AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA

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2 ISSN COMMITTEE FOR REHABILITATION, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIEN CES INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPORT KINETICS IASK AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA Vol. 22, nr 58 INDEX COPERNICUS UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CRACOW, POLAND UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN WROCLAW, POLAND CRACOW WROCLAW 2012

3 KOMITET REHABILITACJI, KULTURY FIZYCZNEJ I INTEGRACJI SPOŁECZNEJ PAN ISSN MIĘDZYNARODOWE STOWARZYSZENIE MOTORYKI SPOR TO WEJ IASK AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA Vol. 22, nr 58 INDEX COPERNICUS AKADEMIA WYCHOWANIA FI ZYCZ NE GO IM. BRO NI SŁA WA CZECHA W KRA KO WIE AKADEMIA WYCHOWANIA FI ZYCZ NE GO WE WROCŁAWIU KRAKÓW WROCŁAW 2012

4 ANTROPOMOTORYKA ISSN COMMITTEE FOR REHABILITATION, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPORT KINETICS IASK UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION, CRACOW, POLAND UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN WROCLAW, POLAND VOL. 22, NR 58 CRACOW WROCLAW 2012 EDITORIAL COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN Edward Mleczko VICE-CHAIRMAN Zofia Ignasiak MEMBERS Jan Chmura, Jerzy Januszewski, Andrzej Klimek, Tadeusz Koszczyc, Lesław Kulmatycki, Wiesław Osiński, Joachim Raczek, Teresa Sławińska-Ochla, Włodzimierz Starosta EDITORIAL BOARD Michal Belej (Slovakia), Peter Blaser (Germany), Tadeusz Bober, Janusz Czerwiński, Sławomir Drozdowski, Józef Drabik, Joanna Gradek, Peter Hirtz (Germany), Josif Moisiejewicz Fejgenberg (Israel), Adam Haleczko, Andrzej Jopkiewicz, Han C.G. Kemper (Holland), Krzysztof Klukowski, Vladimir Lyakh (Russia), Robert M. Malina (USA), Wacław Petryński, Ryszard Przewęda, Igor Ryguła, Stanisław Sterkowicz, Stanisław Żak EDITOR S OFFICE al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kraków Poland Indexed in INDEX COPERNICUS This publication is funded in part by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education Translation: Wiesław Horabik, Barbara Przybyło, Transatlantic Communication Sylwia Willcox Proofreading: Barbara Przybyło, Transatlantic Communication Sylwia Willcox Copyright by University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland Design and DTP: University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland Print: ArtProm, Kraków, ul. Dukatów 29 Circulation: 150

5 ANTROPOMOTORYKA ISSN KOMITET REHABILITACJI, KULTURY FI ZYCZ NEJ I INTEGRACJI SPOŁECZNEJ PAN MIĘ DZY NA RO DO WE STO WA RZY SZE NIE MOTORYKI SPORTOWEJ IASK AKADEMIA WY CHO WA NIA FI ZYCZ NE GO IM. BRONISŁAWA CZE CHA W KRA KO WIE AKADEMIA WYCHOWANIA FIZYCZNEGO WE WROCŁAWIU VOL. 22, NR 58 KRAKÓW WROCŁAW 2012 REDAKCJA Redaktor Naczelny Edward Mleczko Z-ca Redaktora Na czel ne go Zofia Ignasiak Komitet Redakcyjny Jan Chmura, Jerzy Januszewski, Andrzej Klimek, Tadeusz Koszczyc, Lesław Kulmatycki, Wiesław Osiński, Joachim Raczek, Teresa Sławińska-Ochla, Włodzimierz Starosta RADA REDAKCYJNA Michal Belej (Słowacja), Peter Blaser (Niemcy), Tadeusz Bober, Janusz Czerwiński, Sławomir Drozdowski, Józef Drabik, Joanna Gradek, Peter Hirtz (Niemcy), Josif Moisiejewicz Fejgenberg (Izrael), Adam Haleczko, Andrzej Jopkiewicz, Han C.G. Kemper (Holandia), Krzysztof Klukowski, Vladimir Lyakh (Rosja), Robert M. Malina (USA), Wacław Petryński, Ryszard Przewęda, Igor Ryguła, Stanisław Sterkowicz, Stanisław Żak ADRES REDAKCJI al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kraków Poland Czasopismo ANTROPOMOTORYKA jest umieszczone na liście rankingowej INDEX COPERNICUS Publikacja częściowo dotowana przez Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego Tłumaczenie: Wiesław Horabik, Barbara Przybyło, Transatlantic Communication Sylwia Willcox Adiustacja i korekta: Barbara Przybyło, Transatlantic Communication Sylwia Willcox Copyright by University School of Physical Education in Cracow Opracowanie gra ficz ne i łamanie: Dział Projektów Wydawniczych AWF Kraków Druk: ArtProm, Kraków, ul. Dukatów 29 Nakład: 150 egz.

6 NR 58 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 CONTENTS From Editors: Quo vadis, Antropomotoryka-Kinesiology? 7 Information for the Authors 11 ORIGINAL PAPERS Adam Haleczko, Leszek Korzewa, Ewa Misiołek, Urszula Włodarczyk In search of trials evaluating the rhythm of movement 17 Ján Junger, Lenka Tlučáková, Róbert Kandráč, Pavol Čech Effects of a multimodal exercise program on postural stability of older adults 27 Elżbieta Cieśla, Zdzisław Domagała, Małgorzata Markowska, Edward Mleczko, Grażyna Nowak-Starz, Agnieszka Przychodni The differences in the level of biological health indicators for 7-year-old children living in different regions of Poland 33 Asta Šarkauskienė Influence of two-year non-formal physical education program on health-related physical fitness of years old children 47 Paweł Chmura, Andrzej Rokita, Marek Popowczak, Ireneusz Cichy Reactions of the cardiovascular system during physical education classes in first grade primary school children 57 Anna Poznańska, Joanna Stożek, Zuzanna Filar, Katarzyna Filar-Mierzwa The role of eurhythmics and dance classes in shaping the physical and musical development of preschool children 65 Dariusz Gierczuk, Vladimir Lyakh, Aneta Gierczuk Changes in the level of coordination motor abilities in Greco-Roman wrestlers aged Przemysław Bujas, Dariusz Tchórzewski, Janusz Jaworski The size of asymmetry in relation to the strength and speed-strength indices of lower extremities in alpine skiers 87 Szymon Krasicki, Janusz Brudecki, Magdalena Wójciak Sports aspects of high mountain skiing 95 Józef Bergier, Barbara Bergier, Zofia Kubińska Free time and the physical activity of nurses 103 DISCUSSIONS Robert Girandola Global obesity in the 21 st century: causes, prevention and treatments 111 Wiesław Osiński, Robert Szeklicki Development of gerokinesiology: one of the greatest challenges faced by sport sciences 117 Włodzimierz Starosta Human movement science past, present and future (on example of monograph Human Movement Science Anthropokinesiology ) 127 5

7 NR 58 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 SPIS TREŚCI Od Redakcji: Quo vadis, Antropomotoryko-Kinesiology? 7 Informacje dla Autorów 13 PRACE ORYGINALNE Adam Haleczko, Leszek Korzewa, Ewa Misiołek, Urszula Włodarczyk W poszukiwaniu prób oceniających rytm motoryczny 17 Ján Junger, Lenka Tlučáková, Róbert Kandráč, Pavol Čech Wpływ multimodalnego programu ćwiczeń na stabilność postawy osób w starszym wieku 27 Elżbieta Cieśla, Zdzisław Domagała, Małgorzata Markowska, Edward Mleczko, Grażyna Nowak-Starz, Agnieszka Przychodni Różnice w poziomie biologicznych wskaźników zdrowotnych u siedmioletnich dzieci mieszkających w różnych regionach Polski 33 Asta Šarkauskienė Wpływ realizacji dwuletniego programu zajęć pozalekcyjnych z wychowania fizycznego na sprawność fizyczną dzieci w wieku lat 47 Paweł Chmura, Andrzej Rokita, Marek Popowczak, Ireneusz Cichy Reakcje układu krążenia w czasie lekcji wychowania fizycznego u uczniów pierwszej klasy szkoły podstawowej 57 Anna Poznańska, Joanna Stożek, Zuzanna Filar, Katarzyna Filar-Mierzwa Rola zajęć rytmiczno-tanecznych w kształtowaniu rozwoju fizycznego i muzycznego dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym 65 Dariusz Gierczuk, Vladimir Lyakh, Aneta Gierczuk Zmiany poziomu koordynacyjnych zdolności motorycznych u zapaśników stylu klasycznego w wieku lat 75 Przemysław Bujas, Dariusz Tchórzewski, Janusz Jaworski Wielkość asymetrii wskaźników siłowych i szybkościowo-siłowych kończyn dolnych u narciarzy zjazdowców 87 Szymon Krasicki, Janusz Brudecki, Magdalena Wójciak Sportowe aspekty narciarstwa wysokogórskiego 95 Józef Bergier, Barbara Bergier, Zofia Kubińska Czas wolny a aktywność fizyczna pielęgniarek 103 POLEMIKI I DYSKUSJE Robert Girandola Globalna otyłość w XXI wieku: przyczyny, zapobieganie, leczenie 111 Wiesław Osiński, Robert Szeklicki Rozwój gerokinezjologii: jedno z najpilniejszych wyzwań dla nauk o kulturze fizycznej 117 Włodzimierz Starosta Przeszłość, teraźniejszość i przyszłość nauki o ruchu człowieka (na przykładzie monografii Human Movement Science Anthropokinesiology ) 127 6

8 NR 58 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 FROM EDITORS OD REDAKCJI QUO VADIS, ANTROPOMOTORYKA-KINESIOLOGY? QUO VADIS, ANTROPOMOTORYKO-KINESIOLOGY? We are only in mid Having editorial goals formulated, content with our four-year close and fruitful cooperation with the University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw in the field of publishing Antropomotoryka- Kinesiology, we look forward to the nearest assessment of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. We do not expect too much, being aware that we have only been printing our journal for the public to read in English for a short time. In addition, we are traditionalists attached to our mission and program, which we have developed since 1989, when first number of our quarterly appeared on the market. At that time Antropomotoryka-Kinesiology was brought out as a publishing joint venture set up together with National Scientific Publishers PWN in Krakow. Then there was a split-off from PWN and we had to continue and expand the program that remained practically unchanged on our own. Can we continue our mission this way? From our past experience we know that this is not a rhetorical question. For all marketing purposes it is important for us to be competitive. These days selling just one more copy (and the knowledge contained therein) is a difficult task to follow. What do we have to do to achieve our ambitious goals? We have not got a ready answer to that question. As a matter of fact we are still working on it. With the most vital questions put forward for consideration and discussion during the latest Wroclaw Krakow extended board meeting we would like to familiarize you, the readers of Antropomotoryka-Kinesiology, in the next editorial. And now, in mid-2012, let s go through the content of this issue of Wroclaw-Krakow Antropomotoryka-Kinesiology. Our review of papers featured in current number of Antropomotoryka-Kinesiology we would like to begin with the publication of our loyal co-workers from Wroclaw, dynamically working under the guidance of the nestor of contemporary Polish researchers in the field of human motoricity. In the paper entitled In search of trials evaluating the rhythm of movement complementary to their study on motor skills testing that appeared in one of previous issues of Antropomotoryka- Kinesiology the authors, aware that they did not pay enough attention to coordination skills before, focus our interest on the rhythmicity of movement, more specifically on the possibility of applying several motor tests to assess the sensory aspects of the rhythm of movement. The article is recommended not only for practical reasons, but also because of the valuable research tools to evaluate the validity and reliability of motor skills they have employed. The ability to keep balance is commonly known as a key factor in maintaining postural stability especially in older adults. Numerous studies have shown that along with lowering the balance level we observe the rise in risk factor, which is responsible for falls and frequent ailments or even bone fractures. Every effort is made, therefore, to improve the body balance in older adults and a variety of trainers is used for this purpose. The team of Slovak researchers in the paper entitled Effects of a multimodal exercise program on postural stability of older adults presents the results of an experiment. The exercise program of their own authorship had positive effects in terms of postural stability improvement, measured under conditions with visual control. There were no similar effects in case of measuring the stability under condition of eyes being closed. The paper entitled The differences in the level of biological health indicators for seven-year-old children living in different regions of Poland presents the results 7

9 From Editors of research that was an integral part of the national project Six-year-old child on the threshold of school education which was conducted in the first decade of 21 st century. The study was aimed to prove the hypothesis that in the transition period in Poland there were no differences in somatic and motor development of children and young people living in provinces differing widely from each other in the rate of economic growth and economic development. In order to verify the aforementioned hypothesis an anthropological method of social gradients was employed. Basing on the analysis of the results of 8415 children (4302 girls and 4113 boys living in four provinces of Poland) the authors failed to prove the thesis that there was no connection between social stratification and biological development of children. As it turned out, the poverty that was generally observed in the eastern wall of Poland (Podkarpackie, Lubelskie and Podlaskie Provinces), where the lowest rate of economic growth was recorded, could have adversely affected somatic and motor development of young people. In their peers living in the richest Mazowieckie Province a higher development level of the basic indicators of biological development was recorded. The results are of interest not only in cognitive terms, because they lead to the conclusion that there is an urgent need to change public policy, the effects of which are now causing the formation of adverse effects in the biological development of Polish children. It seems that almost all positive changes that cause the reduction in the above adverse trends in the motor development of children (at home and abroad) may contribute to modifications implemented by PE teachers, according to Lithuanian paper entitled Influence of twoyear non-formal physical education program on health-related physical fitness of years old children. The study proves that all original teaching methods designed to stimulate the interest in physical activity of students, especially in the field of their motor improvement, are useful for uniting and integrally developing their knowledge and achievements. In the article entitled The role of eurhythmics and dance classes in shaping the physical and musical development of preschool children some results concerning the improvement in the techniques of teaching preschool children, corresponding to the above-mentioned idea, are evidenced. The study entitled Reactions of the cardiovascular system during physical classes in first grade primary school children presents interesting, though debatable, method for measuring the effects of motor development in children on early educational level. The authors proved the usefulness of automatic heart rate registration by means of Sport Testers during running games, as well as the usefulness of these measurements for the assessment of intensity of physical activities. The authors of three subsequent papers focus our attention on effects of training in selected groups of children and young people oriented towards practising competitive sports. In the study Changes in the level of coordination motor abilities in Greco-Roman wrestlers aged the authors put into consideration different pace of development in some coordination motor abilities of young wrestlers practising Greco-Roman style against a background of their untrained peers. In the article entitled The size of asymmetry in relation to the strength and speed-strength indices of lower extremities in alpine skiers it was demonstrated empirically, although on relatively small group of study participants, that in Poland the strength of the lower limbs of young skiers practising sports professionally was varied. According to the authors it may exert adverse influence on the level of achieved athletic performance. Theoretical and practical aspects of alpine skiing are pondered in the paper concerning Sports aspects of high mountain skiing. Alpine skiing, put among most popular sports in our country, is characterized from the perspective of its recreational and professional practising by 109 participants in the study conducted on the basis of authors own questionnaire. The results, among other things, proved the need for further organizational and financial development of alpine ski sport as well as improvement in training methods. From that perspective joining Polish professionals to the group of top international competitors is a must, even greater today than it was before. Using the IPAQ questionnaire is a key problem of the article devoted to Free time and the physical activity of nurses, in which the issues concerning physical activity of nurses depending on the amount of their free time are presented. The authors bore in mind that nursing is closely associated with female gender. Moreover, in that occupational group the authors sought to determine the relationship between the level of physical activity and free time. It turned out that the relationship between these two factors is directly proportional. The more free time the nurses have, the more time on practising sports they spend. Antropomotoryka-Kinesiology has not had such a strong group of authors who have agreed to publish 8

10 From Editors articles in Polemics and Discussions section. We enjoy the featuring in our journal the paper submitted by Robert Girandola (USA), Associate Professor of the Department of Human & Evolutionary Biology, University of Southern CA, Los Angeles. In September 2011 he was a keynote speaker in the conference devoted to Current and Future Researches of Human Movement Science Anthropokinesiology, organized by the University School of Physical Education in Cracow together with the IASK. In his article Global obesity in the 21 st century: causes, prevention and treatments Prof. Girandola presents his views on obesity: How does the major epidemic of the twenty-first century affect poor and industrialized nations? What are the prognoses about the development of obesity? Is it true that there will be 2.3 billion overweight people in the world in 2015? I think that the dilemmas pointed out in the above paper require careful consideration. The discussion about the solving methods and care solutions of this global phenomenon is a question of time. The problem that has arisen on a global scale with a large force is the quality of senior citizens life. In our journal this matter is put forward by two scientists from Poznan in the article entitled Development of gerokinesiology: one of the greatest challenges faced by sport sciences. As it turns out, there is an urgent need to establish the life in our country under the rules of gerokinesiology, the subdiscipline which has been developed successfully in several countries these years. Our task will be to learn and to apply effective methods to improve physical fitness and quality of life in older people through the development and use of a variety of physical activity programs. It seems that gerokinesiology will be the most useful tool supporting undervalued geriatric care system in Poland, because the number of geriatricians in our country is almost the lowest in Europe. In addition, there are prognoses that in 2060 the highest percent of people in the EU over the age of 65 years will be in Poland (36.18%)! In the third polemical paper, Human movement science past, present and future (on example of monograph Human Movement Science Anthropokinesiology ), Mr. President of the IASK familiarizes the readers with the book under the above title (which is also the subtitle of his paper). As it seems, we can find herein the interpretation of research on human movement and the vital issues of a subdiscipline which may be called in an original way anthropokinesiology. Having read sound arguments of Mr. President, I wonder whether we could ask him for permission to add the prefix anthropo- to the word kinesiology in the title: Antropomotoryka-Kinesiology. The problem appears to be disputable, and we would like to leave the question of the title and profile of our quarterly open until the next release of our journal, who knows, maybe the last time issued in Polish? As always, I remain with kind regards and respect, and I wish you, dear readers of Antropomotoryka- Kinesiology, a good read. Edward Mleczko Editor-in-chief Antropomotoryka-Kinesiology 9

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12 NR 58 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 INFORMATION FOR THE AUTHORS 1. Kinesiology ( Antropomotoryka ) is an official scientific quarterly of the International Association of Sport Kinetics IASK, pub lished at the University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland under the auspices of the Committee Rehabilitation, Physical Education and Social Integration the Polish Acad emy of Sciences. The magazine presents the results of original re search work and experiments in the field of human mo to r icity and re lated sciences. It also publishes review ar ticles, opinion ar ticles and discussion of scientists evalu ating the current situation and perspectives of sci en tific de vel opment of human motoricity. 2. Materials for publication (one copy of computer printouts) should be sent together with the compact disc at the following address: Redakcja Antropomotoryki, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kraków, tel , tel/fax or at the address: 3. General conditions: Upon submitting a paper to be published the Author (Authors) trans fers copyright to the Publishing House of the Antro po mo to ryka. The works qualified for pub li cation become therefore the prop erty of the Publishing House of the Antro po mo to ryka and cannot be published in extenso or in fragments in other pe ri odi cals or other media without the written per mission of the Publisher. The work submitted for publication in the Antro po mo to ryka cannot be submitted for pub li cation ear lier on or simultaneously in any other pe ri odical. The Author is required to make a written statement to this effect. If the work in cludes any figures, tables, etc. which have al ready been published elsewhere, the Author is obliged to obtain a written per mission for re printing. Antropomotoryka accepts demonstrative, origi nal, experimental, and historical papers, in for mation about conferences, reports from con gresses and con ferences on human motoricity, short summa ries of works published in foreign pe ri odi cals and book re views on human motoricity. Origi nal works are accepted in En glish. The works of particular sci en tific value sub mitted and accepted for pub li cation earlier on in a for eign sci entific periodical can also be submitted for publication in the Antro po mo to ryka, however, on condition that the Author ob tains a permission from the publisher of the p er io d i c a l. All papers should be no longer than 22 pages with 1800 letters per page (i.e. 30 lines 60 points each). They should be in double-spaced or 1,5 spaced typewriting on one side of the paper only. 4. Rules of constructing the work: The accompanying letter should contain both home and office addresses and the information at which address to send the correspondence. Empirical works should contain the following in for mation: title, name(s) of the author(s), key words in Polish and in English, brief summary in Polish, summary in English (as mentioned above), in tro duction, ma terial, methods, results and dis cussion, con clusions and bib li og ra phy. The number of key words should be from 3 to 15. The summary has to contain: the purpose of the work, material, methods, results and con clusions. The first page should contain the information in the following order: title, name(s) of the author(s), scientific degree(s) of the author(s) and the pro fessional affiliation, including the address, key words, brief summary in Polish and in English. The summary should not contain less than 200 and no more than 250 words. The reference materials should be listed on a sepa rate sheet of paper. Only the aterials the Author refers to in the text may be included. They should be num bered using Arabic numerals and placed in the order they are quoted in the work (not in the alphabetic order). Each item of the reference materials should be written in a new verse. The surname(s) of the author(s) of the quoted work should be followed by the initials of their first name(s), then the original title of the maga zine where the work was published should be given. The abbre viation of the title of a magazine should be taken from the Index Medicus (or In ter na tional Committee of Medical Journal Editors: Uni form Re quirements for manu scripts submitted in bio medical jour nals. N Engl J Med 1997; 336, ). 11

13 Information for the Authors Examples: a) works printed in magazines: Casella R, Bubendorf L, Sauter G, Moch H, Michatsch MJ, Gasser TC: Focal neu roen do crine differentiation lacks prognostics sig nifi cance in prostate core needle biopsies. J Urol, 1998; 160: b) monographs: Matthews DE, Farewell VT: Using and Un derstanding Medical Statistics, ed 3, re vised. Basel, Karger, c) chapters in textbooks: Parren PWHI, Burton DR: Antibodies against HIV-1 from phage display libraries; Mapping of an immune response and progress towards antiviral immu no therapy; in Capra JD (ed.): An ti body Engineering, Chem. Immunol. Basel, Karger, 1997, 65: Kokot F: Fizjologia nerek; w. Zieliński J, Leń ko J (eds): Urologia, War sza wa, PZWL, 1992, 1: All the illustrations have to be of high quality. Graphic material should be submitted on white sheets of pa per. Copies of photographs and pho to graphs should be submitted on glossy paper. The con secutive num ber of the photograph should be written with a soft pencil on the back side of each photograph as well as an arrow marking its top edge. Only black and white pictures are printed. Scales and pictures should be placed on separate pages and numbered with Arabic numerals. The headings, descriptions and suscriptions under the pictures and above the scales should be written in Polish and English. Example in Polish: Tabela 1., Ryc. 1., Objaśnienia, Chłopcy Example in English: Table 1., Fig. 1., Commentary, Boys Please, use round pa ren the ses. Physical or chemical for mu lae should be written clearly. This re fers par ticu larly to in di ces and ex po nents. The article can be written using the editor of MS Word 6.0 to 2007 or Open Office, preferably DOC or RTF format. Illustrations and tables should be packed in sepa rate files and, on the printouts, the place where they are to be included should be marked in pencil. The graphs made in black. It is permissible to use gray tints with various shades of intensity and texture. While typing the descriptions uniform char ac ter we kindly ask used due to esthetic reasons, e.g., arial. Bold print, italics, etc., should be limited to the nec essary mini mum. While scanning the illus trations, the dis tri bution should be at least 300 dpi. Black and white illustrations (line art) should be sent in TIFF for mat and pictures (gray) in TIFF or JPEG format (at the low degree of com pression, up to 10%). All the files should be packed using RAR or ZIP. After copying them on CD it is necessary to check if all the files are copied. The reference materials should be given in the order of quotation. [1] Żekoński Z, Wolański N: Warunki społeczno-by to we jako czynniki rozwoju człowieka w Wo lań ski N (red.): Czynniki rozwoju człowieka. War sza wa, PWN, 1987, [2] Malarecki I: Zarys fizjologii wysiłku i treningu spor to wego. Warszawa, Sport i Turystyka, [3] Bouchard C, Malina RM: Genetics of phy sio lo gi cal fit ness and motor performance. Exerc. Sport. Sc. Rev. 1983; 11: [4] Szopa J: W poszukiwaniu struktury mo to rycz no ści: ana li za czynnikowa cech somatycznych, funk cjo nalnych i prób spraw no ści fizycznej u dziewcząt i chłopców w wie ku 8 19 lat. Wyd. Monograficzne, Kraków, AWF, 1983; 35. While quoting the reference materials in the text, only square parentheses with the number of the quoted item in Arabic numerals should be given. When qu oting two or more works the square parentheses sho uld con ta in the chronological or der of their pu bli ca tion. 5. Editors remarks All the materials are evaluated and anonymously reviewed. The reviewers opinion is passed on to the Author by the editor. The proof copy of the article will be ed to the Author as a PDF file. When the necessary corrections are made and the article is approved of by the Author, it should be ed back within 10 days to the editorial board of Antropomotoryka Kinesiology. A delay in sending back the article may postpone its printing till the next issue of the magazine. The Publisher of Antropomotoryka Kinesiology reserves the right to do stylistic revisions as well as the possible right to correct nomenclature and to shorten texts. The article (with a written statement see: General conditions) should be sent with a cover letter signed by a senior reasercher, who is responsible for the content of the of the article. The Author gets a free copy of Antropomotoryka Kinesiology in PDF format. The magazine in book form can be ordered on condition of payment at the address: when the corrected proof copy is returned. Current copies of Antropomotoryka and those from the files can be ordered on condition of payment from Kra kowska Księgarnia Kultury Fizycznej, al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kraków, tel/fax (012) Summaries in Polish and English can be found at the following Internet addresses: link: wydawnictwa, czasopisma, antropomotoryka, and www. journals.indexcopernicus.com. 12

14 NR 58 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 INFORMACJE DLA AUTORÓW 1. Antropomotoryka ( Kinesiology ) jest ofi cjal nym, rec e n z o w a n y m k w a r t a l n i k i e m n au k ow y m M i ęd z yn ar od ow eg o Stowarzyszenia Mo to ry ki Spor to wej IASK, wy da wa nym w Akademii Wy cho wa nia Fi zycz ne go w Kra ko wie pod pa trona tem Ko mi te tu Rehabilitacji, Kultury Fizycznej i Integracji Społecznej PAN. W cza so piśmie przed sta wia ne są wyniki ory gi nal nych ba dań i do świad czeń w dzie dzi nie mo to rycz ności czło wie ka oraz dziedzin po krew nych. Za miesz cza ne są również pra ce prze glądo we, poglądy oraz dys ku sje oceniające obec ny stan i per spek ty wy rozwoju do rob ku ba daw cze go szeroko pojętej antropomotoryki. 2. Materiały przeznaczone do druku (jeden egzemplarz wydruku komputerowego) należy przesłać łącznie z płytą CD na adres: Redakcja Antropomotoryki, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kraków, tel , tel./fax lub na adres poczty elektronicznej 3. Warunki ogólne Zgłoszenie pracy do druku jest jed no znacz ne z przekazaniem przez au to ra (au to rów) prawa do własności Redakcji An tro po mo to ry ki. Prace za kwa li fi ko wa ne do wy dru ko wa nia stają się zatem wy łącz ną własnością Redak cji i nie można ich pu bli ko wać w całości lub w części w in nych cza so pi smach lub mediach cyfrowych bez pi sem nej zgo dy Wydawcy. Praca złożona do druku w Antropomotoryce nie może być także wcześniej ani równocześnie złożona w in nym cza so pi śmie, co stwierdza autor w pi sem nym oświad cze niu. W razie umieszczenia w pracy rycin lub ta bel itp., pochodzących z opra co wań opu bli ko wa nych w innych cza so pi smach autor ma obo wią zek uzy ska nia zgody na przedruk. Redakcja Antropomotoryki przyjmuje do dru ku pra ce poglądowe, oryginalne, doświadczalne, opra co wa nia hi sto rycz ne, komunikaty kon fe ren cyj ne, spra woz da nia ze zjaz dów i konferencji o tema ty ce an tro po mo to rycz nej oraz krót kie stresz cze nia prac wy dru ko wa nych w czasopi smach za gra nicz nych i recenzje książek z za kre su teorii mo to rycz ności czło wie ka. Pra ce przeglądowe i ory gi nal ne będą zre da go wa ne w ję zy ku polskim. Ar tykuły mogą być pu bli ko wa ne w ję zy ku angielskim. Prace przed sta wia ją ce dużą war tość na ukową, za kwali fi ko wa ne wcze śniej do wy dru ko wa nia w cza so pi śmie za gra nicz nym, mogą być rów nież zgło szo ne do druku w An tro po mo to ry ce, jed nak pod wa run kiem uzyskania przez autora pi sem nej zgo dy Wy daw cy cza so pi sma, w któ rym teksty zostały lub zo staną opu bli ko wa ne. Objętość artykułu nie powinna przekraczać 22 stron wydruku komputerowego, na których zamieszczono po 1800 znaków (np.: 30 wierszy po 60 znaków). Praca musi być napisana jednostronnie z podwójną lub 1,5 interlinią. 4. Zasady konstrukcji pracy W liście towarzyszącym prosimy podać do kład ne ad re sy (zarówno prywatny, jak i miejsca pra cy) z zaznaczeniem, gdzie należy przesyłać ko re spon den cję. Prace empiryczne powinny mieć następujący układ: ty tuł, imię (imiona) i nazwisko autora (ów), słowa klu czo we w języku polskim i angielskim, zwięzłe stresz cze nie w języku polskim i an giel skim, wstęp, materiał i metody, wyniki ba dań, dys ku sja, wnioski oraz wy kaz piśmiennictwa. Słowa kluczowe powinny liczyć od 3 do 15 wy ra zów. Streszczenie musi zawierać: cel pracy, materiał, me to dy lub materiał i metody, wyniki, wnioski. Na pierwszej stronie opracowania należy za mie ścić w ko lej ności: tytuł pracy w języku polskim i an giel skim, imię i na zwi sko autora(ów), stopień na uko wy au to ra(ów), miejsce za kła du pra cy, sło wa kluczowe oraz zwięzłe stresz cze nie po pol sku i an giel sku. Jego objętość nie może być mniejsza niż 200 i nie większa niż 250 słów. Spis piśmiennictwa należy wydrukować na osob nej stro nie. Prosimy wymienić w nim jedynie po zy cje, na które autor powołuje się w tekście. Po win ny być one numerowane cyframi arabskimi i uszeregowane w ko - lejności cytowania ich w pra cy (a nie w kolejności al fa betycz nej). Każdą po zy cję piśmiennictwa należy zapisywać od no we go wiersza. Po nazwisku autora (lub wszyst kich a ut or ó w) c y t o w a n e j p r a c y n a l e ż y p od a ć p i e r ws z e l it er y imion, a następnie tytuł pracy w brzmie niu ory gi nal nym oraz nazwę czasopisma, z któ re go praca pochodzi. Skrót tytułu cza so pi sma na leży podać zgodnie z jego brzmie niem w Index Medicus (patrz rów nież: International Com mit tee of Medical Jo ur nal Editors: Uniform re qu ire ments for ma nu- 13

15 Informacje dla Autorów scripts sub mit ted to bio me di cal jo ur nals. N Engl J Med 1997; 336; ). Przykłady: a) prace wydrukowane w cza so pi smach: Casella R, Bubendorf L, Sauter G, Moch H, Michatsch MJ, Gasser TC: Focal neu ro en do crine dif fe ren tia tion lacks pro gno stic si gni fi cian ce in pro sta te core needle biopsies. J Urol, 1998; 160: b) monografie: Matthews DE, Farewell VT: Using and Un derstan ding Me di cal Statistics, ed 3, re vi sed. Ba sel, Karger, c) rozdziały w książkach: Parren PWHI, Burton DR: Antibodies aga inst HIV-1 from phage display libraries; Map ping of an im mu ne response and progress towards antiviral im mu no the ra py; in Ca pra JD (ed.): An ti bo dy Engi ne ering. Chem Immunol. Ba sel, Kar ger, 1997, 65: Kokot F: Fizjologia nerek; w Zieliński J, Leń ko J (red.): Uro lo gia, Warszawa, PZWL, 1992, 1: Materiał ilustracyjny musi mieć bardzo dobrą ja kość. Powi nien być wykonany na białych kart kach. Re pro duk cje zdjęć oraz fotografie należy przy go to wać na błysz czą cym papierze fo to gra ficz nym. Na od wro cie fo to gra fii trzeba napisać mięk kim ołów kiem jej kolejny numer oraz zaznaczyć strzałką, gdzie znaj du je się jej górny brzeg. Redakcja dru ku je je dy nie zdję cia czarno-białe. Tabele i ryciny należy zamieszczać na oddzielnych stronach i nu me ro wać cyframi arabskimi. Ich nagłówki, ob ja śnie nia oraz podpisy pod rycinami i nad tabelami powinny być w języku polskim i angielskim. Przy kład: Tabela 1., Ryc. 1., Objaśnienia, Chłopcy Table 1., Fig. 1., Commentary, Boys Prosimy używać nawiasów okrą głych. Wzory mu szą być napisane czytelnie, szcze gól nie wskaźni ki i wykładniki potęg. Artykuł może być napisany na edytorze od Word 6.0 do 2007, Open Office, w for ma cie DOC lub RTF. Ilu stra cje, ta be le i wy kre sy powinny być za miesz czo ne w osobnych plikach, a na wydrukach oraz na mar gi ne sie za zna czo ne ołów kiem ich miej sce w tekście. Wykresy na le ży wy ko nać w kolorze czar nym. Moż na stosować tin ty szare o różnym na tęże niu lub tek stu ry. W opisach, ze względów es te tycznych, prosimy stosować czcionkę jed no ele men to wą (np. arial). Nie należy nad uży wać wyróżnień (bold, ita lic). Przy ska no wa nych ilustracjach rozdzielczość musi wy no sić co najmniej 300 dpi. Ilustracje czar no-białe (line art.) po win ny być w formacie TIFF, a zdjęcia (grey) w for ma cie TIFF lub JPEG (w ni skim stopniu kompresji, do 10%). Wszystkie pli ki mogą być spa ko wa ne RAR-em lub ZIP-em. Po sko pio wa niu na CD należy spraw dzić, czy wszyst kie pliki się kopiują. Spis piśmiennictwa powinien być sporządzony we dług ko lej no ści cytowania: [1] Żekoński Z, Wolański N: Warunki społeczno-by to we jako czynniki rozwoju człowieka; w Wo lań ski N (red.): Czyn ni ki rozwoju człowieka. Warszawa, PWN, 1987; [2] Malarecki I: Zarys fizjologii wysiłku i treningu spor towe go. Warszawa, Sport i Turystyka, [3] Bouchard C, Malina RM: Genetics of phy sio lo gi cal fit ness and motor performance. Exerc Sport Sc Rev, 1983; 11: [4] Szopa J: W poszukiwaniu struktury mo to rycz no ści: ana li za czynnikowa cech somatycznych, funk cjo nalnych i prób spraw no ści fizycznej u dziewcząt i chłopców w wie ku 8 19 lat. Wyd. Monograficzne, Kra ków, AWF, 1988; 35. Powołując się w tekście na daną pozycję pi śmien nic twa na leży podać w nawiasie kwadratowym tylko cy frę arab ską. Przy ta cza jąc dwie lub większą ich licz bę należy podawać w na wia sie kwa dra to wym ko lej ność chro no lo gicz ną ich wy da nia. 5. Uwagi Redakcji Wszystkie prace podlegają ocenie i są ano ni mo wo re cenzo wa ne. Redakcja zapoznaje autora z uwagami re cen zen tów. Odbitka szczotkowa pracy jest wysyłana do Autora pocztą elektroniczną jako plik PDF. Po niezbędnej korekcie i akceptacji pracy do druku należy ją odesłać w terminie do 10 dni na adres Redakcji Antropomotoryki. Przetrzymywanie korekty może spowodować przesunięcie artykułu do następnego numeru. Redakcja Antropomotoryki zastrzega sobie prawo adiustacji, dokonywania poprawek w zakresie ujednolicania nazewnictwa i ewentualnego skracania tekstów. Przysyłane do druku artykuły (wraz z oświadczeniem patrz: Warunki ogólne) powinny być kierowane do Redakcji pismem przewodnim podpisanym przez samodzielnego pracownika nauki, równocześnie odpowiadającego za merytoryczną stronę opracowania. Autor otrzymuje bezpłatnie plik PDF z zawartością numeru Antropomotoryki, w którym zamieszczono jego pracę. Czasopismo w formie książkowej można zamówić odpłatnie przy zwrocie korekty autorskiej pod adresem: Pełne numery bieżące i archiwalne An tro po mo to ry ki moż na zamówić odpłatnie w Krakowskiej Księ gar ni Kultury Fizycznej, al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kra ków, tel/fax (012) Streszczenia w języku polskim i angielskim są zamieszczone na stronie internetowej: link: wydawnictwa, czasopisma, antropomotoryka oraz www. journals.indexcopernicus.com. 14

16 ORIGINAL PAPERS PRACE ORYGINALNE

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18 NR 58 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 IN SEARCH OF TRIALS EVALUATING THE RHYTHM OF MOVEMENT W POSZUKIWANIU PRÓB OCENIAJĄCYCH RYTM MOTORYCZNY Adam Haleczko*, Leszek Korzewa**, Ewa Misiołek**, Urszula Włodarczyk** ***PhD, Wrocław, ul. Kotsisa 21/4, Poland ***PhD, Department of Athletics and Gymnastics, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Poland Key words: rhythm of movement, muscles relaxation, 10-year-old children, tests Słowa kluczowe: rytm motoryczny, rozluźnienie mięśni, dzieci dziesięcioletnie, testy SUMMARY STRESZCZENIE Introduction. In one of our previous works devoted to the selection of children for sports training, in a battery of tests evaluating motor preparation we omitted the trials evaluating the rhythm of movement and ability of muscles relaxation. These two components of motor skills are essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of subsequent achievements of children. In this study we consider the first of them, the value of which, especially in the field of teaching and perfecting the technique of movement, has been highlighted by a number of authors. The omission of the concept of the sense of rhythm from selection tests, despite such positive feedback, resulted from the lack of practically proven and adequate method of testing and evaluating this ability. In his work Hiriartborde, who used factor analysis, demonstrated the absence of one independent evaluator of this ability in the motor sphere. The above conclusion was also confirmed in studies carried out by Raczek and Mynarski. The results of these studies have explained the reasons for low effectiveness of the performance measurement tools used so far in this area. Aim of the study. The research was purposed to gather the information about the possibility of applying several motor tests to assess the sensory aspects of the rhythm of movement. Material and methods. The sample under study included 83 boys and girls, the fourth-graders at two elementary schools. The analysis contained morphological and chronological age, 5 results of motor tests used in selection for sports training, which were supplemented by two rhythm aptitude tests (lateral step-test and lateral step-test after the metronome signals). The material was analyzed statistically by calculating the basic indices and simple correlations. Results. The obtained results were presented in 4 tables informing about the size, variability and relationships between the data. The analysis showed significant connections between both-feet lateral jumps and two attached tests of lateral steps, but the above links evaluated in terms of correlation coefficient and ranged near the critical threshold of significance. In the group of girls the relationship between the step-test and the total result of the set of selection tests turned out to be significant. In the trial with the metronome, there was no such relationship. Interesting was also the correlation of the last trial with crossing the ladders in the hanging position, which is statistically significant in the group of girls. In boys the coefficient r approached only to significance threshold. Summing up, in the two included tests, especially in girls, certain elements of the sense of rhythm were observed. However, results of these tests were less effective in terms of diagnosis than both-feet lateral jumps. Conclusions. From among the above three tests, both-feet lateral jumps and other two attached tests adapted to study on the rhythm of movement, only the first one occurred to be effective in evaluating the rhythm of movement. The remaining two, despite low relationships, provided the information which confirmed the Hiriartbode s hypothesis of several factors comprising the ability to perform rhythmic movements. The tests mentioned above require further study to be assessed more deeply, which may help to increase their relevancy. 17

19 Adam Haleczko, Leszek Korzewa, Ewa Misiołek, Urszula Włodarczyk Wstęp. W jednej z naszych wcześniejszych prac poświęconych doborowi dzieci do szkolenia sportowego, w zestawie testów określających przygotowanie motoryczne zabrakło prób oceniających poczucie rytmu motorycznego oraz zdolności do rozluźniania mięśni. Te dwie składowe motoryki mają istotne znaczenie dla diagnozy i prognozy późniejszych osiągnięć dzieci. Rozpatrujemy pierwszą z nich, której wartość, szczególnie w nauczaniu i doskonaleniu techniki ruchu, podkreśla szereg autorów. Niewłączenie czucia rytmu do testów doboru, mimo tak pozytywnych opinii, wynikało z braku sprawdzonej w praktyce, adekwatnej metody badania i oceny tej zdolności. Prace Hiriartborde`a z zastosowaniem analizy czynnikowej udowodniły, że nie ma w sferze motoryki jednego samodzielnego testu oceniającego tę zdolność. Potwierdziły to badania Raczka i Mynarskiego. Wyniki ww. badań wyjaśniają przyczyny niskiej skuteczności stosowanych dotąd narzędzi pomiarowych w tej dziedzinie. Cel pracy. Zebranie informacji o możliwości zastosowania kilku prób motorycznych do oceny czucia rytmu motorycznego. Materiał i metody. Badaniami objęto 83 dzieci obojga płci z klas czwartych dwu szkół podstawowych. W analizie uwzględniono wiek metrykalny i morfologiczny uczniów oraz wyniki pięciu prób motorycznych stosowanych w ramach doboru do szkolenia sportowego, które uzupełniono dwiema próbami, które jak hipotetycznie przyjęto mogły służyć do badania uzdolnień rytmicznych (boczny step-test i boczny step-test z sygnałami metronomu). Materiał opracowano pod względem statystycznym, obliczając podstawowe wskaźniki i korelacje proste. Wyniki. Uzyskane dane przedstawiono w czterech tabelach informujących o wielkości, zmienności i związkach przeprowadzonych pomiarów. Analiza korelacji wykazała istotne związki przeskoków bocznych obunóż z obu dołączonymi próbami bocznego step-testu, aczkolwiek więzi między tymi dwiema, ocenione za pomocą wartości współczynnika korelacji, wahały się w granicach progu istotności. W grupie dziewcząt znaczący okazał się związek step-testu z łączną oceną zestawu selekcyjnego testów, przy czym w próbie z metronomem nie zaobserwowano korelacji. We wspomnianej grupie uwagę zwraca istotny związek tej ostatniej próby z przejściem drabinek w zwisie, podczas gdy u chłopców współczynnik r zbliżył się jedynie do progu istotności. Reasumując, w obu dołączonych próbach, szczególnie u dziewcząt, obserwuje się pewne elementy czucia rytmu. Ustępują one jednak pod względem diagnozy próbie przeskoków bocznych obunóż. Wnioski. Z trzech prób: przeskoków bocznych obunóż i dwóch dołączonych, które przyjęto do badania rytmu motorycznego, skutecznym narzędziem do oceny rytmu motorycznego okazuje się tylko pierwsza. Dwie pozostałe, mimo niskich związków, dostarczają jednak innych informacji, co potwierdza hipotezę Hiriartborde`a o kilku czynnikach składających się na zdolność rytmizacji ruchów. Wymienione próby wymagają dalszych prac nad głębszym ich poznaniem i ewentualną możliwością zwiększenia ich trafności. Introduction Maria Kapczyńska [1, p. 1] begins her dissertation upon the study and evaluation of rhythmic movement for physical education and sports with the words: The natural tendency of human body is the tendency to get maximum benefit with minimum energy. Saving vital energy positively affects the rhythmization of activities aimed at ordering the motor process. Kapczyńska defines it pointing out that The rhythmicity of movement we understand as the compliance of a movement with the rhythm of motion (subjectively) intended by a movement performer, or the rhythm (objectively) imposed on him/her from the outside by a variety of rhythmic signals [1, p. 15]. In somewhat different manner these two forms of rhythm determine Mynarski and Raczek [2, p. 32], who stipulate that this pheno menon manifests itself in the adaptation of movements to given (external) rhythms or in applying purposeful, intentional (internal) rhythm of a performer. In particular, the rhythmicity of movement is linked with human motoricity in workplace as well as in the area of physical education and sport, being most evident in physical fitness of a high level. Bearing the above-mentioned in mind, we made an attempt to verify the applicability of several tests aimed at assessing motor coordination abilities on the grounds of motor rhythmicity. In our previous text published in Antropomotoryka-Kinesiology no. 45 [3] we presented a battery of tests designed to assess motor ability and coordination skills in 10-year-olds for the purposes of selection for sports training. In the aforementioned battery of tests we omitted, however, through lack of proven scientific measurement tools (especially in terms of accuracy), the issues of the sense of motor rhythm and ability of muscles relaxation. Among the few that have expressed the alarm at lack of tests for evaluation the sense of motor rhythm and ability to muscle relaxation are, to best of our knowledge, Lyakh and Foreman [4]. Unfortunately, this lack exists even today, in opposition to standpoints of major authors in this field, regarding these two abilities as priority areas for achievements in sport. Particularly meaningful in this regard are the words of Meinel [5, pp ]: Under the term 18

20 In search of trials evaluating the rhythm of movement concept of rhythm of movements we understand the dynamic structure of motor movement, shaped by the periodic variation of tension and muscle relaxation. This applies not only to cyclical movements, but also acyclic. Characteristic variation in tension and relaxation is typical for throws and jumps. The author also refers to sports training as such, formulating remarks for physical educators and coaches: Great achievements in competitive sports are permanently associated with the interdependence of great strength and ability to relax [5, p. 196]. Sozański and colleagues [6] emphasize the purposefulness of motor rhythm research on children and youth attending sport schools, providing information about the dynamics of changes in that ability during the years of education and training, as well as an element of selection for sports training. Czajkowski [7, p. 29] in his comments on R.A. Schmidt s book, Motor Learning and Performance from the Practical Principles, refers to Schmidt s arguments for developing temporary movement programs, and suggests following Schmidt s key recommendation: Capturing and mastering the basic rhythm movement is a top prior and most difficult task; after mastering it the use of different variables of performance indicators is much easier. Similarly expresses this problem Meinel [5, p. 193]: The mastery of rhythm, even roughly, is the cornerstone and the foundation of the first success in professional sports mobility. Mayor and Stronczyński [8, p. 69] in a comprehensive study discussing the importance of rhythm in teaching and advancing the movement, among other things state: The higher is the stage of improving sporting technique, the more pronounced is the role of the rhythm contained inside. The rhythm somehow emphasizes the quality of the art in the dynamic time-space dimension. This raises the question of why, despite the great importance of this capacity for training and achievements in sport, in practice there are no proven methods of testing and accurate measuring. In the mid-twentieth century several works determining the rhythm on the grounds of factor analysis were produced. Special attention should be paid to the study of rhythmic motor abilities published by Hiriartborde [9]. The experimental material consisted of 65 female students at the Higher School of Physical Education in Paris. Measurement tool was made up of three sets of tests. The first set consisted of seven rhythmic tests, the second one included five psychomotor tests, whereas the third one was formed of music and personality tests. After taking out the tests concerning music and personality from the measurement tool, only 21 variables were taken into account in the analysis, and from among five considered factors only 3 were significant. This allowed the author to formulate the hypothesis about the absence of one independent factor responsible for the sense of rhythm and to point out that these three that had emerged, constituted the basis of rhythmic abilities. The first factor was determined by the perception of rhythm. The second (in the factor analysis IV), in Hiriartborde s opinion, was dependent on synchronized response to rhythmic stimuli. The third factor was responsible for practicing complex movements while involving different body parts. These were the movements that occurred in various sports that required good coordination. In conclusion of his research Hiriartborde opted for the independence of three factors selected by rhythmic aptitude, suggesting at the same time that it was impossible to enclose the sense of rhythm globally. The above results were confirmed by the research of Mynarski and Raczek [2], who employed factor analysis to determine the coordination motor abilities of children and adolescents. The sense of rhythm did not emerge as an independent factor in the course of analysis. The results of the aforementioned studies present the level of difficulties caused by the great demands for the construction of a tool for measuring motor rhythmic ability test that would fully satisfy all the researchers. In this case, the only thing was to search for tests providing detailed information about the factors that constitute the sense of rhythm. Among the attempts to determine this ability we put our modification of Schilling test [10] as a tool in selecting children for sports training (the description of which you can find in Antropomotoryka- Kinesiology no. 52 [11]). Apart from the assessment of motoricity, this modified test is distinguished by a diagnosis of mental ability of candidates and this seems to be important, bearing in mind Hiriartborde s comments [9] that in the study devoted to rhythm and motor coordination Wight also took into account children s intelligence quotient. In accord with the above-mentioned there was demonstrated that both rhythmization and intelligence were two components of motor coordination. Raczek and Mynarski [2] have recommended jumps over a bar (the original version) as a key element in evaluation the ability to perform high-frequency motion. In his later work Mynarski [12] describes, after all, jumps over a bar as a tool examining the frequency of movement throughout the body. Raczek [13] counts Schilling test among tools assessing both coordination abilities 19

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