-6 1e ZSM-5, Ar 26

14 14 12 Desorption 1 V ads, cm 3 /g e-7 1e-6 1e ZSM-5 Low P Desorption 27 Krypton Surface area estimates - BET Low specific surface area (< 1m 2 /g) Low absolute area - limited sample quantity Benefits High precision, low pressure analysis Limitations Pressure range limited to < 1 torr at 77 K (<.3 ) General agreement with N2 Cost Limited to surface area applications 28

15 Error analysis Gas Law calculations Error Typical values Relative error 29 Error Reduction Probe Temperature, K Reference P ratio Relative Error Ar 77 N2 2/76.26 Kr 77 N2 2.4/76.3 Kr 87 Ar 5/76.7 3

16 Surface Area 31 Surface Area Area from adsorption n m - monolayer N A - Avogadro s number Total area - physical adsorption area of adsorbed molecule - nitrogen or krypton Active area - chemical adsorption area of a surface site - metal atom Stoichiometry 32

17 Type I Isotherm - Langmuir Isotherm Mono-layer adsorption Chemical I Micropore filling n ads Finely divided surface Limiting amount adsorbed as approaches 1 P 33 Langmuir Reduces to the familiar form of the Langmuir equation for associative adsorption At low coverage, the Langmuir equation converges with Henry s Law 34

18 Nitrogen adsorption on Graphitized Carbon n ads, (mmoles/m 2 )/g n ads, (mmoles/m 2 )/g Henry s Law Desorption.1 1e P.1 Henry s Law - Sterling FT Carbopack F - MIC Carbopack F - Kruk Sterling FT - MIC CarboPack F 6 m 2 /g Sterling FT 1 m 2 /g Henry s law constant 19 (mmols/m 2 ) / atm 1e-5 1e-6 1e P 35 Langmuir Estimate of nm Quantity Adsorbed, cm 3 /g X Zeolite,.8nm pores X X Langmuir Transformation, 13x Zeolite 62 m 2 /g p/q, mmhg/(cm 3 /g STP) Pressure, mmhg 36

19 Type II Isotherm Non-porous Macro-porous II Flat Surfaces Uniform surface energy n ads Multilayer adsorption Infinite adsorption as pressure approaches saturation P 37 BET Surface Area Estimate monolayer capacity Multi-layer adsorption Non-porous, Uniform surface Heat of adsorption for the first layer is higher than successive layers. Heat of adsorption for second and successive layers equals the heat of liquefaction Lateral interactions of adsorbed molecules are ignored 38

20 NLDFT estimate for the density of the adsorbed layers ρ p =.99 p =.9 p =.7 p =.5 p =.2 p =.1 p =.1 p =.1 p =.2 p = The density varies with distance from the surface. This is contrast to BET assumptions However, at.5 p/po there are only 3 layers σ 39 BET Equation Similar to Langmuir - a mass balance for each layer is used The first layer is unique and subsequent layers are common E is the heat of liquefaction An infinite series is formed The sum of surface fractions is 1 The total quantity adsorbed is a function of the monolayer and the surface fractions The multilayer may approach infinite thickness as pressure approaches saturation 4

21 BET Equation Linear form of BET 41 BET surface area 42

22 BET estimate of nm Quantity Adsorbed, cm 3 /g Desorption Silica, 1nm pores Linear BET, Lichrosphere 1 1 nm SiO Lic m 2 /g 1/Q(p o /p-1) Relative Pressure, 43 Type IV Isotherm Meso-porous IV Multilayer adsorption n ads Capillary condensation P 44

23 Amorphous Silica-Alumina Quantity adsorbed, cm 3 /g Desorption Amorphous Silica Alumina, 11nm pores BET Surface Area = m 2 /g.6 11 nm pores m 2 /g 1/(q ads (p o /p - 1)) Silica, 4 nm pores MCM-41 Quantity adsorbed, cm 3 /g Desorption BET Surface Area = nm pores m 2 /g 1/(q ads (p o /p - 1))

24 SiO2 SiO2-Al2O3 MCM-41 1 nm pores 25.7 m 2 /g 11 nm pores m 2 /g 4 nm pores m 2 /g Silica, 1nm pores Amorphous Silica Alumina, 11nm pores Silica, 4 nm pores 4 35 Desorption 45 4 Desorption 6 5 Desorption Quantity Adsorbed, cm 3 /g Quantity adsorbed, cm 3 /g Quantity adsorbed, cm 3 /g Fluid Cracking Catalyst,.8nm pores FCC catalyst Quantity Adsorbed, cm 3 /g Desorption BET Surface Area = m 2 /g Y & binder m 2 /g 1/(q ads (p o /p - 1)) BET range reduced to.16 maximum

25 FCC 49 FCC - Rouquerol 5

26 BET surface area summary Nitrogen or Krypton Krypton for low surface area or small sample quantity Isotherm LP to.3 p/p Adjust range used to fit BET parameters for µ-porous materials - Rouquerol transform C must be + Physical constraint Linearity 51 External Surface Area 52

27 t-plot Standard Isotherms Monolayer region is sensitive to isotherm shape Multilayer region is not sensitive to isotherm shape Multilayer region is less dependent on the adsorbent structure IV q ads A B C 53 t-plot Standard Isotherms n ads thickness, Å thickness, Å Slope of a linear region corresponds to area Intercept from a linear region is a pore volume Based on BET surface area 54

28 t-plot Standard Isotherms External Area n ads Flat Surface µ Pore Vol thickness, Å thickness, Å Slope corresponds to external (matrix) area Intercept is the micro pore volume t-curve is critical Statistical curves give comparative results Reference curves are preferred 55 t-plot Standard Isotherms External Area External Area n ads Meso Pore Vol µ Pore Vol Flat Surface Pore Area Flat Surface thickness, Å thickness, Å Low t slope is area Intercept is meso pore volume High t slope is external area 56

29 Halsey BJH Statistical t-curves Harkins-Jura t-plot Jaroniec et. al. Silica Broehkhoff de Boer difficult to use near saturation Thickness, angstroms Halsey Harkins and Jura Jaroniec et. al. Broekhoff de Boer t-plot 58

30 Surface Modifications Quantity Adsorbed, cm 3 /g Desorption Silica, 1nm pores 5 The reference surface may be modified to be similar to the porous material Hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic Thickness, angstroms DFT ODMS t-plot for 13X 25 X Zeolite,.8nm pores 2 Quantity Adsorbed, cm 3 /g Reference curve intercept Quantity Adsorbed, cm 3 /g External area Micropore filling Thickness, angstroms 6

31 Amorphous Silica-Alumina Desorption Amorphous Silica Alumina, 11nm pores Quantity adsorbed, cm 3 /g Negligible micropore volume Capillary condensation at large t values Quantity Adsorbed, cm 3 /g Thickness, angstroms 61 MCM-41 6 Desorption Silica, 4 nm pores 5 Quantity adsorbed, cm 3 /g Ideal t-plot sample 7 6 Area, pore volume, and external area Quantity Adsorbed, cm 3 /g Pore area Thickness, angstroms 62

32 t-plot summary Area Pore area External area (matrix) Pore volume Isotherm LP to.7 p/p Positive or intercept t-curve Reference curve is preferred Statistical curve is convenient 63 Meso-porosity Capillary condensation Fluid has bulk behavior BJH or DH models Adsorbed layer Liquid core 64

33 Meso-porosity BJH models Thickness curve to estimate the adsorbed layer Kelvin equation to estimate the radius of the liquid core 65 Model Isotherms - Kelvin Condensation V = Ad 4 66

34 Amorphous Silica-alumina BJH First V is assumed to be from pore emptying Subsequent V are a combination of pore emptying and thinning of the adsorbed layer Quantity adsorbed, cm 3 /g pore volume, cm 3 /g Desorption Amorphous Silica Alumina, 11nm pores dv/d(log(d)), (cm 3 /g)/å 1 1 width, Å 67 Amorphous Silica-alumina BJH From pore volume and calculated diameter, we can estimate surface area for a cylinder Common to observe the BJH estimate of area is greater than the BET estimate Quantity adsorbed, cm 3 /g Cumulative Pore Area, m 2 /g Desorption Amorphous Silica Alumina, 11nm pores dsa/dd D, angstroms 68

35 Amorphous Silica-alumina Quantity adsorbed, cm 3 /g Desorption Amorphous Silica Alumina, 11nm pores 5 BJH Desorption data has been used - historically Best to use both and Desorption - they should share common features pore volume, cm 3 /g width, Å dv/d(log(d)), (cm 3 /g)/å 69 BJH - PVD Pt/Al2O3 7

36 Pore Area vs BET Area Hg Pore Area Based upon a work function Gas Pore Area Geometric area of a cylinder BET Area Based upon the area occupied by adsorbed nitrogen (krypton) 71 Thank-you 72

Adsorption. December 2014

Adsorption. December 2014 Adsorption December 2014 1 Nanosized objects have a large surface area Dividing the size of an object by 2... doubles the accessible surface 2 Adsorption Absorption Absorption is a phenomenon that occurs

More information

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN COLLOIDS AND SURFACES

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN COLLOIDS AND SURFACES EXPERIMENTAL METHODS IN COLLOIDS AND SURFACES PARTICLE SURFACE AREA FROM GAS ADSORPTION TYPES OF ADSORPTION Physical adsorption: rapid, depends on adsorbate bulk concentration, multiple molecular layers

More information

presented by Neal Leddy CMA Analytical Workshop 2012 SURFACE AREA AND POROSITY

presented by Neal Leddy CMA Analytical Workshop 2012 SURFACE AREA AND POROSITY presented by Neal Leddy CMA Analytical Workshop 2012 SURFACE AREA AND POROSITY Adsorption When a gas or vapour phase is brought into contact with a solid, part of it is taken up and remains on the outside

More information

Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Heterogeneous Catalysis and Catalytic Processes Prof. K. K. Pant Department of Chemical Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi Module - 03 Lecture 10 Good morning. In my last lecture, I was

More information

PHYSISORPTION DETERMINATIONS

PHYSISORPTION DETERMINATIONS G A S S O R P T I O N A N A L Y S I S PHYSISORPTION DETERMINATIONS Most atoms that make up a solid are bound on all sides by other atoms in the bulk of the solid. The atoms on the surface of the solid,

More information

BET Surface Area Analysis of Nanoparticles

BET Surface Area Analysis of Nanoparticles OpenStax-CNX module: m38278 1 BET Surface Area Analysis of Nanoparticles Nina Hwang Andrew R. Barron This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0

More information

Some generalization of Langmuir adsorption isotherm

Some generalization of Langmuir adsorption isotherm Internet Journal of Chemistry, 2000, 3, 14 [ISSN: 1099-8292]. Article 14 Some generalization of Langmuir adsorption isotherm Leszek Czepirski, Mieczyslaw R. Balys, Ewa Komorowska-Czepirska University of

More information

Motivation Physisorption Chemisorption Outlook

Motivation Physisorption Chemisorption Outlook Surface area determination - physisorption and chemisorption Literature: Motivation Physisorption Chemisorption Outlook 1. DIN ISO 9277: BET method 2. DIN 66136: Dispersion measurement of metals 3. DIN

More information

Texture characteristic of membrane materials ASAP, BET

Texture characteristic of membrane materials ASAP, BET Texture characteristic of membrane materials ASAP, BET Theory Specific surface (surface area) is used for the characterization of many materials. There are various techniques how measure the specific surface

More information

Analytical Services. Part number Measurement Description. Single-Point BET with Nitrogen 06000-1N. Multi-Point BET With Nitrogen 06000-3N

Analytical Services. Part number Measurement Description. Single-Point BET with Nitrogen 06000-1N. Multi-Point BET With Nitrogen 06000-3N 06000-1N 06000-3N Single-Point BET with Nitrogen Multi-Point BET With Nitrogen Single-point BET specific surface area (P/Po = 0.3) by nitrogen adsorption at 77K. Dynamic flow method unless otherwise requested.

More information

Pharmaceutical Physical Characterization: Surface Area and Porosity

Pharmaceutical Physical Characterization: Surface Area and Porosity Whitepaper Authors: Dr John M. Zielinski Intertek Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, Allentown, USA Dr Lorna Kettle Intertek Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals, Manchester, UK Date: April 2013 Pharmaceutical Physical

More information

TriStar II Surface Area and Porosity Analyzer

TriStar II Surface Area and Porosity Analyzer TriStar II Plus TriStar II Surface Area and Porosity Analyzer Analytical Versatility/ High Throughput/ Small Footprint Surface area and porosity are important physical properties that influence the quality

More information

Derivation of the BET and Langmuir Isotherms

Derivation of the BET and Langmuir Isotherms Derivation of the BET and Langmuir Isotherms October 5, 2011 1 Langmuir Isotherm Assumptions used for the Langmuir isotherm 1. Gaseous molecules behave ideally 2. Only one monolayer forms 3. All sites

More information

Adsorption and Catalysis

Adsorption and Catalysis Adsorption and Catalysis Dr. King Lun Yeung Department of Chemical Engineering Hong Kong University of Science and Technology CENG 511 Lecture 3 Adsorption versus Absorption H H H H H H H H H Adsorption

More information

Characterization of Gas Shale Pore Systems by Analyzing Low Pressure Nitrogen Adsorption

Characterization of Gas Shale Pore Systems by Analyzing Low Pressure Nitrogen Adsorption Characterization of Gas Shale Pore Systems by Analyzing Low Pressure Nitrogen Adsorption Presented by: Mehdi Labani PhD student in Petroleum Engineering Supervisor: Reza Rezaee September 212 Objective

More information

FINESORB-3020. Surface Area. as or more than 0.1-2000m 2 /g. Distribution of Pore 0.35-500nm. Degas & Analysis Up to 12 Degas & 6 Analysis Station

FINESORB-3020. Surface Area. as or more than 0.1-2000m 2 /g. Distribution of Pore 0.35-500nm. Degas & Analysis Up to 12 Degas & 6 Analysis Station 1 FINESORB-3020 Surface Area and Porosimetry Analyzer Finesorb-3020 is Surface Area and Porosimetry Analyzer based on vacuum system from fintec instrument company.you could do the Surface Area analysis,aperture

More information

Hydrogen Adsorption on Nanoporous Biocarbon

Hydrogen Adsorption on Nanoporous Biocarbon Hydrogen Adsorption on Nanoporous Biocarbon Mikael Wood, Jacob Burress, Cintia Lapilli, Peter Pfeifer, Parag Shah, Galen Suppes University of Missouri-Columbia Phillip Parilla, Anne Dillon National Renewable

More information

ASAP 2460. Accelerated Surface Area and

ASAP 2460. Accelerated Surface Area and ASAP 2460 Accelerated Surface Area and Porosimetry System Analytical Versatility with Superior Throughput ASAP 2460 Accelerated Surface Area and Porosimetry System The ASAP 2460 Surface Area and Porosimetry

More information

CHARACTERIZATION OF POROUS GLASS

CHARACTERIZATION OF POROUS GLASS 2.1. Introduction The characterisation of amorphous networked materials is problematic because the structure of the materials is enormously complex, and a "complete'' characterisation requires no less

More information

Physical Chemistry Practical Course, Oxford University. Determination of the Surface Area of Alumina by Nitrogen Adsorption at 77K (4 points)

Physical Chemistry Practical Course, Oxford University. Determination of the Surface Area of Alumina by Nitrogen Adsorption at 77K (4 points) Physical Chemistry Practical Course, Oxford University 1.06 Determination of the Surface Area of Alumina by Nitrogen Adsorption at 77K (4 points) What you will do In this experiment you will study the

More information

The use of nitrogen adsorption for the characterisation of porous materials

The use of nitrogen adsorption for the characterisation of porous materials Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 187 188 (2001) 3 9 www.elsevier.nl/locate/colsurfa Review The use of nitrogen adsorption for the characterisation of porous materials Kenneth

More information

ISO 12800 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD

ISO 12800 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 12800 First edition 2003-12-01 Nuclear fuel technology Guide to the measurement of the specific surface area of uranium oxide powders by the BET method Technologie du combustible

More information

The PMI Advanced. BET SORPTOMETER BET-201-AELC-2OS Not just products...solutions!

The PMI Advanced. BET SORPTOMETER BET-201-AELC-2OS Not just products...solutions! The PMI Advanced BET SORPTOMETER BET-201-AELC-2OS Not just products...solutions! DESCRIPTION The Fully automated equipment is intended for measurement of adsorption characteristics of various gases on

More information

Physical Adsorption Characterization of Nanoporous Materials

Physical Adsorption Characterization of Nanoporous Materials DOI: 10.1002/cite.201000064 Characterization of nanoporous materials 1059 Physical Adsorption Characterization of Nanoporous Materials Matthias Thommes During recent years, major progress has been made

More information

Appendix A. Fig. 1 Nitrogen adsorption for Activated Carbon from Norit

Appendix A. Fig. 1 Nitrogen adsorption for Activated Carbon from Norit Appendix A Summary Report Surface Area BET Surface Area: 1555.9551 m²/g Langmuir Surface Area: 1992.1415 m²/g Pore Volume Single point adsorption total pore volume of pores 0.619747 cm³/g t-plot micropore

More information

TriStar II 3020. Surface Area and Porosity System. The Science and Technology of Small Particles

TriStar II 3020. Surface Area and Porosity System. The Science and Technology of Small Particles TriStar II 3020 Surface Area and Porosity System The Science and Technology of Small Particles Analytical Versatility/High Throughput/Small Footprint TriStar II 3020 Surface Area and Porosity System Surface

More information

Low Temperature Adsorption Versus Pore Size in Activated Carbons

Low Temperature Adsorption Versus Pore Size in Activated Carbons Low Temperature Adsorption Versus Pore Size in Activated Carbons D. Martins 1, I. Catarino 1, D. Lopes 1, I. Esteves 2, J.P. Mota 2, G. Bonfait 1 1 CEFITEC Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências

More information

Experimental Study of Micropore Size Distribution in Coals

Experimental Study of Micropore Size Distribution in Coals 2012 International Conference on Fluid Dynamics and Thermodynamics Technologies (FDTT 2012) IPCSIT vol.33(2012) (2012) IACSIT Press, Singapore Experimental Study of Micropore Size Distribution in Coals

More information

Abbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law

Abbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law Gas Law Problems Abbreviations Conversions atm - atmosphere K = C + 273 mmhg - millimeters of mercury 1 cm 3 (cubic centimeter) = 1 ml (milliliter) torr - another name for mmhg 1 dm 3 (cubic decimeter)

More information

Pore size and BET surface area. analysis at your fingertips. SA 3100. Gas Adsorption Analyzer

Pore size and BET surface area. analysis at your fingertips. SA 3100. Gas Adsorption Analyzer Pore size and BET surface area analysis at your fingertips. SA 3100 Gas Adsorption Analyzer The History of Beckman Coulter Particle Characterization Introducing The SA 3100 Surface Area and Pore Size Analyzer

More information

Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel mercapto- and new kind of

Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel mercapto- and new kind of SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL Synthesis, characterization and application of a novel mercapto- and new kind of polyaminophenol-bifunctionalized MCM-41 for dispersive micro solid phase extraction of Ni(II) prior

More information

Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing

Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing CERTIFIED REFERENCE MATERIAL FOR THE GAS ADSORPTION BAM-PM-101 Material: SiO 2 with specific surface area (BET) of 0.177 0.004 m² g -1 Mean of means

More information

Nano-pore structure characterization of shales using gas adsorption and mercury intrusion techniques

Nano-pore structure characterization of shales using gas adsorption and mercury intrusion techniques Available online www.jocpr.com Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2014, 6(4):850-857 Research Article ISSN : 0975-7384 CODEN(USA) : JCPRC5 Nano-pore structure characterization of shales using

More information

The Potential of Ellipsometric Porosimetry

The Potential of Ellipsometric Porosimetry The Potential of Ellipsometric Porosimetry A. Bourgeois, Y. Turcant, Ch. Walsh, V. Couraudon, Ch. Defranoux SOPRA SA, 26 rue Pierre Joigneaux, 92270 Bois Colombes, France Speaker: Alexis Bourgeois, Application

More information

Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases

Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases Significant Figure Convention At least one extra significant figure is displayed in all intermediate calculations. The final answer is expressed with the correct number

More information

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 1. Figure 1 The graph represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat was added uniformly to a substance starting at a solid

More information

CHAPTER 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

CHAPTER 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory CHAPTER 12 Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory 1 Gases vs. Liquids & Solids Gases Weak interactions between molecules Molecules move rapidly Fast diffusion rates Low densities Easy to compress Liquids

More information

Effect of surface area, pore volume and particle size of P25 titania on the phase transformation of anatase to rutile

Effect of surface area, pore volume and particle size of P25 titania on the phase transformation of anatase to rutile Indian Journal of Chemistry Vol. 48A, October 2009, pp. 1378-1382 Notes Effect of surface area, pore volume and particle size of P25 titania on the phase transformation of anatase to rutile K Joseph Antony

More information

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

More information

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion. Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

More information

Nitrogen Sorption Evaluation of the Porous Carbon Made from Cow Gelatin

Nitrogen Sorption Evaluation of the Porous Carbon Made from Cow Gelatin J. Chem. Eng. Chem. Res. Vol. 1, No. 2, 2014, pp. 101-109 Received: June 5, 2014; Published: August 25, 2014 Journal of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Research Nitrogen Sorption Evaluation of the Porous

More information

The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase

The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase When are interparticle forces important? Ron Robertson Kinetic Theory A. Principles Matter is composed of particles in constant, random, motion Particles collide elastically

More information

Standard Test Methods for Carbon Black Surface Area by Multipoint B.E.T. Nitrogen Adsorption 1

Standard Test Methods for Carbon Black Surface Area by Multipoint B.E.T. Nitrogen Adsorption 1 Designation: D 4820 99 Standard Test Methods for Carbon Black Surface Area by Multipoint B.E.T. Nitrogen Adsorption 1 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 4820; the number immediately

More information

Use the BET (after Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) equation is used to give specific surface area from the adsorption

Use the BET (after Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) equation is used to give specific surface area from the adsorption Number of moles of N 2 in 0.129dm 3 = 0.129/22.4 = 5.76 X 10-3 moles of N 2 gas Module 8 : Surface Chemistry Objectives Lecture 37 : Surface Characterization Techniques After studying this lecture, you

More information

Adsorption at Surfaces

Adsorption at Surfaces Adsorption at Surfaces Adsorption is the accumulation of particles (adsorbate) at a surface (adsorbent or substrate). The reverse process is called desorption. fractional surface coverage: θ = Number of

More information

Surface Area and Porosity Determinations by Physisorption. Measurements and Theory

Surface Area and Porosity Determinations by Physisorption. Measurements and Theory Surface Area and Porosity Determinations by Physisorption Measurements and Theory i This page intentionally left blank ii Surface Area and Porosity Determinations by Physisorption Measurements and Theory

More information

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004

Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas. 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics, Kinetic Theory Ideal Gas 8.01t Nov 22, 2004 Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics Thermodynamics Old & Fundamental Understanding of Heat (I.e. Steam) Engines Part of Physics Einstein

More information

POLLUTED EMISSION TREATMENTS FROM INCINERATOR GASES

POLLUTED EMISSION TREATMENTS FROM INCINERATOR GASES POLLUTED EMISSION TREATMENTS FROM INCINERATOR GASES Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie Avenue du Général Leclerc, Campus de Beaulieu 35700 Rennes, France Tel 33 (0)2 23 23 80 02 Fax 33 (0)2 23 23 81

More information

Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure.

Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure. #28 notes Unit 4: Gases Ch. Gases I. Pressure and Manometers Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure. Pressure = Force / Area Standard Atmospheric Pressure

More information

Characteriza*on of Lignocellulosics by Using Separa*on of Fibre Surface Layers and Nitrogen Sorp*on

Characteriza*on of Lignocellulosics by Using Separa*on of Fibre Surface Layers and Nitrogen Sorp*on Characteriza*on of Lignocellulosics by Using Separa*on of Fibre Surface Layers and Nitrogen Sorp*on Latvian State Ins,tute of Wood Chemistry COST FP1105 in Stockholm Fibres surface layers separa,on procedure

More information

ADSORPTION OF N2 ON SILICA GEL

ADSORPTION OF N2 ON SILICA GEL Chapter 6. Adsorption of N 2 41 6 ADSORPTION OF N2 ON SILICA GEL The purpose of this experiment is to study the adsorption of gases on solid surfaces and to introduce you to some aspects of vacuum technique

More information

Gases. States of Matter. Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large Chaotic (random)

Gases. States of Matter. Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large Chaotic (random) Gases States of Matter States of Matter Kinetic E (motion) Potential E(interaction) Distance Between (size) Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large

More information

TDS. Dirk Rosenthal Department of Inorganic Chemistry Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG Faradayweg 4-6, DE 14195 Berlin dirkrose@fhi-berlin.mpg.

TDS. Dirk Rosenthal Department of Inorganic Chemistry Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG Faradayweg 4-6, DE 14195 Berlin dirkrose@fhi-berlin.mpg. Modern Methods in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research TDS Dirk Rosenthal Department of Inorganic Chemistry Fritz-Haber-Institut der MPG Faradayweg 4-6, DE 14195 Berlin dirkrose@fhi-berlin.mpg.de TDS = TPD

More information

Introduction to Chemical Adsorption Analytical Techniques and their Applications to Catalysis

Introduction to Chemical Adsorption Analytical Techniques and their Applications to Catalysis MIC Technical Publications January 2003 Introduction to Chemical Adsorption Analytical Techniques and their Applications to Catalysis Paul A. Webb Micromeritics Instrument Corp., Norcross, Georgia 30093

More information

Analysis of nitrogen and carbon tetrachloride adsorption isotherms and pore size distribution for siliceous MCM-41 synthesized from rice husk silica

Analysis of nitrogen and carbon tetrachloride adsorption isotherms and pore size distribution for siliceous MCM-41 synthesized from rice husk silica ORIGINAL ARTICLE Analysis of nitrogen and carbon tetrachloride adsorption isotherms and pore size distribution for siliceous MCM-41 synthesized from rice husk silica Siriluk Chiarakorn 1, Nurak Grisdanurak

More information

SYLOBEAD Adsorbents. for Natural Gas Processing. Introduction. Therefore, it is often necessary to condition the raw gas to:

SYLOBEAD Adsorbents. for Natural Gas Processing. Introduction. Therefore, it is often necessary to condition the raw gas to: SYLOBEAD Adsorbents for Natural Gas Processing TECHNICAL INFORMATION Introduction Natural gas (NG) is a vital component of the world s supply of energy. It is one of the cleanest, safest, and most versatile

More information

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids

Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids Chapter 12 - Liquids and Solids 12-1 Liquids I. Properties of Liquids and the Kinetic Molecular Theory A. Fluids 1. Substances that can flow and therefore take the shape of their container B. Relative

More information

Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

More information

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

More information

5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C

5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C 1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )

More information

Studies on Pore Systems in Catalysts

Studies on Pore Systems in Catalysts JOURNAL OF CATALYSIS 4, 319323 (1965) Studies on Pore Systems in Catalysts V. The t Method B. C. LIPPENS* AND J. H. DE BOER From the Department of Chemical Technology, Technological University of Delft,

More information

5. SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORIGINAL AND MODIFIED CBs

5. SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORIGINAL AND MODIFIED CBs 5. SURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORIGINAL AND MODIFIED CBs In order to characterize the modification produced on the surface of the CB s during the presented treatments at LPP and APP, several studies were

More information

COVER STORY: Surface Area: The Most Underutilized Particle. Property in Pharma. What s Inside: Regulatory Intelligence Update

COVER STORY: Surface Area: The Most Underutilized Particle. Property in Pharma. What s Inside: Regulatory Intelligence Update September 2012, Vol. 10 The National Pharmaceutical Sciences Group s Quarterly Magazine COVER STORY: Surface Area: The Most Underutilized Particle Property in Pharma What s Inside: Regulatory Intelligence

More information

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF MATTER The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion. The theory can be used to explain the properties of solids, liquids,

More information

Kinetic Molecular Theory

Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory Particle volume - The volume of an individual gas particle is small compaired to that of its container. Therefore, gas particles are considered to have mass, but no volume. There

More information

Characterization of Porous Glasses by Adsorption: Models, Simulations and Data Inversion

Characterization of Porous Glasses by Adsorption: Models, Simulations and Data Inversion Characterization of Porous Glasses by Adsorption: Models, Simulations and Data Inversion Lev D. Gelb and K. E. Gubbins North Carolina State University Department of Chemical Engineering Raleigh, NC 27695-7905,

More information

POROSITY OF THE FINE FRACTIONS OF FINNISH TILLS

POROSITY OF THE FINE FRACTIONS OF FINNISH TILLS POROSITY OF THE FINE FRACTIONS OF FINNISH TILLS PERTTI NIEMINEN and AARRE KELLOMÄKI NIEMINEN, PERTTI and KELLOMÄKI, AARRE, 1984: Porosity of the fine fractions of Finnish tills. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland

More information

Surface area and pore size determination

Surface area and pore size determination Modern Methods in Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Further reading Surface area and pore size determination 01. November 2013 A. Trunschke S. Lowell, J.E. Shields, M.A. Thomas, M. Thommes, Characterization

More information

The literature pertaining to the sorption of gases by solids is now so vast that it is

The literature pertaining to the sorption of gases by solids is now so vast that it is 13 Chapter 2 Physical Adsorption The literature pertaining to the sorption of gases by solids is now so vast that it is impossible for any, except those who are specialists in the experimental technique,

More information

Gases and Kinetic-Molecular Theory: Chapter 12. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline

Gases and Kinetic-Molecular Theory: Chapter 12. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline Gases and Kinetic-Molecular heory: Chapter Chapter Outline Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases Pressure Boyle s Law: he Volume-Pressure

More information

AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1

AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1 Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (L) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.023 x 10 23 mol -1. Example

More information

Diffusion and Fluid Flow

Diffusion and Fluid Flow Diffusion and Fluid Flow What determines the diffusion coefficient? What determines fluid flow? 1. Diffusion: Diffusion refers to the transport of substance against a concentration gradient. ΔS>0 Mass

More information

CHAPTER 25 IDEAL GAS LAWS

CHAPTER 25 IDEAL GAS LAWS EXERCISE 139, Page 303 CHAPTER 5 IDEAL GAS LAWS 1. The pressure of a mass of gas is increased from 150 kpa to 750 kpa at constant temperature. Determine the final volume of the gas, if its initial volume

More information

Surface Parameters of Stannic Oxide in Powder, Ceramic and Gel Forms by Nitrogen Adsorption Techniques l

Surface Parameters of Stannic Oxide in Powder, Ceramic and Gel Forms by Nitrogen Adsorption Techniques l PHYSICAL SCIENCES 137 Surface Parameters of Stannic Oxide in Powder, Ceramic and Gel Forms by Nitrogen Adsorption Techniques l JAMES L. RUTLEDGE, Department of Physics OIdahoma State University, StlUwater

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

Nitrogen Gas Adsorption in Zeolites 13X and 5A

Nitrogen Gas Adsorption in Zeolites 13X and 5A Nitrogen Gas Adsorption in Zeolites 13X and 5A H. Melissa Magee Mentored by Professor N. S. Sullivan Walla Walla University, 24 S. College Ave., College Place, WA 99324 Abstract. Since the discovery of

More information

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7.

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7. Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance (mol) the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (N A ) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1.

More information

(S&G 5th ed. Expt 27, 6th, 7th & 8th eds. Expt 26)

(S&G 5th ed. Expt 27, 6th, 7th & 8th eds. Expt 26) Chem 367-2/ Physical Adsorption 63 PHYSICAL ADSORPTION (S&G 5th ed. Expt 27, 6th, 7th & 8th eds. Expt 26) The sample used in this experiment needs to be conditioned for at least two hours before the experiment;

More information

Characterization of micro- and mesoporous solids by physisorption methods and pore-size analysis

Characterization of micro- and mesoporous solids by physisorption methods and pore-size analysis Applied Catalysis A: General 174 (1998) 137±146 Characterization of micro- and mesoporous solids by physisorption methods and pore-size analysis Sebastian Storck, Helmut Bretinger, Wilhelm F. Maier * Max-Planck-Institut

More information

A New Technique Provides Faster Particle Size Analysis at a Lower Cost Compared to Conventional Methods

A New Technique Provides Faster Particle Size Analysis at a Lower Cost Compared to Conventional Methods A New Technique Provides Faster Particle Size Analysis at a Lower Cost Compared to Conventional Methods Howard Sanders and Akshaya Jena Porous Material Inc. Ithaca, NY The technique described here calculates

More information

THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES

THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Chapter 19: THE KINETIC THEORY OF GASES 1. Evidence that a gas consists mostly of empty space is the fact that: A. the density of a gas becomes much greater when it is liquefied B. gases exert pressure

More information

CHAPTER 12 GASES AND THEIR BEHAVIOR

CHAPTER 12 GASES AND THEIR BEHAVIOR Chapter 12 Gases and Their Behavior Page 1 CHAPTER 12 GASES AND THEIR BEHAVIOR 12-1. Which of the following represents the largest gas pressure? (a) 1.0 atm (b) 1.0 mm Hg (c) 1.0 Pa (d) 1.0 KPa 12-2. Nitrogen

More information

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 Gases A Gas Has neither a definite volume nor shape. Uniformly fills any container.

More information

Overview of Physical Properties of Gases. Gas Pressure

Overview of Physical Properties of Gases. Gas Pressure Overview of Physical Properties of Gases! volume changes with pressure! volume changes with temperature! completely miscible! low density gases: < 2 g/l liquids and solids: 1000 g/l Gas Pressure force

More information

a) Use the following equation from the lecture notes: = ( 8.314 J K 1 mol 1) ( ) 10 L

a) Use the following equation from the lecture notes: = ( 8.314 J K 1 mol 1) ( ) 10 L hermodynamics: Examples for chapter 4. 1. One mole of nitrogen gas is allowed to expand from 0.5 to 10 L reversible and isothermal process at 300 K. Calculate the change in molar entropy using a the ideal

More information

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790. CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

More information

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS / ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF APPENDICES ii iii

More information

CHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET

CHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET Boyle s Law Charles Law Guy-Lassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The volume of a fixed mass of gas is

More information

The Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10

The Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10 Our Atmosphere The Gas Laws 99% N 2 and O 2 78% N 2 80 70 Nitrogen Chapter 10 21% O 2 1% CO 2 and the Noble Gases 60 50 40 Oxygen 30 20 10 0 Gas Carbon dioxide and Noble Gases Pressure Pressure = Force

More information

Exam 4 Practice Problems false false

Exam 4 Practice Problems false false Exam 4 Practice Problems 1 1. Which of the following statements is false? a. Condensed states have much higher densities than gases. b. Molecules are very far apart in gases and closer together in liquids

More information

CHAPTER 7 THE DEHYDRATION AND SWEETENING OF NATURAL GAS

CHAPTER 7 THE DEHYDRATION AND SWEETENING OF NATURAL GAS CHAPTER 7 THE DEHYDRATION AND SWEETENING OF NATURAL GAS Natural gases either from natural production or storage reservoirs contain water, which condense and form solid gas hydrates to block pipeline flow

More information

7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter 7. Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter The Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter is a concept that basically states that matter is composed

More information

Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1

Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1 Experiment 12E LIQUID-VAPOR EQUILIBRIUM OF WATER 1 FV 6/26/13 MATERIALS: PURPOSE: 1000 ml tall-form beaker, 10 ml graduated cylinder, -10 to 110 o C thermometer, thermometer clamp, plastic pipet, long

More information

Honors Chemistry. Chapter 11: Gas Law Worksheet Answer Key Date / / Period

Honors Chemistry. Chapter 11: Gas Law Worksheet Answer Key Date / / Period Honors Chemistry Name Chapter 11: Gas Law Worksheet Answer Key Date / / Period Complete the following calculation by list the given information, rewriting the formula to solve for the unknown, and plugging

More information

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING

CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,

More information

Chapter 7-1. Definition of ALD

Chapter 7-1. Definition of ALD Chapter 7-1 Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Definition of ALD Brief history of ALD ALD process and equipments ALD applications 1 Definition of ALD ALD is a method of applying thin films to various substrates

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 10 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A gas at a pressure of 10.0 Pa exerts a force of N on an area of 5.5 m2. A) 1.8 B) 0.55

More information

Molar Mass of Butane

Molar Mass of Butane Suggested reading: Chang 10 th edition text pages 175-201 Cautions Butane is toxic and flammable. No OPEN Flames should be used in this experiment. Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine

More information

THE WAY TO SOMEWHERE. Sub-topics. Diffusion Diffusion processes in industry

THE WAY TO SOMEWHERE. Sub-topics. Diffusion Diffusion processes in industry THE WAY TO SOMEWHERE Sub-topics 1 Diffusion Diffusion processes in industry RATE PROCESSES IN SOLIDS At any temperature different from absolute zero all atoms, irrespective of their state of aggregation

More information

A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR SURFACE AREA DETERMINATION THROUGH SUPERCRITICAL CO 2 ADSORPTION

A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR SURFACE AREA DETERMINATION THROUGH SUPERCRITICAL CO 2 ADSORPTION MAKARA, TEKNOLOGI, VOL. 14, NO. 1, APRIL 2010: 1-6 A SIMPLE TECHNIQUE FOR SURFACE AREA DETERMINATION THROUGH SUPERCRITICAL CO 2 ADSORPTION Mahmud Sudibandriyo Departemen Teknik Kimia, Fakultas Teknik,

More information