Technologies and Perspectives of Solar Cooling Systems

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1 Technologies and Perspectives of Solar Cooling Systems AHK Conference Sydney, Australia, 24 th March Dr. Uli Jakob Solem Consulting / Green Chiller Association for Sorption Cooling e.v. Sydney, Australia,

2 Global solar radiation kwh/m 2 /a Germany: 1,000 kwh/m 2 /a Australia: 2,000 kwh/m 2 /a Source: Meteonorm (data), Friedemann Jung

3 Opportunities Solar thermal energy in Germany German technology leaders (selected examples): Concentrating solar players (CSP and process heat) Engineering and services: 11 companies Component suppliers: 28 companies Implementation: 3 companies Research institutes: 3 institutes Solar Cooling players Engineering and services: 3 companies Component suppliers: 13 companies Implementation: 3 companies Research institutes: > 10 institutes Source: Prof. Dr. Kohlenbach, Solem Consulting

4 Technologies

5 World exhibition Paris First solar ice block (1878) Source: Olynthus Verlag"

6 Solar cooling Solar resource vs. Cooling demand Resource and demand are in phase Global radiation Cooling demand Heat demand Excess solar heat in summer Source: SolarNext

7 Comparison of closed cooling processes Driving energy COP Specific reject heat (Qc/Qo) Cooling capacity Refrigerant Vapour compression Electricity (small capacity) 3-5 (med/large capacity) ABsorption Heat ( degc) (single effect) (double effect) (triple effect) ODP = Ozone depletion potential (normalised to R11 = 1), GWP (Global Warming Potential) in relation to 1kg CO 2 (over 100 years) ADsorption Heat (45-95 degc) W to 5 MW H-FCKW (R22) (ODP=0.055, GWP=1500) H-FKW (R134a, R410a) (ODP=0, GWP= ) NH 3 (R717) (ODP=0, GWP=0) CO 2 (R744) (ODP=0, GWP=1) 50 W to 5 MW (NH 3 ) 10 kw 11 MW (H 2 O) NH 3 (R717), H 2 O (R718) (ODP=0, GWP=0) 8 kw 500 kw H 2 O (R718) (ODP=0, GWP=0)

8 General scheme of a solar cooling system collector field M Cooling water heat exchanger hot water storage tank M heating system absorption chiller M M cooling tower fan-coils Source: Solem Consulting compression chiller cold water storage tank Solar Hot water Chiller(s) Chilled water

9 Absorption chillers (small to medium-scale capacity) EAW Wegracal SE Water / Lithium bromide AGO congelo Ammonia / Water Source: EAW Source: AGO

10 Adsorption and absorption chillers (small-scale capacity) InvenSor LTC10 & HTC18 Water / Zeolite Source: InvenSor SorTech ecoo10 Water / Silica gel Source: SorTech SolarNext chillii PSC19 Ammonia / Water Source: Pink Pink PC19 Ammonia / Water Source: Pink

11 Integrated hydraulic unit for comfortable system integration Source: InvenSor Source: SorTech

12 Commercial available standardised solar cooling kits SolarNext (Germany) " chillii Cooling Kit WFC175" Schüco (Germany) " LB15 System Package" Source: SolarNext" Source: Schüco"

13 Solar collector technologies Applications for solar cooling Solar thermal collector Heat transfer medium Collector temperature Application for cooling Air collector Air 40-60ºC Air-conditioning 20ºC Flat plate collector Water, Water-Glycol 70-90ºC Air-conditioning, slab cooling 15ºC Evacuated tube collector Water, Water-Glycol ºC Air-conditioning, slab cooling 0ºC Parabolic trough / Fresnel collector Thermal oil, Water ºC Refrigeration, air-conditioning, slab cooling -20ºC T

14 Applications

15 Application (Bank, Portugal, 545 kw cooling) Source: SOLID Source: SolarNext

16 Application (Cosmetic industry, Greece, 700 kw cooling) Sources: Sarantis

17 Application (Winery, Tunisia, 12 kw cooling) Sources: ANME Source: Domaine Neferis

18 Application (Office building, Austria, 14 kw cooling) Source: Bachler Austria Source: Pink

19 Application (Residential building, China, 7.5 kw cooling) Sources: SolarNext

20 Funding schemes in Germany

21 Supporting activities in Germany MAP (market incentive program): BAFA offers 180 EUR/m 2 for collector areas between 20 m 2 and 100 m 2 for solar thermal cooling, now for new buildings (MFH, commercial), too. MAP: KfW offers a subsidy equal to 50% of investment for solar cooling with collector areas between 40 m 2 and 100 m 2. BAFA has opened the program for promotion of efficient cooling systems in industry for sorption technology > 5 kw (25% of net investment or 35% if ammonia is used as refrigerant).

22 Perspectives

23 Development of Solar Cooling Market Source: TECSOL / Solem Consulting"

24 Documented Solar Cooling Installations (2009) Source: Sparber, IEA-SHC Task large-scale installations (blue column) 166 small/medium-scale installations (red column)

25 Market share of solar driven sorption chillers (2009) Sources: EURAC, Tecsol"

26 Cost development of solar cooling Kits ( ) specific costs of solar cooling kits [EUR/kW cold] Source: Solem Consulting / Green Chiller" - 50%! year small capacity up to 10 kw medium capacity up to 50 kw large capacity above 50 kw Cost reduction of 45-55% within last 5 years!

27 IEA Technology Roadmap SHC Market potential by 2050 Source: IEA Technology Roadmap Solar Heating and Cooling, x J/a = TWh/a Solar Cooling by 2050 Systems could enter the market between 2015 and 2020

28 IEA Technology Roadmap SHC Share of solar cooling by 2050 Source: IEA Technology Roadmap Solar Heating and Cooling, 2012 Solar Cooling nearly 17% of total energy use for cooling!

29 Conclusion Over 1,000 solar cooling systems installed worldwide (2013) Several new small and medium-scale Absorption and Adsorption chillers were developed in Europe Standardized Solar Cooling Kits available to bring down the costs Incentive schemes available, e.g. in Germany (KfW) up to 50% repayment bonus of net investment costs! Solar heat is particularly of interest if a solar thermal system is used for other heat needs, too (e.g. heating, DHW)

30 Thanks for your attention! AHK Conference Sydney, Australia, 24 th March Contact: Dr. Uli Jakob Solem Consulting Green Chiller

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