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1 Alternatives to in India Submission to the Stockholm Convention POPs Review Committee Pesticide Action Network International (PAN Int) and International POPs Elimination Network (IPEN) January 2010 Because India is the world s largest producer of it is worth examining whether there are alternatives to that are economically feasible, available, in use, and/or recommended by the Government of India or by other credible sources in India. 1 The table below shows combinations of crops and pests along with the chemical and biological treatments recommended by the Expert Committee, Government of India, for use in the State of Orissa. 2 Note that for many crop/pesticide combinations several pesticides are suitable. Key economic crops for the state are rice, pulses, oil seeds, jute, mesta, sugarcane, coconut and turmeric. Where is recommended for any of these crops, alternatives are also recommended. The items underlined are the only pests for which the Expert Committee does not provide an alternative to. This amounts to eight pests out of 55 listed in the table, demonstrating that 85% of the listed pests can be treated with alternatives to according to Indian government recommendations. In addition, below this table can be found information from other credible sources in India on alternatives to for the eight remaining pests. Table 1: Government of India recommended use of insecticides for certain crop/pest combinations Crop Pest Chemicals Biologicals Paddy Leaf folder cypermethrin lambda-cyhalothrin Hispa/case worm/cut worm Arhar [pigeon pea] Pod borer Swarming caterpillar/ surti caterpillar acephate nuclear polyhedrosis 1 Please note that it is not PAN and IPEN proposing the alternative chemicals, but the sources cited, and they are included here to demonstrate that cost-effective alternatives are available in India. 2 Recommended PP Chemicals, Bio-Pesticides and Micronutrients by the Expert Committee Annexure I. NB: the URL does not open directly. It can be accessed at scroll down to Orissa in the left column and find the document titled Use of pesticides Recommended by Expert Committee

2 Pod bug Pod fly Defoliators methyl oxydemeton imidacloprid acephate Bengal gram Pod borer azardiractin Green gram, black gram Pod borer Groundnut Leafminer Defoliator (Spodoptera litura) Helicoverpa/Spodoptera/ other leafeating caterpillar azadirachtin virus () Spodoptera litura Spodoptera litura chlorpyriphos Mustard Leaf and pod caterpillar sawfly Leaf webber ethofenprox Sesamum Antigastra sp/ Pod capsule borer Spingid caterpillar Sunflower Helicoverpa (head borer) Defoliators azadirachtin Cutworm dichlorvos Castor semilooper Niger Lucern caterpillar defoliator Linseed Lucern caterpillar Defoliator Safflower Bihar hairy caterpillar methyl oxydemeton dimethoate Soyabean Leaf roller Leaf miner Stemfly defoliator phosalone phosalone Maize Stalk borer carbofuran 2

3 Corn earworm/defoliator Ragi Pink borer Millets shoot fly Sorghum Defoliators fenvalerate Gram pod borer Cotton Spotted bollworm; pink bollworm; Helicoverpa; Red cotton bug; Dusky cotton bug spinosad indoxacarb Leaf roller Jute Semilooper phosalone Bihar hairy caterpillar; Indigo caterpillar Mites dicofol propargite Mesta Jassid phosalone dimethoate Sugarcane Top shoot borer; Internode borer carbofuran Bhindi Leaf roller Curcubits Red pumpkin Chilli Fruit borer dicofol Tomato Fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera) Cabbage/Cauliflower Cabbage borer Tobacco caterpillar Leaf webber (Crocidoloma binotalis) Cabbage butterfly acephate Trichogramma japonicum 3

4 Potato Cutworm chlorpyriphos Pea Pod borer Mango Mango hopper Mealy bug Citrus Lemon butterfly NSKE (/ in fruiting stage) Guava Bark eating caterpillar Cater capsule borer The above table provides alternatives to (both chemical pesticides and biological controls) for all crop/pest complexes, except the following: 1. Arhar (pigeon pea) - Pod fly (Melanagromyza obtusa (Malloch)) 2. Mustard - Leaf and pod caterpillar; sawfly 3. Sesamum - Antigastra sp/ Pod capsule borer; Sphingid caterpillar 4. Sunflower - Castor semilooper 5. Ragi - Pink borer; Millets shoot fly An Indian IPM site, hosted by the Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Agricultural University, Jabalpu, Madhya Pradesh, gives the following recommendations for both chemical and non-chemical management of four of these eight specific pest/crop complexes: 1. Arhar (pigeon pea) a) Pod fly (Melanagromyza obtusa (Malloch)) Cultural Control sow resistant varieties intercropping with jowar, maize or groundnut etc crop rotation conserve Ormyrus sp (parasite of pod fly) Chemical Control neem seed kernel extract 2. Mustard a) sawfly (Athalia lugens proxima) Cultural controls summer ploughing to destroy the pupa early sowing should be done 4

5 maintain clean cultivation apply irrigation in seedling stage is very crucial for sawfly management because most of the larvae die due to drowning effect severe cold reduce pest growth Mechanical Control collection and destruction of grubs of saw fly in morning and evening conserve Perilissus cingulator (parasites the grubs), and the bacterium Serratia marcescens Bizio infect the larvae of sawfly use of bitter gourd seed oil emulsion as on anti-feedent Chemical Control methyl parathion 3. Sesamum a) Antigastra sp/ Pod capsule borer [Leaf webber, roller and capsule borer (Antigastra catalaunalis)] Cultural Control early sown (first week of July) Kharif crop is less infested than late sown crop use resistant tolerant varieties intercrop with mungbean, pearl millet, urdbean, moth bean and groundnut Mechanical Control removal of larvae from the leaf webs during the initial stages of plant growth release Bracon hebator, B. Brevicornis and Phanerotoma handecasisella for shoot webber release predators like Cantheconidia furcellata, Cicindella spp release parasitoids like Trathala flavoorbitallis, Campoplex sp., Erioborus sp., Temelucha biguttula, Apanteles spp. and Cremastus flavoorbitalis Chemical control phosalone deltamethrin cypermethrin b) Sphingid caterpillar The IPM site lists controls for Hawk moth (Sphinx caterpillar), Acherontia styx, which is a Sphingid caterpillar. Cultural Control deep ploughing exposes the pupae for predation to insectivorous birds Mechanical Control hand picking, collection, and destruction of caterpillars use egg parasite Anastatus acherontiae use larval parasite like Sarcophaga sp., Zygobothria ciliate walp, Apanteles acherontiae Chemical Control phosalone 5

6 DAS Alternatives to for the remaining four pest/crop complexes (leaf and pod caterpillar on mustard; castor semilooper on sunflower; and pink borer and millets shoot fly on Ragi) are provided by other sources: 1. Mustard (a) leaf and pod caterpillar This pest is difficult to identify without a scientific name, and it is not included on the IPM site referred to above so it is probably a minor pest of mustard. Until such time as it is properly identified it is difficult to locate alternatives, other than which is active against all Lepidoptera, and azadirachtin. 2. Sunflower (a) Castor semilooper [Achaea janata] This is another lepidopteran pest that can be controlled by and azadirachtin. Recommended measures include: 3 deep summer ploughing and destruction of pupae; encouraging natural control agents like Trichogramma, Apanteles, Bracon, Chrysopa, and lady bird beetles; spraying 5% Neem seed kernel suspension as repellent for adults from egg lying; spraying chilli-garlic suspension to kill young larvae; use of light traps to trap and kill adult insects; putting bird perches at 10 per acre to attract birds for controlling larval stages. 3. Ragi (Eleusine coracana), also known as finger millet and African millet (a) Pink borer Crop rotation with short duration non-graminaceous (legume) crop to reduce the borer population. This practice helps in breaking the life cycle of the borer. Application of optimal rates of nitrogenous fertilizers in split application minimises the crop susceptibility to the borer. Removal and destruction of dead hearts at the initial stages of infestation. Harvesting the crop close to the ground level will greatly help in eliminating the larval and pupal stages of the pest. Ploughing the fields immediately after harvesting kills larvae and pupae over wintering on the stubbles, which serves as chief source of infestation in the succeeding seasons. The eggs of the borer are naturally parasitised by Telenomus dingus and Trichogramma sp. The larvae are naturally infected by the fungus Beauvaria bassiana during winter. Spiders and birds also prey efficiently on adult moths during brood emergence in the fields. In case of wide spread infestation, spray any one of the insecticides such as phospamidon 85 WSC 1.0 ml/litre or chlorpyriphos 20 EC 2.0 ml/litre or 35 EC 1.5 ml/litre on need basis 15 days after sowing. 4 (b) Millet shoot fly For infestation of shoot fly and stem borer after sowing spray 0.05% or triazaphos 600 l/ha at 15 days after sowing. If necessary a second spray of same pesticides after 15 days should be done; 3 Castor Semilooper [Achaea janata, Parallelia algira]. Taking Roots, Farming Sustainable Way. India. 4 Stem borer in finger millet. The Hindu. Thursday, January 25,

7 use high seed rate i.e. 5 kg/ha and remove plants with dead heart' at the time of thinning; spray with methyl parathion 2% or 5% 25 kg/ha at 15 days after sowing; use plant bio-pesticides 30ml/10lit. at 10, 20 and 30 days after sowing; two sprays of neem oil 0.05% and 4g soap in 1 l water at 10 and 20 days after sowing. 5 5 Millet Research Station, Junagadh Agricultural University Jamnagar-6. 7

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