# Lecture Topics Atomic weight, Mole, Molecular Mass, Derivation of Formulas, Percent Composition

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1 Mole Calculations Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry Lecture Topics Atomic weight, Mole, Molecular Mass, Derivation of Formulas, Percent Composition Chemical Equations and Problems Based on Miscellaneous Problems, Solution Problems, Review Handout Demo Mole Quantities 58.5g NaCl(mol/58.5g)(6.02 x /mol) = 6.02 x Na + Cl - 21 pre-1982 pennies (after 1982 pennies are mostly zinc with copper coating) 63.5g Cu( mol/ 63.5g)(6.02 x /mol) = 6.02 x Cu 19.0g Al (mol/27.0g)(6.02 x /mol) = 4.24 x Al Demo of Oxidation Reactions Flash bulb 2Mg + O 2 2MgO fast 2Cn + O 2 2CnO slow Copper Oxide Penny 2Cu + O 2 2CuO Intro to Chapter Stoichiometry is the process of making calculations based on formulas and balanced equations Since Modern Chemistry involves: Symbolic representation of models Mathematics Quantitative measurements You are going to be using lots of symbols and equations and doing lots of calculations The fundamental Question How do you go from combining ratio of atoms (like H 2 O) to something you can measure in lab? OR How do you go between number of atoms and mass of that collection of atoms? 1

2 Mole abbreviation is mol Molecular and formula weight Suppose we want to make CO 2, we burn coal because mainly carbon C + O 2 CO 2 Carbon + Oxygen = Carbon Dioxide Ratio of atoms of oxygen to carbon is 2:1 Do this in lab, will not work with single atoms and molecules but a large number that we determine by finding mass The special number we use, Avogadro s number (6.022 x ) is called a mole and is the amount of substance that contains x units of that substance Avogadro s number is based on Carbon standard 12 C so that g of the 12C isotope contains 6.022x10 23 carbon atoms If this seems confusing think of dozen ( it is a word that means 12) Ex: get me 2 dozen glaze doughnuts 2 dozen = 2 (12) = 24 Ex: give me 2 moles of copper atoms 2 mol = 2 (6.022x10 23 ) = 1.204x10 23 Cu atoms Molar Mass (MM) or Molecular Weight (MW) or Formula Weight (FW) all same thing Atomic mass (or older term atomic weight) of element contains 1 mol of atoms Ex: 6.02x10 23 Cu atoms have a mass of 63.5g 12.0g C g O g CO 2 ( = 44.0g) 1 mol 1 mol 1 mol Number molecular weight or atomic weight mass Made of ions or atoms = formula weight Formula weight is the sum of the atomic weight in the formula Made of molecules = Molecular (or Molar) Mass Molecular weight is the sum of atomic weights in molecule NaCl 1 mol (Na) + 1 mol (Cl) = 23.0 g/mol g/mol = 58.5 g/mol H 2 O 2 mol (H) + 1 mol (O) = 2(1.0 g/mol) + 1(16.0 g/mol) = 18.0 g/mol How many moles, atoms in 3.05g copper penny?? mol Cu = 3.05g Cu (1 mol Cu/ 63.5g Cu) = mol Cu = 4.80 x 10-2 mol 2

3 ? atoms Cu = 4.80 x 10-2 mol Cu (6.022 x atoms Cu/ mol Cu) = 2.89 x atoms Cu To realize how big number above is think of person 100 years old who has had?seconds in life = 100yr (365day/yr) (24hr/day) (60min/hr) (60s/hr) = 3.15 x 10 9 seconds in life Find the molecular weight of CH 4 (methane) Atomic weight: C = g/mol H = 1.01 g/mol 1(C) + 4(H) 1 mol CH 4 = (1mol)(12.01 g/mol) + (4 mol)(1.01 g/mol) = g Find formula weight MgCl 2 (magnesium chloride)?g = 1 mol MgCl 2 = (1 mol)(24.3g/mol) + (2 mol)(35.5g/mol) = 95.3g 95.3 g/mol 1 mole means x units of specified entity (MgCl 2, CH 4, C, etc.) Terms used: Molar mass ~ Molecular weight ~ Formula weight This means the terms are interchangeable: For 1 mole of CO 2 = 44.0 g/mol For 1 average molecule of CO 2 = 44.0 amu Derivation of Formulas and Percent Composition percent composition atomic masses empirical formula (from Periodic Table) empirical formula molar mass molecular formula (given based on Expt.) Given % find Empirical Formula and then given Molar Mass find Molecular Formula consider Glucose which is the sugar in I.V. fluids 3

4 Given: 40.0% C 6.73% H 53.3% O and Molecular Weight= g/mol 1) Find Empirical Formula Steps: 1. Assume 100g sample 40.0g C 6.73g H 53.3g O 2. Convert g to mol 3. Find ratio? mol C = (40.0g)(1 mol/ 12.0g) = 3.33 ~ 1? mol H = (6.73g)(1 mol/ 1.01g) = 6.73 ~2? mol O = (53.3g)(1mol/ 16.0g) = 3.33 ~ 1 H/O = 6.73/3.33= 2/1 C/O = 3.33/3.33 = 1/1 C 1 H 2 O 1 2) Find Molecular Formula Empirical weight = 30g (EW)(n) = (MW) Empirical Weight times something equal Molecular Weight (30g/mol)(6) = (180.2 g/mol) so need 6 C 1 H 2 O 1 groups together to make C 6 H 12 O 6 Calculation of Percent Composition To calculate % composition from formula Steps: 1. Assume 1 mole 2. Convert to grams 3. Calculate % Example: SnF2 (stannous fluoride) tin (II) fluorine This is a historically active ingredient Sn F 1 mol (119g/mol) = 119g 2 mol (19 g/mol) = 38g 1 mol weight = g/mol ( Molecular Weight) % Sn by weight (119.0/157.0) x 100% = 75.8% tin 4

5 % F by weight (38.0/ 157.0) x 100% = 24.2% fluorine 75.8% % = 100% Chemical Equations and Problems Symbolic representation of chemical reactions Rearrangements of atoms is the central idea to chemistry and science Examples: Transformation of matter Refining a metal Making nylon stockings Synthesizing a new medicine Flash bulb magnesium + oxygen --> magnesium oxide (reactants) (yields) (products) Mg + O 2 --> MgO 2Mg + O 2 --> 2MgO aluminum + oxygen --> aluminum oxide Al + O 2 --> Al 2 O 3 4Al + 3O 2 --> 2Al 2 O 3 Balance Chemical Equation 1. Use given molecules, do NOT change subscripts, subscripts tell us how many atoms in molecule based on experimental observation 2. DO change prefix numbers 3. Save simpler elements until last 4. Convert to whole number coefficients 5. Check your answer CH 4 + O 2 --> CO 2 + H 2 O CH 4 + O 2 --> CO 2 + 2H 2 O 1CH 4 + O 2 --> 1CO 2 + 2H 2 O 1CH 4 + 2O 2 --> 1CO 2 + 2H 2 O Note: If the compound only appears once on each side then start with that molecule Reactants 1C 4H 4O Products 1C 4H 4O 5

6 Mass is conserved Heat is given off but energy is conserved Potential to Kinetic Stoichiometry problems are based on chemical equations reactants --> products Types of questions asked: How much products formed? How much reactants used up? Could be asked for in the units moles, atoms, grams Example: NH 3 + F 2 ---> N 2 F 4 + HF Balance reaction 2NH 3 + 5F 2 ---> N 2 F 4 + 6HF Problem Type: One quantity given Given excess NH 3 114g F 2 How much N 2 F 4? mass A --> (MW)--> mol A -->(balance equation)-->mol B -->(MW)-->mass B =114g F 2? mol N 2 F 4 = (114g F 2 )(1 mol F 2 / 38g F 2 )(1 mol N 2 F 4 / 5 mol F 2 )(104g N 2 F 4 / mol N 2 F 4 )? g N 2 F 4 = 62.4g N 2 F 4 Rules: 1. Indicates mass of substance given 2. Convert mass to moles (molecular weight) 3. Enter conversion factor from balanced equation 4. Convert moles to mass of substance sought (molecular weight) 5. Carry out math Miscellaneous Problems Example: How much of one type of element in a compound? How many grams of silver (Ag) in 300g of silver(i) sulfide ore called argentite (Ag 2 S) Ag 2 S = (2 mol)(108 g/mol) + (1 mol)(32.1 g/ mol) = g and in above 248.1g or ore there are 2 mol Ag = 2(108 g/mol) = 216 g so (216g Ag/ 248.1g Ag 2 S) and then?g Ag = 300g Ag 2 S ( 216g Ag/ 248.1g Ag 2 S) 6

7 = 261g Ag OR?g Ag = 300g Ag 2 S(1 mol Ag 2 S/ Ag 2 S)(2 mol Ag/1 mol Ag 2 S)(108g Ag/mol Ag) = 261g Ag mass moles ratio moles mass Percentage Yield Theoretical yield is the amount of product if reaction goes to completion (100%) Actual Yield is the amount of product actually obtained Percentage Yield = (actual/theoretical) x 100% Expect 400g of CaCO3 Get 300g Percentage Yield = 300/400 x 100% = 75% Problem type: More than one quantity given. Find the Limiting Reactant Steps: 1. Calculate moles of each of reactants 2. Divide the actual moles by needed moles in equation 3. Smaller number is the limiting reactant, use this value for calculation 2NH 3 + 5F 2 --> N 2 F 4 + 6HF Given: 152g F 2 and 55g NH 3 -->?g HF F 2 (152g)(1 mol/38g) = 4.00 mol (actual/ needed) = 4/5 = 0.80 (F 2 is the Limiting Reactant) NH 3 (55.0g)(1 mol/17g) = 3.24 mol (actual/needed) = 3.24/2 = 1.62 (excess) Work the rest of the problems in this same manner?g N 2 F 4 = (152g F 2 )(1 mol F 2 / 38g F 2 )( 6 mol HF/ 5 mol F 2 )(20g HF/ mol HF)=96g HF 4.8 mol HF Needed Ratio 5 F 2 /2 NH 3 = 2.5 Actual Ratio: 4 F 2 / 3.24 NH 3 = 1.24 So not enough F 2 F 2 is the Limiting Reactant 7

8 Stoichiometry of Solutions Concentration is the amount of substance dissolved in volume of solution Ex: Coffee: 1 teaspoon/cup 2 teaspoon/cup 3 teaspoon/cup Coffee Crystals Solute Water Solvent Coffee Solution Use Molarity (M) = moles of solute/ L of solution Ex1: Penny ~ 3g Cu.1mol/L Mol Cu = 63.5g 2 pennys/l Not dissolved so therefore there is no solution Ex2: NaCl 58.5g/mol 5.85g dissolved into a total solution volume of 1.00 L 5.85g/ 1 Liter = mol/l= 0.10M NaCl(aq) that is Na + and Cl - ions NaCl dissolve into ions (but other solutions like sugar may be made of dissolved molecules) Moles and volume in solution use molarity concentration (mol/l) so mol ( conc) volume Note: Concentration is the conversion factor between moles and volume moles = (concentration)(volume) mol = (L) (mol/l) 1000ml = 1L 250ml of 0.20M NaCl (0.20 mol/l NaCl)(250ml)(1 L/ 1000ml) = mol NaCl (concentration)(volume) = moles Different than previous problems because it can be asked what volumes should be combined 0.1M NaCl Na + Cl - =.1M 0.1M MgCl 2 Mg2 + 2Cl - =.2M 8

9 Preparation of Solution How many grams of NaOH to prepare a 0.75M solution of 250ml (.250L)??g NaOH = (0.75 mol NaOH/L)(250ml)(1L/ 100ml)(40.0g NaOH/ mol NaOH) = 7.50g NaOH Suggestions: Convert milliliters to liters Always include units Dilution of Solution M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 What volume of 5.00M HCl to dilute to 100ml of 1.00M HCl (aq)? M 1 = 5.0 M 2 = 1.0 V 1 =? ml V 2 = 100ml Solve equation find V 1 = 20 ml More Miscellaneous Practice Problems Find Molecular weight NaOH Given: Periodic Table To Do: = 40.0 g/mol Convert 10.0g NaOH to mol of NaOH? mol = (10.0g NaOH)( mol NaOH/ 40.0g NaOH) = mol Convert 2.0mol of NaOH to g? g = (2.0 mol NaOH)( 40.0g NaOH/ mol NaOH) = 80g NaOH Convert 0.250mol NaOH to number of sodium ions? ions of Na + = (0.250 mol)(6.02 x /mol) = 1.50 x Na + Convert 1.2x10 24 sodium ions to moles? mol = (1.2 x ions)(mol/6.02 x ) = 2 mol Na + Find concentration of 20.1g of NaOH in 300 ml volume of solution?m =? mol/l = [20.1g (mol/40.0g)] / [300mL (1 L / 1000mL)] = 0.503mol/ 0.300L = 1.68 M NaOH(aq) 9

10 DEMO Put methanol in a plastic bottle Allow vapor to spread and introduce flame at top Spread to bottom of the jar Burns down as air rushes in CH 3 OH methanol combustion may be written as: CH 4 O + 3/2O 2 CO 2 + 2H 2 O + energy (light and heat) 2CH 4 + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 4H 2 O + energy this is Exothermic reaction because it gives off heat 10

11 Summary of Stoichiometry Conversions To Find Given Need to Example Molar Mass* periodic table sum atomic find molecular weight (formula mass) of NaOH masses? g/mol = Na + O + H = = 40.0 g/mol mole mass (mass) (1/W) find the moles of 10.0 grams of NaOH? mol = (10.0g NaOH)(1mol/40.0g) = mol NaOH mass mole (mol) (W) find the mass of 2.00 moles of NaOH?g = (2.00molNaOH)(40.0 g/mol) = 80.0 g NaOH mole number number (1/N) find the moles in 12x10 23 molecules of water? mol = (12x10 23 ) (mol/6.02x10 23 ) = 2.0 mol number mole (mol) (N) find the number of OH - in 0.25mol of Ca(OH) 2? OH - = (2OH-)( 0.25mol)(6.02x10 23 /mol) = 3.0x10 23 OH - mole volume (V) (conc) find moles of Cl - in a 250mL of 0.500M HCl(aq)? mol Cl- = (0.250L) (0.50 mol/l) = mol Cl - volume mole (mol)(1/conc) find volume of 0.50M HCl(aq) to have 2.0 mol Cl-? L = (2.0mol)(L / 0.50mol) = 4.0 L Symbols Used conc concentration is commonly expressed as molarity M (mol/l) N Avogadro's number 6.02x10 23 /mol V volume of solution W molecular weight or molar mass or formula weight *Note we will tend to use any of the terms molar mass or molar weight or molecular weight for mass of a mole of compound. To be more precise if compound does not exist as molecules we can use the term formula mass or formula weight. Most of the time chemists just say molecular weight for the mass of a mole of compound regardless of whether it exists as molecules or not. 11

12 To convert between moles and mass use molecular weight (g/mol) moles and number use Avogadro's number 6.02x10 23 mol -1 moles and volume in solution use molarity concentration (mol/l) mol ( W ) mass mol ( N ) number mol ( conc) volume 12

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