# 4.1 Stoichiometry. 3 Basic Steps. 4. Stoichiometry. Stoichiometry. Butane Lighter 2C 4 H O 2 10H 2 O + 8CO 2

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "4.1 Stoichiometry. 3 Basic Steps. 4. Stoichiometry. Stoichiometry. Butane Lighter 2C 4 H 10 + 13O 2 10H 2 O + 8CO 2"

Transcription

1 4. Stoichiometry 1. Stoichiometric Equations 2. Limiting Reagent Problems 3. Percent Yield 4. Limiting Reagent Problems 5. Concentrations of Solutes 6. Solution Stoichiometry 7. ph and Acid Base Titrations 4.1 Stoichiometry Chemical Arithmetic Objective: Determine Quantitative Relationships Between and Two Ways to Quantify Matter 1. Count 2. Measure Stoichiometry Chemical Equations Relate the Numbers of Various Species to Each Other ( Quantities) We Observe Measurable Quantities Like Mass and Volume We Need to be Able to Connect the Two 1. 3 Basic Steps Mass to Mole Conversion: Determine # of Moles of all Species Present (Start with Mass ) Mole to Mole Conversion: Use Stoichiometric Ratios to Relate Various Species to Each Other 3. Mole to Mass Conversion: Multiple Moles Product by Molar Mass (End with Mass ) Butane Lighter Consider a Butane Lighter that weights 16.0g full and 12.0g empty. What information can we get from this? 2C 4 H O 2 10H 2 O + 8CO 2 2C 4 H O 2 10H 2 O + 8CO 2 1. of Butane in Lighter 2. of Oxygen Consumed by Lighter 1. (Mass or Moles) of Butane in Lighter 2. of Oxygen Consumed by Lighter 3. of CO 2 Produced by Lighter 4. of Water Produced by Lighter 1

2 2C 4 H O 2 10H 2 O + 8CO 2 In 1 Equation: mol C H 13mol O 32gO ( 4g C g O H10)( )( )( ) 14 58g 2mol C4H10 mol 1. Mass to Mole Mole to Mole Mole to Mass 2 2C 4 H O 2 10H 2 O + 8CO 2 Take Home Problems: For the 4 grams of Butane, Determine: 1. Moles Water Produced = 0.35 mol H 2 O 2. Grams Water Produced = 6.2 g H 2 O 3. Moles Carbon Dioxide Produced =.28 mol CO 2 4. Grams Carbon Dioxide Produced = 12 g CO Limiting Reagent Problems Stoichiometric Proportions: mixed in Ratios Given by Stoichiometric Coefficients. Everything is Completely Consumed Nonstoichiometric Proportions: are Mixed in Ratios Different than Stoichiometric Coefficients. One species is Completely Consumed (Limiting Reagent) While Another is not Completely Consumed (Excess Reagent) Theoretical Yield The Maximum Amount of Product Which Could be Produced by the Complete Consumption of the Limiting Reagent Silver Tarnishes in the Presence of Hydrogen Sulfide and Oxygen due to the Reaction: How many grams of Silver Sulfide Would be Formed from 2.4g Ag, 0.48g H 2 S & 0.16g O 2? Mass Silver Sulfide Produced: 2.4g Ag 0.48g H 2 S 0.16g O 2 2

3 How Do We Quickly Identify Limiting in Stoichiometric Problems? 1. Determine the Initial Number of Moles for Each Reactant 2.Divide Each by It s Stoichiometric Coefficient. 3. Limiting Reagent Has Smallest Value ( are in Stoichiometric Proportions if all Values are Equal) A Closer Look at the Last Problem 2.4g Ag(1mol Ag/107.9g) (2mol Ag 2 S/4mol Ag)= 0.011mol Ag 2 S 0.48g H 2 S(1mol H 2 S/34g) (2mol Ag 2 S/2mol H 2 S)=0.014mol Ag 2 S 0.16g O 2 (1mol O 2 /32g) (2mol Ag 2 S/mol O 2 ) =0.010mol Ag 2 S 2.4g Ag(1mol Ag/107.9g) (1/4mol Ag) (2mol Ag 2 S )= 0.011mol Ag 2 S 0.48g H 2 S(1mol H 2 S/34g) (1/2mol H 2 S) (2mol Ag 2 S )= 0.014mol Ag 2 S 0.16g O 2 (1mol O 2 /32g) (1/mol O 2 ) (2mol Ag 2 S ) = 0.010mol Ag 2 S Determine Moles Each Species Divide by Coefficient Note: Next Step Multiples all by the Same Value A Closer Look at Short Cut Method Theoretical Mass Yield Ag 2 S 2.4g Ag(1mol Ag/107.9g) /4mol Ag)= g H 2 S(1mol H 2 S/34g) /2mol H 2 S)= g O 2 (1mol O 2 /32g) /mol O 2 ) =0.005 Possible Questions; 1. Theoretical Mass Yield Ag 2 S 2. Theoretical Mass Yield H 2 O 3. Excess Ag 4. Excess H 2 S Theoretical Mass Yield H 2 O Excess Mass of Ag Mass Ag Left Over = Initial Mass -Mass Consumed 3

4 Excess Mass of H 2 S Mass H 2 S Left Over = Initial Mass -Mass Consumed Class Problem P&O Phosphoric Acid can be synthesized from phosphorus, oxygen and water according to the following reactions: 4P + 5O > P 4 O 10 P 4 O H 2 O ---> 4H 3 PO 4 Starting with 20.0g P, 30.0g O 2 and 15.0 g H 2 O, how many grams of Phosphoric acid can be Produced? Combining Equations gives: eq1. 4P + 5O > P 4 O 10 eq2 P 4 O H 2 O ---> 4H 3 PO 4 eq3 4P + 5O 2 + 6H 2 O -----> 4H 3 PO 4 (Note, the P 4 O 10 could be considered as a reaction intermediate) 4P + 5O 2 + 6H 2 O -----> 4H 3 PO 4 20gP(mol P/31g)(1/4 molp) = gO 2 (molo 2 /32g)(1/ 5mol O 2 ) = gH 2 O(molH 2 O/18g)(1/6mol H 2 O) = (15gH 2 O)(molH 2 O/18g)(4molH 3 PO 4 /6mol H 2 O) (98g H 3 PO 4 /mol) = 54.5g H 3 PO 4 OR (4molH 3 PO 4 )(98g H 3 PO 4 /mol) = 54.5g H 3 PO Percent Yields Often Times the Actual Yield of a Chemical Reaction is Less Than That Predicted by the Complete Consumption of the Limiting Reagent Percent Yield = Actual Yield (100) Theoretical Yield Note: Theoretical Yield Is Based on the Complete Consumption of the Limiting Reagent Why Would the Actual Yield Be Less Than the Theoretical Yield? 1. Equilibrium State (where exist together with ) 2. Existence of Intermediates (two step process like formation of Phosphoric Acid) 3. Kinetic Factors (the reaction is slow, maybe not all of the reactants have diffused together). 4

5 Determine Percent Yield if 2.3g of Silver Sulfide form when 2.4g Ag, 0.28g H 2 S & 0.16g O 2 react. From Previous Problem, the Theoretical Yield is 2.5g Ag 2 S Class Problem If, 20.0g P, 30.0g O 2 and 15.0 g H 2 O; Yields 50.3 g H 3 PO 4, what is the Percent Yield? Note in Previous Problem the Theoretical Yield was determined to be 54.5 g phosphoric acid. 4.5 Concentration of a Solute 1. Mass Concentration: mass solute m Typical Units: g/l vol solution V 2. Mole Concentration: (Molarity) Units: M=mol/L Typical Conventions m = mass n = moles M = molarity moles solute n M vol solution V Molarity moles solute M molarity Liter solution Why is Molarity so Important in Solution Stoichiometric Calculations? Because solutes are typically reactants and we can measure the solution volume, this gives us the moles solute. ie., we can Count moles solute by measuring the volume of a solution of known Molarity Calculate the Molarity of a Solution if 2.00 g NaCl is diluted to ml with water. How do You Make ml of.1560m CuSO 4? How much NaOH would you need to make 500. ml of.70m NaOH? 1. Calculate amount of Copper(II) Sulfate you will need. 5

6 Concentration of Ions The concentration of ions are related to the salt via it s formula Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 2 Al SO 4 What are the ion concentrations for a 1M Al 2 (SO 4 ) solution? 2M in Al +3 and 3M in SO 4 (5M in Total Ion Concentration) Adding Solvent Does Not Change The Moles of Solute Moles Before Dilution n initial = = n final n M n MV V M i V i = M f V f Moles After Dilution How would we make 100. ml of 4.0 M Sulfuric Acid from Stock 16 M Sulfuric Acid? 1. Determine Amount of 16 M Sulfuric Acid needed. M i V i = M f V f Solution Reaction Stoichiometry 1. Identify species present and possible rxns. 2. Write Balanced Net Ionic Eq. 3. Calculate Moles of Each Reactant 4. Determine Limiting Reagent 5. Calculate Moles of Other and as Desired 6. Convert Results to Desired Units (Moles, Molarity, Mass ) Solution Stoichiometry Problem Consider mixing 30.0mL of 0.750M sodium chromate with 40.0 ml of M aluminum chloride. 1. Predict the mass and identity of any precipitate formed. 2. Predict the concentrations of any ions remaining in solution. 1. Write Balanced Eq. 3Na 2 CrO 4 (aq) + 2AlCl 3 (aq) 6NaCl + Al 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 2. Use Solubility Rules to Predict States of 3Na 2 CrO 4 (aq) + 2AlCl 3 (aq) 6NaCl(aq) + Al 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 (s) 3. Write Net Ionic Equation 3CrO 4 + 2Al +3 Al 2 (CrO 4 )(s) 6

7 Na + : CrO 4 : Al +3 : Cl - : 3. Identify Initial Moles of all Species.750mol Na CrO 2mol Na l l mol Na2CrO l mol Na2CrO4 mol Na.750mol Na CrO mol CrO l mol CrO 3.5mol AlCl3 mol Al l mol AlCl l mol Al.5mol AlCl 3mol Cl l l mol AlCl3 mol Cl Determine Precipitate Based on Complete Consumption of Limiting Reagent 3CrO 4 + 2Al +3 Al 2 (CrO 4 )(s) mol Al CrO g Al CrO mol CrO 3.01g Al CrO mol CrO 3 4 mol mol Al CrO g Al CrO mol Al 4.02g Al CrO 2mol Al mol g Al 2 (CrO 4 ) 3 5. Determine Concentration of Excess Reagent 6. Determine Concentration of Spectator Ions moles Initial - moles Consumed vol Total mol Al mol Al mol CrO4 2 3 mol CrO M l l 0.714M Al +3 Na + : Cl - : mol Na L mol Cl L = 0.643M = 0.857M ph Scale px = -log[x] ph = -log[h 3 O + ] [H + ] = 10 -ph = 1 10 ph ph & Significant Figures What is ph if [H + ] = 3.50x10-6? Exact # tells position of decimal Shows # of significant figures 7

8 ph of Strong Acids & Bases Consider 100% Dissociation What is the ph of a M HCl solution? ph of Strong Acids & Bases What is the hydronium ion concentration for a solution with a ph of 4.041? Acid-Base Titrations Analytical Technique to Determine the of an Unknown Acid or Base by Neutralizing With an Acid or Base of Known Concentration. What is the concentration of an unknown Sulfuric Acid solution if it takes 35mL of.40 M NaOH to neutralize 50.0 ml of the acid? 2NaOH + H 2 SO 4 ---> Na 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O.4mol NaOH L 1mol H SO 2mol NaOH L L NaOH( )( 2 )( ) M H2SO4 -Note, we are using the initial volume of the acid as we want to know it s initial strength 8

### Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

### Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

### stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

### Chem 31 Fall 2002. Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Chem 31 Fall 2002 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations 1. Write Equation in Words -you cannot write an equation unless you

### IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

### Balance the following equation: KClO 3 + C 12 H 22 O 11 KCl + CO 2 + H 2 O

Balance the following equation: KClO 3 + C 12 H 22 O 11 KCl + CO 2 + H 2 O Ans: 8 KClO 3 + C 12 H 22 O 11 8 KCl + 12 CO 2 + 11 H 2 O 3.2 Chemical Symbols at Different levels Chemical symbols represent

### 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

### Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry

Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry Chapter Goals Balance equations for simple chemical reactions. Perform stoichiometry calculations using balanced chemical equations. Understand the meaning of the term

### Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles

TEKS REVIEW 8B Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS 8B READINESS Use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample TEKS_TXT of material. Vocabulary

### Formulas, Equations and Moles

Chapter 3 Formulas, Equations and Moles Interpreting Chemical Equations You can interpret a balanced chemical equation in many ways. On a microscopic level, two molecules of H 2 react with one molecule

### Practical Lesson No 4 TITRATIONS

Practical Lesson No 4 TITRATIONS Reagents: 1. NaOH standard solution 0.1 mol/l 2. H 2 SO 4 solution of unknown concentration 3. Phenolphthalein 4. Na 2 S 2 O 3 standard solution 0.1 mol/l 5. Starch solution

### Name Class Date. Section: Calculating Quantities in Reactions. Complete each statement below by writing the correct term or phrase.

Skills Worksheet Concept Review Section: Calculating Quantities in Reactions Complete each statement below by writing the correct term or phrase. 1. All stoichiometric calculations involving equations

### The Mole Concept. The Mole. Masses of molecules

The Mole Concept Ron Robertson r2 c:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 final slides for web\mole concept.docx The Mole The mole is a unit of measurement equal to 6.022 x 10 23 things (to 4 sf) just like there

### CHEMISTRY II FINAL EXAM REVIEW

Name Period CHEMISTRY II FINAL EXAM REVIEW Final Exam: approximately 75 multiple choice questions Ch 12: Stoichiometry Ch 5 & 6: Electron Configurations & Periodic Properties Ch 7 & 8: Bonding Ch 14: Gas

### Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole

Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Chapter 4 Topics 1. Mole Quantities 2. Moles, Masses, and Particles 3. Determining Empirical Formulas 4. Chemical Composition of Solutions Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

### Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses B. Calculations of moles C. Calculations of number of atoms from moles/molar masses 1. Avagadro

### Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

### Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1. A chemical equation. (C-4.4)

Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Question What is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction? What 3 things (values) is a mole of a chemical

### Stoichiometry Review

Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen

### Name Date Class STOICHIOMETRY. SECTION 12.1 THE ARITHMETIC OF EQUATIONS (pages 353 358)

Name Date Class 1 STOICHIOMETRY SECTION 1.1 THE ARITHMETIC OF EQUATIONS (pages 353 358) This section explains how to calculate the amount of reactants required or product formed in a nonchemical process.

### Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions

Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements

### Stoichiometry. Unit Outline

3 Stoichiometry Unit Outline 3.1 The Mole and Molar Mass 3.2 Stoichiometry and Compound Formulas 3.3 Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions 3.4 Stoichiometry and Limiting Reactants 3.5 Chemical Analysis

### Stoichiometry. Lecture Examples Answer Key

Stoichiometry Lecture Examples Answer Key Ex. 1 Balance the following chemical equations: 3 NaBr + 1 H 3 PO 4 3 HBr + 1 Na 3 PO 4 2 C 3 H 5 N 3 O 9 6 CO 2 + 3 N 2 + 5 H 2 O + 9 O 2 2 Ca(OH) 2 + 2 SO 2

### Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

### 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

### Sample Problem: STOICHIOMETRY and percent yield calculations. How much H 2 O will be formed if 454 g of. decomposes? NH 4 NO 3 N 2 O + 2 H 2 O

STOICHIOMETRY and percent yield calculations 1 Steps for solving Stoichiometric Problems 2 Step 1 Write the balanced equation for the reaction. Step 2 Identify your known and unknown quantities. Step 3

### Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4)

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Chemical Equations 1. Balancing Chemical Equations (from Chapter 3) Adjust coefficients to get equal numbers of each kind of element on both sides of arrow.

### Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution:

### Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

### Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

### Lecture Topics Atomic weight, Mole, Molecular Mass, Derivation of Formulas, Percent Composition

Mole Calculations Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry Lecture Topics Atomic weight, Mole, Molecular Mass, Derivation of Formulas, Percent Composition Chemical Equations and Problems Based on Miscellaneous

### Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept

3 Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept Content 3.1 Symbols, Formulae and Chemical equations 3.2 Concept of Relative Mass 3.3 Mole Concept and Stoichiometry Learning Outcomes Candidates should be

### CP Chemistry Review for Stoichiometry Test

CP Chemistry Review for Stoichiometry Test Stoichiometry Problems (one given reactant): 1. Make sure you have a balanced chemical equation 2. Convert to moles of the known substance. (Use the periodic

### Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19)

Chapter 17 2) a) HCl and CH 3 COOH are both acids. A buffer must have an acid/base conjugate pair. b) NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are an acid/base conjugate pair. They will make an excellent buffer. c) H

### 1. How many hydrogen atoms are in 1.00 g of hydrogen?

MOLES AND CALCULATIONS USING THE MOLE CONCEPT INTRODUCTORY TERMS A. What is an amu? 1.66 x 10-24 g B. We need a conversion to the macroscopic world. 1. How many hydrogen atoms are in 1.00 g of hydrogen?

### Acid-Base Chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases

Acid-Base Chemistry ν There are a couple of ways to define acids and bases ν Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases ν Acid: H + ion donor ν Base: H + ion acceptor ν Lewis acids and bases ν Acid: electron pair

### IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

### Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects.

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Mole-Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. SI def.: the amount of

### Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

### Other Stoich Calculations A. mole mass (mass mole) calculations. GIVEN mol A x CE mol B. PT g A CE mol A MOLE MASS :

Chem. I Notes Ch. 12, part 2 Using Moles NOTE: Vocabulary terms are in boldface and underlined. Supporting details are in italics. 1 MOLE = 6.02 x 10 23 representative particles (representative particles

### Moles Lab mole. 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023. This is also known as Avagadro's number Demo amu amu amu

Moles I. Lab: Rice Counting II. Counting atoms and molecules I. When doing reactions chemists need to count atoms and molecules. The problem of actually counting individual atoms and molecules comes from

### Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

### Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3-1 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry In This Chapter As you have learned in previous chapters, much of chemistry involves using macroscopic measurements to deduce what happens between atoms

### Appendix D. Reaction Stoichiometry D.1 INTRODUCTION

Appendix D Reaction Stoichiometry D.1 INTRODUCTION In Appendix A, the stoichiometry of elements and compounds was presented. There, the relationships among grams, moles and number of atoms and molecules

### Chapter 3! Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. Stoichiometry

Chapter 3! : Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations Anatomy of a Chemical Equation CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O (g) Anatomy of a Chemical Equation CH 4 (g) + 2 O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2

### Mole Notes.notebook. October 29, 2014

1 2 How do chemists count atoms/formula units/molecules? How do we go from the atomic scale to the scale of everyday measurements (macroscopic scale)? The gateway is the mole! But before we get to the

### Acid-Base Titrations. Setup for a Typical Titration. Titration 1

Titration 1 Acid-Base Titrations Molarities of acidic and basic solutions can be used to convert back and forth between moles of solutes and volumes of their solutions, but how are the molarities of these

### 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

### Unit 2: Quantities in Chemistry

Mass, Moles, & Molar Mass Relative quantities of isotopes in a natural occurring element (%) E.g. Carbon has 2 isotopes C-12 and C-13. Of Carbon s two isotopes, there is 98.9% C-12 and 11.1% C-13. Find

### Chemical Calculations

Moles and Molecules Moles and Chemical Reactions Moles, Chemical Reactions, and Molarity All done as UNIT CONVERSIONS!!! and practice, practice, practice CHM 1010 Sinex 1 Mass moles particles conversions

### 1. What is the molecular formula of a compound with the empirical formula PO and a gram-molecular mass of 284 grams?

Name: Tuesday, May 20, 2008 1. What is the molecular formula of a compound with the empirical formula PO and a gram-molecular mass of 284 grams? 2 5 1. P2O 5 3. P10O4 2. P5O 2 4. P4O10 2. Which substance

### General Chemistry II Chapter 20

1 General Chemistry II Chapter 0 Ionic Equilibria: Principle There are many compounds that appear to be insoluble in aqueous solution (nonelectrolytes). That is, when we add a certain compound to water

### Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule

CHAPTER THREE: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance A. Molecular Mass and Formula Mass. (Section 3.1) 1. Just as we can talk about mass of one atom of

### Problem Solving. Stoichiometry of Gases

Skills Worksheet Problem Solving Stoichiometry of Gases Now that you have worked with relationships among moles, mass, and volumes of gases, you can easily put these to work in stoichiometry calculations.

### Volumetric Analysis. Lecture 5 Experiment 9 in Beran page 109 Prelab = Page 115

Volumetric Analysis Lecture 5 Experiment 9 in Beran page 109 Prelab = Page 115 Experimental Aims To prepare and standardize (determine concentration) a NaOH solution Using your standardized NaOH calculate

### Chapter 3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry. Lecture Presentation. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT

Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions and Reaction James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT The study of the mass relationships in chemistry Based on the Law of Conservation of Mass

### Chapter 4: Chemical and Solution Stoichiometry

Chapter 4: Chemical and Solution Stoichiometry (Sections 4.1-4.4) 1 Reaction Stoichiometry The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation specify the relative amounts in moles of each of the substances

### Chapter 6 Chemical Calculations

Chapter 6 Chemical Calculations 1 Submicroscopic Macroscopic 2 Chapter Outline 1. Formula Masses (Ch 6.1) 2. Percent Composition (supplemental material) 3. The Mole & Avogadro s Number (Ch 6.2) 4. Molar

### Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases

: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water

### MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units)

CHEM 101/105 Stoichiometry, as applied to Aqueous Solutions containing Ionic Solutes Lect-05 MOLES - a quantity of substance. Quantities of substances can be expressed as masses, as numbers, or as moles.

### Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

### Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see

### Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Stoichiometry is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

### Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues)

Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues) is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

### Chemical Calculations: Formula Masses, Moles, and Chemical Equations

Chemical Calculations: Formula Masses, Moles, and Chemical Equations Atomic Mass & Formula Mass Recall from Chapter Three that the average mass of an atom of a given element can be found on the periodic

### PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

### MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

### Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

### Solubility Product Constant

Solubility Product Constant Page 1 In general, when ionic compounds dissolve in water, they go into solution as ions. When the solution becomes saturated with ions, that is, unable to hold any more, the

### UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

### Equilibria Involving Acids & Bases

Week 9 Equilibria Involving Acids & Bases Acidic and basic solutions Self-ionisation of water Through reaction with itself: The concentration of water in aqueous solutions is virtually constant at about

### Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

### 1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions

1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions Couple E 0 Couple E 0 Br 2 (l) + 2e 2Br (aq) +1.06 V AuCl 4 + 3e Au + 4Cl +1.00 V Ag + + e Ag +0.80 V Hg 2+ 2 + 2e 2 Hg +0.79 V Fe 3+ (aq) + e Fe 2+ (aq) +0.77 V Cu 2+

### n molarity = M = N.B.: n = litres (solution)

1. CONCENTRATION UNITS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more chemical substances. If we have a solution made from a solid and a liquid, we say that the solid is dissolved in the liquid and

### Molarity of Ions in Solution

APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

### 11-1 Stoichiometry. Represents

11-1 Stoichiometry What is stoichiometry? Calculations that relate the quantities of substances. It is the study of quantitative (measurable amounts) relationships in chemical reactions and equations.

### Stoichiometry. What is the atomic mass for carbon? For zinc?

Stoichiometry Atomic Mass (atomic weight) Atoms are so small, it is difficult to discuss how much they weigh in grams We use atomic mass units an atomic mass unit (AMU) is one twelfth the mass of the catbon-12

### 4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry

196 Chapter 4 Stoichiometry of Chemical Reactions 4.3 Reaction Stoichiometry By the end of this section, you will be able to: Explain the concept of stoichiometry as it pertains to chemical reactions Use

### Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu)

Micro World atoms & molecules Laboratory scale measurements Atomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) By definition: 1 atom 12 C weighs 12 amu On this scale 1 H = 1.008 amu 16 O = 16.00

Sample Exercise 17.1 Calculating the ph When a Common Ion is Involved What is the ph of a solution made by adding 0.30 mol of acetic acid and 0.30 mol of sodium acetate to enough water to make 1.0 L of

### CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

1 CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS The Chemical Equation A chemical equation concisely shows the initial (reactants) and final (products) results of

### Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

### 6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical?

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must

### Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation INFORMATION Chemical equations are symbolic devices used to represent actual chemical reactions. The left side of the equation, called the reactants, is separated

Return to Lab Menu Stoichiometry Exploring the Reaction between Baking Soda and Vinegar Objectives -to observe and measure mass loss in a gas forming reaction -to calculate CO 2 loss and correlate to a

### Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual

### The Mole Concept and Atoms

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 4 24 September 2013 Calculations and the Chemical Equation The Mole Concept and Atoms Atoms are exceedingly

### Element of same atomic number, but different atomic mass o Example: Hydrogen

Atomic mass: p + = protons; e - = electrons; n 0 = neutrons p + + n 0 = atomic mass o For carbon-12, 6p + + 6n 0 = atomic mass of 12.0 o For chlorine-35, 17p + + 18n 0 = atomic mass of 35.0 atomic mass

Additional Lecture: TITRATION BASICS 1 Definition and Applications Titration is the incremental addition of a reagent solution (called titrant) to the analyte until the reaction is complete Common applications:

### Acid/Base Definition. Acid/Base Reactions. Major vs. Minor Species. Terms/Items you Need to Know. you need to memorize these!!

Acid/Base Reactions some covalent compounds have weakly bound H atoms and can lose them to water (acids) some compounds produce OH in water solutions when they dissolve (bases) acid/base reaction are very

### The Mole and Molar Mass

The Mole and Molar Mass 1 Molar mass is the mass of one mole of a substance. Molar mass is numerically equal to atomic mass, molecular mass, or formula mass. However the units of molar mass are g/mol.

### Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

### THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY

1 THE MOLE / COUNTING IN CHEMISTRY ***A mole is 6.0 x 10 items.*** 1 mole = 6.0 x 10 items 1 mole = 60, 00, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 items Analogy #1 1 dozen = 1 items 18 eggs = 1.5 dz. - to convert

### Properties of Acids and Bases

Lab 22 Properties of Acids and Bases TN Standard 4.2: The student will investigate the characteristics of acids and bases. Have you ever brushed your teeth and then drank a glass of orange juice? What

### Stoichiometry. 1. The total number of moles represented by 20 grams of calcium carbonate is (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 0.1; (4) 0.2.

Stoichiometry 1 The total number of moles represented by 20 grams of calcium carbonate is (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 01; (4) 02 2 A 44 gram sample of a hydrate was heated until the water of hydration was driven

### Common Ion Effects. CH 3 CO 2 (aq) + Na + (aq)

Common Ion Effects If two reactions both involve the same ion, then one reaction can effect the equilibrium position of the other reaction. The ion that appears in both reactions is the common ion. Buffers

### SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

### Problem Solving. Empirical Formulas

Skills Worksheet Problem Solving Empirical Formulas Suppose you analyze an unknown compound that is a white powder and find that it is composed of 36.5% sodium, 38.1% oxygen, and 25.4% sulfur. You can