St. Catharines School for Girls, K.T.

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1 St. Catharines School for Girls, K.T. Topic 2- Health and Social Care in the Local and the Global Contexts 2B Contemporary issues of vulnerability 1. Drugs additions Prepared by Yeung Yeung Wai Yi

2 What is drug addition? Some people who abuse drugs become addicted. Addiction is a chronic illness that involves the uncontrollable craving and use of drugs despite the potential or actual harm to the person that may result from it. Addiction is different from using a large quantity of drugs or using drugs frequently. Those addicted to drugs often cannot quit by themselves and must receive treatment to help them stop using.

3 Background In Hong Kong The upsurge in consumption of party drugs among adolescents in recent years in Hong Kong has been part of the global trend of adolescent recreational use of drugs at rave parties, discos and similar party settings. In USA According to a 2004 study conducted by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 19.1 million Americans (7.9 percent of the population aged 12 or older) reported that they had used an illegal drug in the month

4 Different Types of Drugs Abused Activity 1 Individuals Aged Under 21 Reported to the Central Registry of Drug Abuse, Narcotics Division, by Selected Type of Drugs Abused Selected type of drugs (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Heroin Cannabis Methylamphetamine (Ice) n.a. n.a MDMA (Ecstasy) < Ketamine Cough medicine Organic solvents No. of individuals aged 971 1, ,653 3,891 3,363 2,551 3,467 3,210 2,494 1,758 under 21 with known type of drug reported Source: Narcotics Division (1990, 2000, 2004) Notes: (1) - denotes nil (2) n.a. denotes not available

5 Different Types of Drugs Abused (cont) 1. Name three common drugs which are popular among adolescent. 2. Why ketamine is abused most by adolescent?

6 Risk factors of using drugs The causes of drug abuse are complicated and differ among individuals. Factors that place people at greater risk of drug abuse include: Genetics Mental health problems Being unemployed A chaotic home environment

7 Risk Factors of using drugs (cont) Poor or ineffective parenting Poor social and coping skills Poor school performance Associating with a deviant peer group

8 Harmful effects associated with drug addition Activity 2 Classify the following effects into physical, social and psychological effects. respectively. -septicemia - crime -panic -friendless - fatigue -unreliability -sleeplessness - hallucination - law breaking - homeless - dehydration - paranoia - HIV -jobless -heart problems -mental confusion -Hepatitis - vulnerable group - respiratory problems -depression - thin

9 Harmful effects of drugs addition psychological social physical

10 Anti-drugs efforts Activity 3- Debate Statement: Anti-drugs policies are the greatest efforts to reduce the drug problems. Different roles to join the debate: governmental sectors, parents, schools, NGO representatives.

11 Treatment options for drugs Research has shown that long-term drug use alters brain function and strengthens compulsions to use drugs. Patients whose drug abuse has developed into addiction may require assistance in quitting and undergo detoxification (treatment technique designed to remove drugs or alcohol from the body while managing any symptoms of withdrawal).

12 Treatment options for drugs (cont) Patients may be treated in an outpatient health facility or an inpatient rehabilitation facility. Some patients who abuse drugs also have a mental health disorder, such as depression or schizophrenia. These patients may receive treatment for the underlying disorder, (antidepressants or antipsychotics) in addition to undergoing treatment for the drug abuse.

13 Treatment to avoid relapse After successfully withdrawing from a drug, patients may receive treatment to help avoid relapse (drug use that starts after a period of abstinence). This may include: Counseling. Individual or family counseling with a psychologist, psychiatrist or addiction counselor may help patients develop ways to resist the urge to use drugs. Self-help groups. These groups, such as Narcotics Anonymous, are designed for patients addicted to drugs. Patients share personal stories and other information to support each other and try to prevent relapse.

14 Prevention of Drug Abuse 1.The patients Should follow the directions provided with the medication. A physician should be consulted before taking a larger dose than recommended or taking the medication for a longer time than prescribed. Avoid risky situations. Avoid places or social situations where drugs will be available. End friendships that involved drug use

15 Prevention of Drug Abuse (cont) 2. The parents Parents can take the following steps to help prevent drug abuse in children, including: Talk. Inform children of the risks associated with drug use. Listen. Listen to children s concerns about peer pressure, school and other issues. Set a good example. Do not abuse drugs or alcohol. Strengthen relationships with children. Children who share a strong bond with parents are less likely to abuse drugs.

16 Prevention of Drug Abuse (cont) 3. Education by government by school by community

17 1. Find two examples of the following sectors to provide treatment for drug additors. i. NGO ii. government Assignments Choose one to 2. Choose one of the following roles to design a programme for educating drugs abuse/addition. - health promoting teacher - NGO co-ordinator - Narcotics Division Officer

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