Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10

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1 Lab 5 Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages Exercise 9 The Axial Skeleton Exercise 10 Overview of the Skeleton Locate the important cartilages in the human skeleton (Figure 9.2) Read Classification of Bones on page 114 and then test yourself on the box of numbered bones at the front of the class. Answers are provided on a card in the box. No peeking until you've made your choices! Activity 1: Examining a Long Bone Activity 2: Examining the Effects of Heat and Hydrochloric Acid on Bones Activity 3: Examining the Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone Activity 4: Examining the Osteogenic Epiphyseal Plate The Axial Skeleton Activity 1: Identifying the Bones of the Skull You are responsible for all the bones and bone parts listed on the review sheet. a. Obtain a skull and some blunt probes. If it is a real bone skull, treat it with extreme care and put it on bubble wrap on the lab bench. b. Some structures have been destroyed by use over time on the real skulls and you may have to look at the plastic skulls and the Beauchene skull (photo, p. 129) for help. The lab manual and the atlas that is packaged with your book are both good resources. c. Return the skull to the correct box when you are finished. Activity 2: Palpating Skull Markings Activity 3: Examining Spinal Curvatures Activity 4: Examining Vertebral Structure

2 Name Lab Section Pre-Lab Activity - Turn in at the beginning of lab 1. Bones that surround the body s center of gravity form the (circle one) axial appendicular skeleton 2. The type of cartilage found in the knee joint and intervertebral discs is. a. elastic cartilage b. hyaline cartilage c. fibrocartilage 3. bone appears smooth and homogeneous to the eye. a. spongy b. compact 4. Thin bones with two layers of compact bone and a central layer of spongy bone are usually bones. a. flat b. long c. irregular d. short 5. A central canal and the surrounding lamellae are called an. 6. The three parts of the axial skeleton are the, the, and the. 7. The vertebrae articulate with the ribs. 8. The three parts of the sternum are the, the, and the. 9. True ribs are also called ribs. Floating ribs are also called ribs. Ribs that attach indirectly to the sternum through the costal cartilage of rib 7 are called ribs. 10. The four major parts of a rib are the, the, the, and the.

3 Label the skeleton. Print the labels in the margins, not on the lines.

4 Name Lab Section Review Sheet Overview of the Skeleton 1. Terminology Matching. Match the description with the correct term. a. Condyle b. Crest c. Epicondyle d. Fissure e. Foramen f. Fossa g. Head h. Meatus i. Process j. Ramus k. Sinus l. Spine m. Trochanter n. Tubercle o. Tuberosity Projection or prominence Shallow depression Opening through a bone Large rounded projection Small rounded projection Rounded articular projection Canal-like structure Raised area above a condyle Arm-like projection or bar of bone Structure supported on a neck Narrow ridge of bone Very large, blunt irregularly shaped process Narrow slit-like opening Sharp, slender, often pointed projection Space within a bone, air-filled and lined with mucous membrane

5 2. a. What gives bone compressional strength (ability to resist compression)? b. What gives bone tensile strength? c. What is removed when bone is soaked in acid? d. What remains when bone is soaked in acid? e. Why is baked bone brittle? 3. List the four basic bone shapes and give one example of a bone for each. Shape Bone Example a. b. c. d. 4. Blood vessels travel horizontally in bone through canals and vertically in bone through canals. 5. What is the difference in the composition of the red marrow and the yellow marrow? 2 points. 6. Label on figure: matrix, central canal, lacuna, interstitial lamellae, osteon. PRINT the labels neatly in the margins.

6 A F G H E J I D B K L M C N 7. Match the letters on the figure to the terms below. articular cartilage nutrient arteries compact bone proximal epiphysis diaphysis periosteum distal epiphysis perforating fibers endosteum site of red marrow epiphyseal line trabeculae of spongy bone medullary cavity yellow marrow

7 8. Match the labels on the figure with the terms below: canaliculus central canal lamella of compact bone lacuna with osteocyte osteon perforating canal periosteum spongy bone B A C D E F H D G

8 9. Trace the flow of nutrients from blood in blood vessels in the periosteum to an osteocyte in a lacuna using the following terms: canaliculus, capillary, central canal, lacuna, nutrient artery, perforating canal. This is an ordering question. Imagine yourself in a boat in a nutrient artery, trying to get to a lacuna. The Axial Skeleton 10. List the three components of the axial skeleton and the major function of each. Part of Axial Skeleton Function 11. List the eight bones of the cranium. Use the terms right and left if the bones are paired. 12. List the paired bones of the cranium. Use the terms right and left. 13. List the flat bones of the cranium. Use the terms right and left if the bones are paired.

9 14. List the bones that form the calvarium or cranial vault. Use the terms right and left if the bones are paired. 15. List the bones that form the floor of the cranium. Use the terms right and left if the bones are paired. 16. List the unpaired bones of the cranium. 17. Name the bone with openings for the optic nerves. 18. Name the bone with openings for the olfactory nerves. 19. Name the bone with an opening for the vestibulocochlear nerve. 20. Name the bone that has an opening for the spinal cord. 21. List the 7 bones of the orbit. XXXXXXXXXXX 22. What is the function of the orbit? 23. List the paired facial bones. Right and Left Right and Left Right and Left Right and Left Right and Left Right and Left 24. List the two unpaired facial bones.

10 25. a. Distinguish between the development of a primary and a secondary curvature of the vertebral column. b. Name the two primary curvatures of the vertebral column. c. Name the two secondary curvatures of the vertebral column. d. When does each of the secondary curvatures develop? 1.) 2.) e. An abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column is called f. An abnormal thoracic curvature is called g. An abnormal lumbar curvature is called Draw and label figures to illustrate e., f., and g. Be sure to indicate anterior and posterior or dorsal and ventral where relevant.

11 25. Match the letters on the figures with the terms below Bony thorax (ribs) Cervical vertebra Costal cartilage Coccyx Frontal bone Lumbar vertebra Occipital bone Parietal bone Sacrum Skull Sternum Thoracic vertebra Vertebrae Vertebral rib Vertebrochondral rib Vertebrosternal rib L A F M B N C D H G O P I J I E K

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