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2 ISSN COMMITTEE FOR REHABILITATION, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIEN CES INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPORT KINETICS IASK AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA Vol. 22, nr 57 INDEX COPERNICUS UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CRACOW, POLAND UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN WROCLAW, POLAND CRACOW WROCLAW 2012

3 KOMITET REHABILITACJI, KULTURY FIZYCZNEJ I INTEGRACJI SPOŁECZNEJ PAN ISSN MIĘDZYNARODOWE STOWARZYSZENIE MOTORYKI SPOR TO WEJ IASK AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA Vol. 22, nr 57 INDEX COPERNICUS AKADEMIA WYCHOWANIA FI ZYCZ NE GO IM. BRO NI SŁA WA CZECHA W KRA KO WIE AKADEMIA WYCHOWANIA FI ZYCZ NE GO WE WROCŁAWIU KRAKÓW WROCŁAW 2012

4 ANTROPOMOTORYKA ISSN COMMITTEE FOR REHABILITATION, PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF SPORT KINETICS IASK UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION, CRACOW, POLAND UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN WROCLAW, POLAND VOL. 22, NR 57 CRACOW WROCLAW 2012 EDITORIAL COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN Edward Mleczko V-CHAIRMAN Zofia Ignasiak MEMBERS Jan Chmura, Jerzy Januszewski, Andrzej Klimek, Tadeusz Koszczyc, Lesław Kulmatycki, Wiesław Osiński, Joachim Raczek, Teresa Sławińska-Ochla, Włodzimierz Starosta EDITORIAL BOARD Michal Belej (Slovakia), Peter Blaser (Germany), Tadeusz Bober, Janusz Czerwiński, Sławomir Drozdowski, Józef Drabik, Joanna Gradek, Peter Hirtz (Germany), Josif Moisiejewicz Fejgenberg (Israel), Adam Haleczko, Andrzej Jopkiewicz, Han C.G. Kemper (Holland), Krzysztof Klukowski, Vladimir Lyakh (Russia), Robert M. Malina (USA), Wacław Petryński, Ryszard Przewęda, Igor Ryguła, Stanisław Sterkowicz, Stanisław Żak EDITOR S OFFICE al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kraków Poland Indexed in INDEX COPERNICUS This publication is funded in part by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education Translation: Wiesław Horabik, Transatlantic Communication Sylwia Willcox Proofreading: Barbara Przybyło, Transatlantic Communication Sylwia Willcox Copyright by University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland Design and DTP: University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland Print: ArtProm, Kraków, ul. Dukatów 29 Circulation: 150

5 ANTROPOMOTORYKA ISSN KOMITET REHABILITACJI, KULTURY FI ZYCZ NEJ I INTEGRACJI SPOŁECZNEJ PAN MIĘ DZY NA RO DO WE STO WA RZY SZE NIE MOTORYKI SPORTOWEJ IASK AKADEMIA WY CHO WA NIA FI ZYCZ NE GO IM. BRONISŁAWA CZE CHA W KRA KO WIE AKADEMIA WYCHOWANIA FIZYCZNEGO WE WROCŁAWIU VOL. 22, NR 57 KRAKÓW WROCŁAW 2012 REDAKCJA Redaktor Naczelny Edward Mleczko Z-ca Redaktora Na czel ne go Zofia Ignasiak Komitet Redakcyjny Jan Chmura, Jerzy Januszewski, Andrzej Klimek, Tadeusz Koszczyc, Lesław Kulmatycki, Wiesław Osiński, Joachim Raczek, Teresa Sławińska-Ochla, Włodzimierz Starosta RADA REDAKCYJNA Michal Belej (Słowacja), Peter Blaser (Niemcy), Tadeusz Bober, Janusz Czerwiński, Sławomir Drozdowski, Józef Drabik, Joanna Gradek, Peter Hirtz (Niemcy), Josif Moisiejewicz Fejgenberg (Izrael), Adam Haleczko, Andrzej Jopkiewicz, Han C.G. Kemper (Holandia), Krzysztof Klukowski, Vladimir Lyakh (Rosja), Robert M. Malina (USA), Wacław Petryński, Ryszard Przewęda, Igor Ryguła, Stanisław Sterkowicz, Stanisław Żak ADRES REDAKCJI al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kraków Poland Czasopismo ANTROPOMOTORYKA jest umieszczone na liście rankingowej INDEX COPERNICUS Publikacja częściowo dotowana przez Ministerstwo Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego Tłumaczenie: Wiesław Horabik, Transatlantic Communication Sylwia Willcox Adiustacja i korekta: Barbara Przybyło, Transatlantic Communication Sylwia Willcox Copyright by University School of Physical Education in Cracow Opracowanie gra ficz ne i łamanie: Dział Projektów Wydawniczych AWF Kraków Druk: ArtProm, Kraków, ul. Dukatów 29 Nakład: 150 egz.

6 NR 57 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 CONTENTS From Editors 7 Information for the Authors 11 ORIGINAL PAPERS Kazimierz Mikołajec, Adam Maszczyk, Arkadiusz Stanula, Ryszard Litkowycz, Adam Zając Stretching and strength exercises in relation to running speed and anaerobic power in basketball players 17 Dariusz Boguszewski, Katarzyna Boguszewska, Jakub Adamczyk The impact of rapid weight loss on the competitive preparation of judoists 27 Ivan Čillík, Darina Kozolková Body response of hurdle runners to training load in microcycle 35 Ewa Dybińska, Marcin Kaca, Magdalena Zagórska The influence of visual and verbal information transfer on the effectiveness of learning and mastering swimming activities among students at the University School of Physical Education in Cracow 45 Krystyna Rożek, Jerzy Piechura, Anna Skrzek, Tomasz Ignasiak, Monika Bartczyszyn, Marta Majewska Assessment of the effectiveness of rehabilitation period on physical fitness and exercise tolerance in elderly people 57 Václav Bunc Walking as a tool of physical fitness and body composition influence 63 Marta Wieczorek Functional and dynamic asymmetry in boys aged years (continuous research) 73 Beata Wojtyczek, Małgorzata Pasławska Knowledge of downhill skiing safety principles among students at the University of Physical Education participating in an obligatory winter camp. Part II 83 Jerzy Januszewski, Edward Mleczko Long-term trends in changes of physical fitness defined in the concept of health (H-RF) in light of result of physical fitness assessment using T-scores 89 Helena Popławska, Krystyna Buchta, Agnieszka Dmitruk Anthropological evaluation of the influence of socio-economic factors on the development and physical fitness of rural boys from Lublin region 103 REVIEW PAPERS Emilia Mikołajewska, Dariusz Mikołajewski The movement of a human being in the medical exoskeleton the anthropomotoric aspects 115 5

7 NR 57 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 SPIS TREŚCI Od Redakcji 7 Informacje dla autorów 13 PRACE ORYGINALNE Kazimierz Mikołajec, Adam Maszczyk, Arkadiusz Stanula, Ryszard Litkowycz, Adam Zając Ćwiczenia rozciągające i siłowe w relacji z szybkością biegową i mocą anaerobową koszykarzy 17 Dariusz Boguszewski, Katarzyna Boguszewska, Jakub Adamczyk Wpływ redukcji masy ciała na dyspozycję startową zawodników judo 27 Ivan Čillík, Darina Kozolková Reakcje na obciążenia treningowe u płotkarzy w mikrocyklu okresu przygotowawczego 35 Ewa Dybińska, Marcin Kaca, Magdalena Zagórska Wpływ przekazu informacji wizualno-werbalnej na skuteczność uczenia się i nauczania oraz doskonalenia czynności pływackich studentów Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego w Krakowie 45 Krystyna Rożek, Jerzy Piechura, Anna Skrzek, Tomasz Ignasiak, Monika Bartczyszyn, Marta Majewska Ocena efektywności turnusu rehabilitacyjnego na sprawność fizyczną i tolerancję wysiłku osób w wieku starszym 57 Václav Bunc Wpływ marszu na sprawność fizyczną oraz skład ciała przedstawicieli różnych grup wiekowych 63 Marta Wieczorek Asymetria funkcjonalna i dynamiczna chłopców w wieku lat (badania ciągłe) 73 Beata Wojtyczek, Małgorzata Pasławska Znajomość zasad bezpieczeństwa wśród studentów Akademii Wychowania Fizycznego uczestniczących w programowym obozie zimowym. Część II 83 Jerzy Januszewski, Edward Mleczko Długookresowe tendencje zmian sprawności fizycznej ujętej w konwencji zdrowia w świetle wyników ich ewaluacji z wykorzystaniem skali tenowej 89 Helena Popławska, Krystyna Buchta, Agnieszka Dmitruk Antropologiczna ocena wpływu czynników socjoekonomicznych na rozwój i sprawność fizyczną chłopców wiejskich z Lubelszczyzny 103 PRACE PRZEGLĄDOWE Emilia Mikołajewska, Dariusz Mikołajewski Poruszanie się człowieka w egzoszkielecie medycznym aspekty antropomotoryczne 115 6

8 NR 57 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 FROM EDITORS OD REDAKCJI THE ENGLISH VERSION OF ANTROPOMOTORYKA-KINESIOLOGY IN 2012? W NOWYM 2012 ROKU ANTROPOMOTORYKA-KINESIOLOGY PO ANGIELSKU? I hope that it will not be a rhetorical sentence when we meet in New Year. We are planning to issue four quarterlies in English. In these activities we are supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. We have conducted serious talks with the publishers interested in promoting our journal abroad. It obliges us to international cooperation and to make the research topics internationally known. From this perspective, we shall put forward increasingly higher requirements to the authors. Only such contributions shall be qualified for printing, which will have a chance to be quoted. Moreover, we have to become more professionalized. We are forced to do it by new guidelines concerning the assessment of periodicals. It might certainly be helpful if we have acquired DOI (digital object identifier). As one can read in the latest 2012 issue of DOI Handbook, published by The International DOI Foundation, the founder and the owner of the DOI system and trademark defines DOI as: a digital identifier for an object of intellectual property, which aims at the persistent identification of any object of intellectual property in digital networks in connection with the current data which refer to it One might formulate a question: why possessing the DOI is so important? Well, in order to be cited and have the published articles cited, we have to have a tool which will enable us to get in contact with all renown and prestigious scientific publications which do possess DOI. The identification of a digital object is perceived as something natural. DOI is also used by different software supporting the process of writing scientific publications (e.g. by the manager of bibliographies). Thus, one while using DOI can easily attain the latest bibliography to an article from all over the world. It will certainly not be an easy way to win the world market. However, why should we not aspire to the rank of a highly appreciated periodical even today? It will certainly depend on our readers but also on the methods of prioritizing the scientific periodicals. The publication which is not indexed in Thomson Reuters Scientific database cannot have a Predicted Impact Factor (PIF) calculated. Such publication is not disqualified, however. It may be awarded the punctuation in Index B ; but unfortunately the articles which are indexed there are the second category publications. The way to jump into a higher position may be the indication by DOI. So, we are waiting for it. I think, the majority of the publications included in the 57th issue of Antropomotoryka-Kinesiology deserves to be known not only in our country. So far, we could have only referred to the opinions of our readers. What is there, in the 57 th issue of the Krakow and Wroclaw periodical? Undoubtedly, these are the empirical works which evoke the principal attention. In the article entitled Stretching and Strength Exercises in Relation to Running Speed and Anaerobic Power in Basketball Players, the authors have presented interesting results of an experiment with the testing of effectiveness of using stretching exercises in the sports training. It turned out that the strength exercises performed even with a small capacity at the lack of an intensive stret- 7

9 From Editors ching stimulus had a positive impact on a dynamic development of the anaerobic power and running velocity. Intensification of the stretching exercises limited the increase of speed abilities and the anaerobic power. On the other hand, the experiment The Impact of the Rapid Weight Loss on the Competitive Preparation of Judoists conducted on the competitive sportsmen proved that the reduction of the body mass before the competition might have (in a short period of time) a negative impact on the physical and psychical disposition of the competitors. Hence, the potential reduction of the body mass should take place under the control of the professionals (trainers, physicians, physiotherapists). The results of an interesting training experiment conducted in the Czech Republic may interest the sports practitioners. The results were revealed in the article Body Response of Hurdle Runners to Training Load in Microcycle. The experiment showed the differences in the intra-individual and inter-individual reaction of the competitors bodies in different training units, in the following monitored variables: time of the push-off, effectiveness in the active phase of the push-off, the height of the push-off and the effect of the push-off. Another experiment conducted by the Krakow scientists, the results of which were presented in the work The Influence of Visual and Verbal Information Transfer on the Effectiveness of Learning and Mastering Swimming Activities among Students at the University School of Physical Education in Cracow, showed the significant dependence between the implemented method of teaching the swimming activities based on the enriched delivery of visual and verbal information and the effective mastering of the crawl swimming technique. The importance of an effective 9-day rehabilitation course for senior citizens in the area of the improvement of their physical fitness from the health perspective was reported in the article Assessment of the Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Period on Physical Fitness and Exercise Tolerance in Elderly People. It showed the positive effects in the area of the improvement of physical fitness checked by Fullerton test and the lack of positive results in the area of the BMI indicators. Different conclusions were drawn by the Czech researchers in the publication Walking as a Tool of Physical Fitness and Body Composition Influence. They conducted a 5-months training experiment in three age groups. Walking was the primary tool (80%). Each of the groups performed it with different intensity: 1000 kcal the elderly persons; 1500 kcal the middle aged people, and 200 kcal children and young people. All the participants showed significant changes in physical fitness and in the components of the somatic composition. Moreover, the working people reported the improved feelings and efficiency in performing the professional activities. The authors are of the opinion that quick march of about steps a day may be an effective stimulus for the improvement of health and the compensation for the deficit of movement which today characterizes the lifestyle of the people of various ages. The article Functional and Dynamic Asymmetry in year-old Boys (Research in Progress) referred to the so far unexplained phenomenon of the functional and dynamic asymmetry and its etiology. On the basis of the continuous testing of year-old boys it was concluded that some changes occurred in the area of the functional asymmetry while no such tendency was reported in the level of the dynamic asymmetry checked in the tests of the motoric fitness. The results of an interesting research described in the article Knowledge of Downhill Skiing Safety Principles among Students at the University of Physical Education Participating in an Obligatory Winter Camp. Part II (Part I was published in the Antropomotoryka issue No 55) revealed that more attention should be paid to the application by future skiing instructors and trainers the knowledge of a safety theory of practicing this very popular and attractive sport. The authors are of the opinion that the activities should focus on the provision of an appropriate clothes, skiing shoes, the awareness of the threats to health in the frosty mountain climate, high mountain sickness. In two articles: Long-term Trends in Changes of Physical Fitness Defined in the Concept of Health (H-RF) in Light of Results of Physical Fitness Assessment Using T-scores and Anthropological Evaluation of the Influence of Socio-Economic Factors on the Development and Physical Fitness of Rural Boys from Lublin Region, which were created in different academic centers and on the basis of the material attained at the turn of the 20 th and 21 st centuries in various geographical regions of Poland (The Lublin Region The Eastern Wall of Poland and South-Eastern Poland Małopolska) differing in infrastructure and in the lifestyles, the long-term trends of changes in the somatic and motoric development, popularly called the secular trends were confirmed. It is also interesting that in both cases, different methodologies to solve the problem were used. In the first one, while using the specially developed scale ( T ) the lack of foundation for identifying the phenomenon of the open scissors in the youngest 8

10 From Editors generation of the tested children and young men was identified. Up till now, it was commonly believed that the dynamic, somatic development of the younger generation and lowering of the physical fitness continue. In the cited article, there was a greater dynamics of the improvement of the motoric capabilities, particularly the endurance capabilities, than the somatic features. In the second article, the year-old and year-old boys were divided into groups, the characteristic of which was the level of social stratification of parents. In most cases, the greater rate of the somatic and motoric development of children and of the young people from rural areas was identified. It is probable that in that way the inhabitants of the rural areas are making up for the past backwardness in relation to the inhabitants of the cities and thanks to the improvement of the conditions of living, despite poverty and deficiencies of the life in the rural areas that can still be observed. In the review section, the reader shall find an interesting article The Movement of a Human Being in the Medical Exoskeleton the Anthropomotoric Aspects. In a very interesting way, the authors point to the importance of exoskeletons i.e. mechanical constructions fixed to particular parts of human body and supporting the man s movement with the aid of the in-built effectors, in didactics and scientific works. Our today s knowledge and understanding of the adaptation of a human being to walking and performing the everyday activities in cooperation with robots such as exoskeleton are still limited. The article is an attempt to assess to what extent the possibilities in this area are being utilized. I wish you all an interesting reading, and I wish the authors numerous citations of their creative work. Edward Mleczko Editor-in-Chief A ntropomotor yka 9

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12 NR 57 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 INFORMATION FOR THE AUTHORS 1. Kinesiology ( Antropomotoryka ) is an official scientific quarterly of the International Association of Sport Kinetics IASK, pub lished at the University School of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland under the auspices of the Committee Rehabilitation, Physical Education and Social Integration the Polish Acad emy of Sciences. The magazine presents the results of original re search work and experiments in the field of human mo to r icity and re lated sciences. It also publishes review ar ticles, opinion ar ticles and discussion of scientists evalu ating the current situation and perspectives of sci en tific de vel opment of human motoricity. 2. Materials for publication (one copy of computer printouts) should be sent together with the compact disc at the following address: Redakcja Antropomotoryki, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kraków, tel , tel/fax or at the address: 3. General conditions: Upon submitting a paper to be published the Author (Authors) trans fers copyright to the Publishing House of the Antro po mo to ryka. The works qualified for pub li cation become therefore the prop erty of the Publishing House of the Antro po mo to ryka and cannot be published in extenso or in fragments in other pe ri odi cals or other media without the written per mission of the Publisher. The work submitted for publication in the Antro po mo to ryka cannot be submitted for pub li cation ear lier on or simultaneously in any other pe ri odical. The Author is required to make a written statement to this effect. If the work in cludes any figures, tables, etc. which have al ready been published elsewhere, the Author is obliged to obtain a written per mission for re printing. Antropomotoryka accepts demonstrative, origi nal, experimental, and historical papers, in for mation about conferences, reports from con gresses and con ferences on human motoricity, short summa ries of works published in foreign pe ri odi cals and book re views on human motoricity. Origi nal works are accepted in En glish. The works of particular sci en tific value sub mitted and accepted for pub li cation earlier on in a for eign sci entific periodical can also be submitted for publication in the Antro po mo to ryka, however, on condition that the Author ob tains a permission from the publisher of the p er io d i c a l. All papers should be no longer than 22 pages with 1800 letters per page (i.e. 30 lines 60 points each). They should be in double-spaced or 1,5 spaced typewriting on one side of the paper only. 4. Rules of constructing the work: The accompanying letter should contain both home and office addresses and the information at which address to send the correspondence. Empirical works should contain the following in for mation: title, name(s) of the author(s), key words in Polish and in English, brief summary in Polish, summary in English (as mentioned above), in tro duction, ma terial, methods, results and dis cussion, con clusions and bib li og ra phy. The number of key words should be from 3 to 15. The summary has to contain: the purpose of the work, material, methods, results and con clusions. The first page should contain the information in the following order: title, name(s) of the author(s), scientific degree(s) of the author(s) and the pro fessional affiliation, including the address, key words, brief summary in Polish and in English. The summary should not contain less than 200 and no more than 250 words. The reference materials should be listed on a sepa rate sheet of paper. Only the aterials the Author refers to in the text may be included. They should be num bered using Arabic numerals and placed in the order they are quoted in the work (not in the alphabetic order). Each item of the reference materials should be written in a new verse. The surname(s) of the author(s) of the quoted work should be followed by the initials of their first name(s), then the original title of the maga zine where the work was published should be given. The abbre viation of the title of a magazine should be taken from the Index Medicus (or In ter na tional Committee of Medical Journal Editors: Uni form Re quirements for manu scripts submitted in bio medical jour nals. N Engl J Med 1997; 336, ). 11

13 Information for the Authors Examples: a) works printed in magazines: Casella R, Bubendorf L, Sauter G, Moch H, Michatsch MJ, Gasser TC: Focal neu roen do crine differentiation lacks prognostics sig nifi cance in prostate core needle biopsies. J Urol, 1998; 160: b) monographs: Matthews DE, Farewell VT: Using and Un derstanding Medical Statistics, ed 3, re vised. Basel, Karger, c) chapters in textbooks: Parren PWHI, Burton DR: Antibodies against HIV-1 from phage display libraries; Mapping of an immune response and progress towards antiviral immu no therapy; in Capra JD (ed.): An ti body Engineering, Chem. Immunol. Basel, Karger, 1997, 65: Kokot F: Fizjologia nerek; w. Zieliński J, Leń ko J (eds): Urologia, War sza wa, PZWL, 1992, 1: All the illustrations have to be of high quality. Graphic material should be submitted on white sheets of pa per. Copies of photographs and pho to graphs should be submitted on glossy paper. The con secutive num ber of the photograph should be written with a soft pencil on the back side of each photograph as well as an arrow marking its top edge. Only black and white pictures are printed. Scales and pictures should be placed on separate pages and numbered with Arabic numerals. The headings, descriptions and suscriptions under the pictures and above the scales should be written in Polish and English. Example in Polish: Tabela 1., Ryc. 1., Objaśnienia, Chłopcy Example in English: Table 1., Fig. 1., Commentary, Boys Please, use round pa ren the ses. Physical or chemical for mu lae should be written clearly. This re fers par ticu larly to in di ces and ex po nents. The article can be written using the editor of MS Word 6.0 to 2007 or Open Office, preferably DOC or RTF format. Illustrations and tables should be packed in sepa rate files and, on the printouts, the place where they are to be included should be marked in pencil. The graphs made in black. It is permissible to use gray tints with various shades of intensity and texture. While typing the descriptions uniform char ac ter we kindly ask used due to esthetic reasons, e.g., arial. Bold print, italics, etc., should be limited to the nec essary mini mum. While scanning the illus trations, the dis tri bution should be at least 300 dpi. Black and white illustrations (line art) should be sent in TIFF for mat and pictures (gray) in TIFF or JPEG format (at the low degree of com pression, up to 10%). All the files should be packed using RAR or ZIP. After copying them on CD it is necessary to check if all the files are copied. The reference materials should be given in the order of quotation. [1] Żekoński Z, Wolański N: Warunki społeczno-by to we jako czynniki rozwoju człowieka w Wo lań ski N (red.): Czynniki rozwoju człowieka. War sza wa, PWN, 1987, [2] Malarecki I: Zarys fizjologii wysiłku i treningu spor to wego. Warszawa, Sport i Turystyka, [3] Bouchard C, Malina RM: Genetics of phy sio lo gi cal fit ness and motor performance. Exerc. Sport. Sc. Rev. 1983; 11: [4] Szopa J: W poszukiwaniu struktury mo to rycz no ści: ana li za czynnikowa cech somatycznych, funk cjo nalnych i prób spraw no ści fizycznej u dziewcząt i chłopców w wie ku 8 19 lat. Wyd. Monograficzne, Kraków, AWF, 1983; 35. While quoting the reference materials in the text, only square parentheses with the number of the quoted item in Arabic numerals should be given. When qu oting two or more works the square parentheses sho uld con ta in the chronological or der of their pu bli ca tion. 5. Editors remarks All the materials are evaluated and anonymously reviewed. The reviewers opinion is passed on to the Author by the editor. The proof copy of the article will be ed to the Author as a PDF file. When the necessary corrections are made and the article is approved of by the Author, it should be ed back within 10 days to the editorial board of Antropomotoryka Kinesiology. A delay in sending back the article may postpone its printing till the next issue of the magazine. The Publisher of Antropomotoryka Kinesiology reserves the right to do stylistic revisions as well as the possible right to correct nomenclature and to shorten texts. The article (with a written statement see: General conditions) should be sent with a cover letter signed by a senior reasercher, who is responsible for the content of the of the article. The Author gets a free copy of Antropomotoryka Kinesiology in PDF format. The magazine in book form can be ordered on condition of payment at the address: when the corrected proof copy is returned. Current copies of Antropomotoryka and those from the files can be ordered on condition of payment from Kra kowska Księgarnia Kultury Fizycznej, al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kraków, tel/fax (012) Summaries in Polish and English can be found at the following Internet addresses: link: wydawnictwa, czasopisma, antropomotoryka, and www. journals.indexcopernicus.com. 12

14 NR 57 AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA 2012 INFORMACJE DLA AUTORÓW 1. Antropomotoryka ( Kinesiology ) jest ofi cjal nym, rec e n z o w a n y m k w a r t a l n i k i e m n au k ow y m M i ęd z yn ar od ow eg o Stowarzyszenia Mo to ry ki Spor to wej IASK, wy da wa nym w Akademii Wy cho wa nia Fi zycz ne go w Kra ko wie pod pa trona tem Ko mi te tu Rehabilitacji, Kultury Fizycznej i Integracji Społecznej PAN. W cza so piśmie przed sta wia ne są wyniki ory gi nal nych ba dań i do świad czeń w dzie dzi nie mo to rycz ności czło wie ka oraz dziedzin po krew nych. Za miesz cza ne są również pra ce prze glądo we, poglądy oraz dys ku sje oceniające obec ny stan i per spek ty wy rozwoju do rob ku ba daw cze go szeroko pojętej antropomotoryki. 2. Materiały przeznaczone do druku (jeden egzemplarz wydruku komputerowego) należy przesłać łącznie z płytą CD na adres: Redakcja Antropomotoryki, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kraków, tel , tel./fax lub na adres poczty elektronicznej 3. Warunki ogólne Zgłoszenie pracy do druku jest jed no znacz ne z przekazaniem przez au to ra (au to rów) prawa do własności Redakcji An tro po mo to ry ki. Prace za kwa li fi ko wa ne do wy dru ko wa nia stają się zatem wy łącz ną własnością Redak cji i nie można ich pu bli ko wać w całości lub w części w in nych cza so pi smach lub mediach cyfrowych bez pi sem nej zgo dy Wydawcy. Praca złożona do druku w Antropomotoryce nie może być także wcześniej ani równocześnie złożona w in nym cza so pi śmie, co stwierdza autor w pi sem nym oświad cze niu. W razie umieszczenia w pracy rycin lub ta bel itp., pochodzących z opra co wań opu bli ko wa nych w innych cza so pi smach autor ma obo wią zek uzy ska nia zgody na przedruk. Redakcja Antropomotoryki przyjmuje do dru ku pra ce poglądowe, oryginalne, doświadczalne, opra co wa nia hi sto rycz ne, komunikaty kon fe ren cyj ne, spra woz da nia ze zjaz dów i konferencji o tema ty ce an tro po mo to rycz nej oraz krót kie stresz cze nia prac wy dru ko wa nych w czasopi smach za gra nicz nych i recenzje książek z za kre su teorii mo to rycz ności czło wie ka. Pra ce przeglądowe i ory gi nal ne będą zre da go wa ne w ję zy ku polskim. Ar tykuły mogą być pu bli ko wa ne w ję zy ku angielskim. Prace przed sta wia ją ce dużą war tość na ukową, za kwali fi ko wa ne wcze śniej do wy dru ko wa nia w cza so pi śmie za gra nicz nym, mogą być rów nież zgło szo ne do druku w An tro po mo to ry ce, jed nak pod wa run kiem uzyskania przez autora pi sem nej zgo dy Wy daw cy cza so pi sma, w któ rym teksty zostały lub zo staną opu bli ko wa ne. Objętość artykułu nie powinna przekraczać 22 stron wydruku komputerowego, na których zamieszczono po 1800 znaków (np.: 30 wierszy po 60 znaków). Praca musi być napisana jednostronnie z podwójną lub 1,5 interlinią. 4. Zasady konstrukcji pracy W liście towarzyszącym prosimy podać do kład ne ad re sy (zarówno prywatny, jak i miejsca pra cy) z zaznaczeniem, gdzie należy przesyłać ko re spon den cję. Prace empiryczne powinny mieć następujący układ: ty tuł, imię (imiona) i nazwisko autora (ów), słowa klu czo we w języku polskim i angielskim, zwięzłe stresz cze nie w języku polskim i an giel skim, wstęp, materiał i metody, wyniki ba dań, dys ku sja, wnioski oraz wy kaz piśmiennictwa. Słowa kluczowe powinny liczyć od 3 do 15 wy ra zów. Streszczenie musi zawierać: cel pracy, materiał, me to dy lub materiał i metody, wyniki, wnioski. Na pierwszej stronie opracowania należy za mie ścić w ko lej ności: tytuł pracy w języku polskim i an giel skim, imię i na zwi sko autora(ów), stopień na uko wy au to ra(ów), miejsce za kła du pra cy, sło wa kluczowe oraz zwięzłe stresz cze nie po pol sku i an giel sku. Jego objętość nie może być mniejsza niż 200 i nie większa niż 250 słów. Spis piśmiennictwa należy wydrukować na osob nej stro nie. Prosimy wymienić w nim jedynie po zy cje, na które autor powołuje się w tekście. Po win ny być one numerowane cyframi arabskimi i uszeregowane w ko - lejności cytowania ich w pra cy (a nie w kolejności al fa betycz nej). Każdą po zy cję piśmiennictwa należy zapisywać od no we go wiersza. Po nazwisku autora (lub wszyst kich a ut or ó w) c y t o w a n e j p r a c y n a l e ż y p od a ć p i e r ws z e l it er y imion, a następnie tytuł pracy w brzmie niu ory gi nal nym oraz nazwę czasopisma, z któ re go praca pochodzi. Skrót tytułu cza so pi sma na leży podać zgodnie z jego brzmie niem w Index Medicus (patrz rów nież: International Com mit tee of Medical Jo ur nal Editors: Uniform re qu ire ments for ma nu 13

15 Informacje dla Autorów scripts sub mit ted to bio me di cal jo ur nals. N Engl J Med 1997; 336; ). Przykłady: a) prace wydrukowane w cza so pi smach: Casella R, Bubendorf L, Sauter G, Moch H, Michatsch MJ, Gasser TC: Focal neu ro en do crine dif fe ren tia tion lacks pro gno stic si gni fi cian ce in pro sta te core needle biopsies. J Urol, 1998; 160: b) monografie: Matthews DE, Farewell VT: Using and Un derstan ding Me di cal Statistics, ed 3, re vi sed. Ba sel, Karger, c) rozdziały w książkach: Parren PWHI, Burton DR: Antibodies aga inst HIV-1 from phage display libraries; Map ping of an im mu ne response and progress towards antiviral im mu no the ra py; in Ca pra JD (ed.): An ti bo dy Engi ne ering. Chem Immunol. Ba sel, Kar ger, 1997, 65: Kokot F: Fizjologia nerek; w Zieliński J, Leń ko J (red.): Uro lo gia, Warszawa, PZWL, 1992, 1: Materiał ilustracyjny musi mieć bardzo dobrą ja kość. Powi nien być wykonany na białych kart kach. Re pro duk cje zdjęć oraz fotografie należy przy go to wać na błysz czą cym papierze fo to gra ficz nym. Na od wro cie fo to gra fii trzeba napisać mięk kim ołów kiem jej kolejny numer oraz zaznaczyć strzałką, gdzie znaj du je się jej górny brzeg. Redakcja dru ku je je dy nie zdję cia czarno-białe. Tabele i ryciny należy zamieszczać na oddzielnych stronach i nu me ro wać cyframi arabskimi. Ich nagłówki, ob ja śnie nia oraz podpisy pod rycinami i nad tabelami powinny być w języku polskim i angielskim. Przy kład: Tabela 1., Ryc. 1., Objaśnienia, Chłopcy Table 1., Fig. 1., Commentary, Boys Prosimy używać nawiasów okrą głych. Wzory mu szą być napisane czytelnie, szcze gól nie wskaźni ki i wykładniki potęg. Artykuł może być napisany na edytorze od Word 6.0 do 2007, Open Office, w for ma cie DOC lub RTF. Ilu stra cje, ta be le i wy kre sy powinny być za miesz czo ne w osobnych plikach, a na wydrukach oraz na mar gi ne sie za zna czo ne ołów kiem ich miej sce w tekście. Wykresy na le ży wy ko nać w kolorze czar nym. Moż na stosować tin ty szare o różnym na tęże niu lub tek stu ry. W opisach, ze względów es te tycznych, prosimy stosować czcionkę jed no ele men to wą (np. arial). Nie należy nad uży wać wyróżnień (bold, ita lic). Przy ska no wa nych ilustracjach rozdzielczość musi wy no sić co najmniej 300 dpi. Ilustracje czar no-białe (line art.) po win ny być w formacie TIFF, a zdjęcia (grey) w for ma cie TIFF lub JPEG (w ni skim stopniu kompresji, do 10%). Wszystkie pli ki mogą być spa ko wa ne RAR-em lub ZIP-em. Po sko pio wa niu na CD należy spraw dzić, czy wszyst kie pliki się kopiują. Spis piśmiennictwa powinien być sporządzony we dług ko lej no ści cytowania: [1] Żekoński Z, Wolański N: Warunki społeczno-by to we jako czynniki rozwoju człowieka; w Wo lań ski N (red.): Czyn ni ki rozwoju człowieka. Warszawa, PWN, 1987; [2] Malarecki I: Zarys fizjologii wysiłku i treningu spor towe go. Warszawa, Sport i Turystyka, [3] Bouchard C, Malina RM: Genetics of phy sio lo gi cal fit ness and motor performance. Exerc Sport Sc Rev, 1983; 11: [4] Szopa J: W poszukiwaniu struktury mo to rycz no ści: ana li za czynnikowa cech somatycznych, funk cjo nalnych i prób spraw no ści fizycznej u dziewcząt i chłopców w wie ku 8 19 lat. Wyd. Monograficzne, Kra ków, AWF, 1988; 35. Powołując się w tekście na daną pozycję pi śmien nic twa na leży podać w nawiasie kwadratowym tylko cy frę arab ską. Przy ta cza jąc dwie lub większą ich licz bę należy podawać w na wia sie kwa dra to wym ko lej ność chro no lo gicz ną ich wy da nia. 5. Uwagi Redakcji Wszystkie prace podlegają ocenie i są ano ni mo wo re cenzo wa ne. Redakcja zapoznaje autora z uwagami re cen zen tów. Odbitka szczotkowa pracy jest wysyłana do Autora pocztą elektroniczną jako plik PDF. Po niezbędnej korekcie i akceptacji pracy do druku należy ją odesłać w terminie do 10 dni na adres Redakcji Antropomotoryki. Przetrzymywanie korekty może spowodować przesunięcie artykułu do następnego numeru. Redakcja Antropomotoryki zastrzega sobie prawo adiustacji, dokonywania poprawek w zakresie ujednolicania nazewnictwa i ewentualnego skracania tekstów. Przysyłane do druku artykuły (wraz z oświadczeniem patrz: Warunki ogólne) powinny być kierowane do Redakcji pismem przewodnim podpisanym przez samodzielnego pracownika nauki, równocześnie odpowiadającego za merytoryczną stronę opracowania. Autor otrzymuje bezpłatnie plik PDF z zawartością numeru Antropomotoryki, w którym zamieszczono jego pracę. Czasopismo w formie książkowej można zamówić odpłatnie przy zwrocie korekty autorskiej pod adresem: Pełne numery bieżące i archiwalne An tro po mo to ry ki moż na zamówić odpłatnie w Krakowskiej Księ gar ni Kultury Fizycznej, al. Jana Pawła II 78, Kra ków, tel/fax (012) Streszczenia w języku polskim i angielskim są zamieszczone na stronie internetowej: link: wydawnictwa, czasopisma, antropomotoryka oraz www. journals.indexcopernicus.com. 14

16 ORIGINAL PAPERS PRACE ORYGINALNE

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18 NR AN TRO PO MO TO RY KA STRETCHING AND STRENGTH EXERCISES IN RELATION TO RUNNING SPEED AND ANAEROBIC POWER IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS ĆWICZENIA ROZCIĄGAJĄCE I SIŁOWE W RELACJI Z SZYBKOŚCIĄ BIEGOWĄ I MOCĄ ANAEROBOWĄ KOSZYKARZY Kazimierz Mikołajec*, Adam Maszczyk**, Arkadiusz Stanula**, Ryszard Litkowycz*, Adam Zając*** *** PhD, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Department of Team Sports, Chair of Basketball, Katowice, Poland *** PhD, Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Department of Sports Theory, Chair of Methodology and Statistics, Katowice, Poland *** Prof. Dr. Habil., Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Department of Sports Theory, Katowice, Poland Key words: basketball, stretching, strength exercises, anaerobic power, running speed Słowa kluczowe: koszykówka, rozciąganie, ćwiczenia siłowe, moc anaerobowa, szybkość biegowa SUMMARY STRESZCZENIE Aim of the study. This study aimed to identify the effect of stretching and strength exercises on running speed and anaerobic power of young (13 15 years old) basketball players, and the relationships between variables representing their speed, anaerobic power and flexibility. Material and methods. Thirty-six young basketball players were randomly allocated to 3 groups (GR, GS and GC) that carried out special 3-month training programs. Before the training macrocycle commenced and after it ended, the participants were tested for running speed, anaerobic power and flexibility. Results. ANOVA and post hoc test showed that the training factor distinguished more clearly the strength exercise subgroup and the stretching exercise subgroup (p = and p = 0.003, respectively). The discriminant analysis showed that power, 5-meter running speed and 20-meter running speed were these variables that distinguished the strength exercise subgroup. In addition, the results of post hoc tests, pointed the level of flexibility as a factor which discriminated more clearly subgroups GR and GS, and then GS and GC (p = 0.005, p = and p = 0.006, p = 0.012, respectively). Conclusions. The experiment has demonstrated that under the absence of strong stretching stimuli even low-volume strength exercises lead to the dynamic development of anaerobic power, running speed and flexibility, whereas more intensive stretching exercises limit improvements in these motor abilities. Cel pracy. Badanie miało na celu określenie wpływu ćwiczeń rozciągających i siłowych na sprawność szybkościową i moc beztlenową młodych (13 15 lat) koszykarzy oraz zależności między następującymi zmiennymi: szybkość, moc anaerobowa a elastyczność. Materiał i metody. 36 młodych koszykarzy podzielono losowo na 3 grupy realizujące 3-miesięczny specyficzny program treningowy: GR (rozciąganie), GS (akcent rozwoju siły), GK (grupa kontrolna). Przed rozpoczęciem i po zakończeniu makrocyklu zostały przeprowadzone próby oceniające poziom szybkości biegowej (5 m, 20 m), mocy anaerobowej (wyskok dosiężny na platformie tensometrycznej) oraz gibkości. 17

19 Kazimierz Mikołajec, Adam Maszczyk, Arkadiusz Stanula, Ryszard Litkowycz, Adam Zając Wyniki. ANOVA i testy post hoc wykazały, że czynnik treningowy różnicuje bardziej podgrupę realizującą ćwiczenia siłowe i rozciąganie podgrupy wysiłkowej (odpowiednio p = 0,002 i p = 0,003). Analiza dyskryminacyjna dowiodła, że moc anaerobowa, szybkość biegowa 5 m i szybkość biegowa 20 m to zmienne dyskryminujące podgrupę realizującą program ćwiczeń siłowych. Wyniki analiz post hoc wskazały dodatkowo, iż poziom gibkości to czynnik różnicujący podgrupy GR i GS, a następnie GS i GW (odpowiednio, p = 0,005, p = 0,009 i p = 0,006, p = 0,012). Wnioski. Eksperyment wykazał, że ćwiczenia siłowe, wykonywane nawet z małą objętością, przy braku intensywnych bodźców rozciągających pozwalają na dynamiczny rozwój mocy anaerobowej i szybkości biegowej oraz gibkości, gdy tymczasem intensyfikacja ćwiczeń rozciągających ogranicza przyrost tych zdolności motorycznych. Introduction Modern concepts of physical training for competitive sports are based on the multifaceted discipline or event-specific fitness preparation, that assumes exercise periodization and pays special attention to the calendar of sports events (competitions), correctly selected exercise volume and intensity, as well as to periodic change of training means and methods. The term physical training has been replaced today with physical preparation systems or programs for athletes. These programmes are characterized by appropriately balanced proportions of exercises developing athletes muscle strength, power, speed, coordination, agility, flexibility, local anaerobic endurance, as well as aerobic endurance. Because the proportions should closely correspond to the physical effort during an event, special training programmes have been developed for each discipline, which additionally address athlete s age, sex, training experience and the training and competition circumstances. In team sports fitness training is also frequently adjusted to players positions on court and their respective tasks. A major methodological and training problem in competitive sports is posed by the need to determine how stretching exercises performed in the warm-up phase, as part of the main phase of a training unit, or before the competition affect athletes speed and strength [1]. This knowledge is critical in the case of sprints and athletics jumps, combat sports and team games characterized by dynamic movements, such as volleyball, hockey or basketball. It has been still a matter of controversy whether stretching exercises improve speed and muscle contraction force, or whether they rather deteriorate them. Following Kerner and D Amico s opinions [2], most athletes do stretching exercises before a training unit or an event. Evidence has been appearing, though, that not only do stretching exercises done before an event not protect the athlete from injuries, but they also have a negative effect on their performance. As suggested by Witvrouw [3], stretching exercises may fulfil their protective role in sports involving dynamic take-offs and rapid changes in movement directions, such as soccer, volleyball and basketball. This opinion would be justified, if a stretched muscle was capable of absorbing larger amounts of energy. Many studies have shown that stretching exercises have a positive effect on muscle contraction speed and force, thus improving parameters such as take-off speed and absolute speed [4, 5, 6], jumping ability [7, 8, 9], balance and the reaction time [10, 11], as well as power [12]. Other authors are of the opinion that intensive stretching reduces maximal strength, the height of a vertical jump, take-off speed and absolute speed. The data they present lead to a rational conclusion that this type of exercises should not be done before very dynamic physical activity [13, 14, 15, 16]. While the aspects of muscle strength and power development are relatively well-covered in the literature and the opinions on the effectiveness of particular training means and methods are quite consistent, the methodology which is employed to develop flexibility and the actual stretching effects on athlete s performance stir many controversies. A common position on how stretching exercises contribute to injury prevention, physical fitness and athletic performance in the power and speed sports and those requiring technique and coordination has not been adopted yet [17, 18, 19]. Intensive stretching damages contractile proteins in the skeletal muscles, as well as the muscles ability to regenerate after effort. This study sought answers to the following questions: 18

20 Stretching and strength exercises in relation to running speed and anaerobic power in basketball players Is the rate of changes in running speed and anaerobic power of young basketball players more affected by a stretching exercise programme or a strength exercise programme? Which of the two types of training has a greater effect on the development of the players flexibility? How are the level of flexibility of young basketball players and their running speed and anaerobic power parameters interrelated? The above relationships were studied based on long-term adaptive changes that were induced in the young athletes by a special, 3-month training programme. The research project was approved by the Bioethical Commission at Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice. Before the commencement of research, the participants were informed about its nature and objectives, and their parents consented to their participation. The participants could withdraw from the study at any stage. Material and methods Participants The sample consisted of 36 male basketball players aged 15.7 ± 1.2 years and having training experience of 2.1 ± 0.9 years, who were selected based on a purposive sampling technique. They were divided into three subgroups of 12 participants. Each subgroup carried out a different fitness programme, but their technical and tactical programmes were similar: Group I (GR, n = 12) stretching exercises done in each training unit for 3 months. Group II (GS, n = 12) strength exercises done in each training unit for 3 months. Group III (control) (GC, n = 12) a technical and tactical programme carried out in each training unit for 3 months. Procedures The study involved a 3-month training macrocycle during which all three subgroups carried out similar technical and tactical training programmes, but started and ended each training with their specific exercises aimed to develop selected motor abilities: Group I (GR) did 10-minute stretching exercises during the warm-up and in the final phase of training. Group II (GS) did 10-minute dynamic strength exercises in the second part of the warm-up and isometric exercises of the same duration in the final phase of training. Group III (GC) was a control group doing technical and tactical exercises of identical duration, without any accents on muscle strength and flexibility. The participants were tested for running speed (5 and 20 metres), anaerobic power (vertical jump on a tensometric platform) and flexibility (three fitness trials) before and after the macrocycle. Anaerobic power was measured on a tensometric platform produced by AMTI (USA) AccuGait, at 100Hz sampling frequency. The following variables were recorded: FO take-off propulsion [N/s], VO take-off velocity [m/s], WWP vertical jump height [m], PO work at take-off [J/kg], MS mean power, and MM maximum take-off power [W/kg], relative values of work and of the mean and maximum take-off power (i.e. in relation to the player s bodyweight), the angle of the GRF vector at take-off. Running speed was measured using the laser device LDM 300C-Sport for the following variables: SS5 take-off speed (5-meter) [s], SA20 absolute speed (20-meter) [s], DKB running step length [m], CKB running step frequency [k/s]. Flexibility was estimated based on a sit and reach test (an SRT variable), a test for hip joint flexibility in the sagittal plane (a GKDS variable) and a test for hip joint flexibility in the frontal plane (a GKDC variable). The sit and reach test Description: The participant sits on the floor with feet spread at shoulder width and blocked against a support (e.g. a side of a bench) and then bends forward (keeping his knees straight) to make fingertips marks on the scale attached to the support (the bench) as far as he can. Measurement: The test is repeated four times, during the fourth trial the participant is asked to hold the position for at least 1 second. The measurement is read from the centimetre scale. Equipment and aids: a bench, a cm scale. The test for hip joint flexibility in the sagittal plane Description: During the sagittal flexibility test the subject assumes a front stance and then tries to do the forward splits, the legs straight and the hands supporting the body on both sides. Measurement: The flexibility coefficient (G) is calculated by dividing the distance between the floor and 19

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