1 Chemical versus Biological Control of Sugarcane By Abid Hussain Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd.
2 Sugarcane It is an important cash crop, Pakistan is the fifth largest cane producing country. However, its yield per acre here is lower than in most of the sugar cane producing countries. Among many reasons behind this low production such as poor management practices, weeds, water shortage etc, insect pests also play a negative role in decreasing the yield.
3 Pest A pest is any organism that injures or spreads disease to humans, domestic animals and desirable plants.
4 Pesticide Any chemical used to repel or kill a pest organism.
5 Advantages of Pesticides Effectiveness: Pesticides are quick way of controlling pests. They require low labor inputs and allow large areas to be treated quickly and effectively. Flexibility: A suitable pesticide is available for almost all pest problems with variation in type, activity and persistence.
6 Disadvantages of Pesticides Reduction of beneficial species: Animals which interact with the targeted pest can also be affected by the chemical application. The reduction in these other organisms can result in changes in the biodiversity of an area and affect natural biological balances. Drift of sprays and vapors: Pesticides can affect other areas during application and can cause severe problems in different crops, livestock, waterways and the general environment. Wildlife and fish are the most affected.
7 Cont Residues in food: There is the possibility of pesticides in human food, either by direct application onto the food, or by biomagnification along the food line. Not all levels are undesirable but unnecessary and dangerous levels must be avoided through good agricultural practices. Ground water contamination: Chemicals can reach underground aquifers if there is persistent product use in agricultural areas.
8 Pesticide Toxicity Routes of Exposure Eye Dermal skin Oral - by mouth, ingestion Inhalation-breathe in
9 Effects of Pesticides on Human Health Cancer Asthma Birth Defects Neurological Effects Endometriosis Hormone Disruption Reduced sperm counts Fertility Problems
10 Skin damaged by pesticides
11 Cont Acute contact dermatitis due to pesticide spray Breast Cancer in Lactating women (related to cotton pickers)
12 Biological Control of Insect Pest Biological control is the use of a pest's natural enemies to control its population and spread. Biological control is one method of preventing pests from causing economic or environmental damage.
13 Advantages of Biological Control Biological control agents are pest-specific and greatly prefer to feed on the target organism, leaving non-pest organisms undisturbed. Once a biological control program is underway, the field aspects of the program are inexpensive compared to other control methods and require little human efforts
14 Cont Biological control agents can sustain themselves and spread on their own. Beneficial animals and plants as well as people in an area where biological control is being used are by and large unaffected by this method of control.
15 Disadvantages of Biological Control Biological control agents usually only affect their target organism, but there is a chance that the biological control agent may feed on a beneficial organism and may even prefer it over the pest, rendering the program ineffective. Also, not all pests can be controlled by biological agents, or a pest may be so similar to a native or beneficial insect that the risk of introducing the control agent outweighs any benefits.
16 Insect Pest According to rough estimates, insect pests cause almost 15 to 30 per cent reduction in yield of the crop resulting in huge losses to the growers.
17 Cont Here we discuss only on insect pest of sugarcane because we remained successful in biological control of sugarcane insect pests in surroundings of Matiari Suger Mills Ltd.
18 Sugarcane borers Amongst sugar cane pests, borers cause more damage to the crop. Moths of sugarcane stem borers lay their eggs underside the leaves. Within 36 to 48 hours larvae come out of the eggs and start feeding on tender parts of the plant.
19 Cont After some time, the larvae find their way into the stem. They keep feeding inside the cane and render it unfit for consumption and milling. Weight of cane and sucrose percentage is drastically reduced. In case of root borer attack, the central whorl of leaves dry up and form dead hearts.
20 Top Borer Stem Borer Root Borer
21 Borer Infestation
22 Chemical Control of Borers Corbofuran (Granular) Chloropyriphos (Liquid)
23 Biological Control of Borers There are many parasites and predators to control insect pest of sugarcane but we are rearing some of them, in laboratory.
24 Biological Control of Borers Trichogramma Cotesia Chrysoperla Carnea
25 Sugarcane Leaf Hopper Another harmful pest of sugarcane is the leaf hopper (pyrilla), which causes serious damage to the crop. Its attack is reported to have been increasing for the last few years in Sindh. Pyrilla is an insect pest which sucks juice from the leaves as a result they dry up.
26 Cont In addition, it also emits a sweet substance (honey dew) which serves as a medium for a fungus namely sooty mould, which turns the leaves black and photosynthetic activity of plants is badly affected. Plants get weakened and sucrose percentage also drops.
27 Cont Both the adults and nymphs suck the sap from leaves. The leaf hopper is very agile and jumps around in large numbers, making a faint noise when a person walks through a heavily infested field. This pest breeds through out the year and migrates from one crop to another in search of fresh food.
28 Sugarcane Leaf hopper
29 Leaf hopper Infestation
30 Chemical Control of Leaf hopper Acetamiprid+Imidachloprid Spirotatamet
31 Biological Control of Leaf hopper Epipyrops (parasite) Chrysoperla (predators)
32 Sugarcane whitefly Macro plant symptoms and other conditions and characters that indicate presence. The nymphs are responsible for most of the damage to plants. The sap suck by nymphs result in the leaf gradually turning yellow and pinkish and ultimately the leaf dries up.
33 Cont The nymphs excrete large quantities of honey dew which accumulates on the affected leaves and the leaves appear black due to development of sooty mould, interfering with photosynthesis. High infestation causes stunted crop growth and reduces juice quality. Severe whitefly infestation may result in reduction in cane yield up to 65%.
34 Sugarcane whitefly
35 White fly Infestation
36 Chemical Control of White fly Acetamiprid+Imidachloprid Spirotatamet Chloropyriphos
37 Biological Control of White fly Chrysoperla Carnea Ladybird Beetle
38 Is Biological Control Expensive? Price of 1 card = Rs. 13 Price of 1 appl: of 30 cards/acre = 13 X 30 = Rs. 390 Price of 7 applications = 7 X 390 = Rs Comparison/acre: Biological Control: Rs Pesticide (approx: ) : Rs
39 Matiari Agriculture Services (MAS) MAS is a sister running company of Matiari Sugar Mills, it consists of four Units i.e Biological Control Laboratory Tissue Culture Laboratory Bio-compost Project Research Farm (multiplication of Improved sugarcane varieties)
40 Cont In 2000 we introduced biological pest control Laboratory and we had trails in different areas of sugarcane. Our aim is to provide information and awareness to the growers about the Sugarcane pests and how to control these pests through biological control.
41 Procedure of cards application in the field
42 BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL LABORATORY OF MAS The highly skilled and experienced staff is working on rearing of beneficial insect against the pests of different crops like Sugarcane, Banana, Cotton etc.
43 Biological Control Laboratory of MAS
44 Beneficiaries of Surroundings of Matiari Sugar Mills Ltd. S.No. Season Area Under Cane in acres No of acres Treated with bio- cards Bio cards used /year Remarks (To date) This resulted in mark reduction in the use of chemicals and consequently mark improvement in environment in the area
45 S.No Dissection of Year wise Infested Season cane samples No. of Samples No. of Sticks Total Numbers Internodes Infested Numbers Infestation Percentage
46 Conclusion Biological Control agents are environmentally safe, non-toxic and non polluting. Repeated application of chemical control evokes genetic resistance in the pests and it becomes harder and harder to suppress the pests through repeated chemical spray. Chemicals are highly toxic to human health they create many diseases.
47 Cont In Matiari area there is a mark improvement in awareness among the growers for adopting Biological control of pests. In the said area, application of cards in remained remarkable (No. of cards, 2,567,05) it is still going on.
48 Con Cane samples taken from cane carrier during the season and infestation rate of borers was gradually decreased through Biological control agents
49 Cont Hence proved that Biological control is cheaper (Rs. 2,730/acre) than chemical control (Rs. 8,000 10,000) and it has no toxic effects on human health.
In the previous presentation on Human Health and Pesticides, we discussed some of the negative consequences associated with pesticide use. In this presentation we will focus on environmental degradation
Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5
What is a pest? How Insects Become Pests How do insects become pests? Introduction outside of native range Becomes disease vector Plant or animal (inclu. human) disease vector Host shift in native insect
Introduction to Integrated Pest Management John C. Wise, Ph.D. Michigan State University MSU Trevor Nichols Research Complex What is Integrated Pest Management? Integrated Pest Management (IPM) New concept;
PREVALENCE OF INSECT PESTS, PREDATORS, PARASITOIDS AND ITS SURVIVAL IN GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CORN IN PAKISTAN BY DR. HABIB IQBAL JAVED National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad, Pakistan INTRODUCTION
ADVANCED SUGARCANE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY By RanaZulfiqar Ali Director Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad Comparison with World (2011-12) Item Sugarcane production 05 Area under sugarcane 05 Production
INSECT MANAGEMENT (Roberts & McPherson) A number of insect pests are capable of severely damaging soybeans. However, it is important to realize that soybeans can withstand considerable insect damage at
Integrated Pest Management Science and Language Arts Brief Description: This lesson will focus all of the information the students have learned about pests in the other insect lessons in a decision-making
Technology Fact Sheet for Adaptation Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest of economic importance i Technology: Upscaling of locally proven IPM technologies for control of pest
Whiteflies in Southwest Florida 02/22/2013 Agenda What is a whitefly? What damage do whiteflies cause? How can whiteflies be treated? What is the future for whitefly problems? What is a whitefly? Small,
Pests and Pest Control The need for pest control Philosophies of control Development of Chemical Pesticides Promises and problems of the chemical approach Some of the more commonly used icides Alternative
Improving Control Systems in Thailand for Plant and Plants Products Intended for Export to the European Union co-funded by the European Union and Thai Department of Agriculture Preharvest Use of Pesticides
Focus Areas: Pest Control: Biological; Environmental Science, Language Arts Focus Skills: critical thinking, conducting research, observing, graphing, interpreting data Objectives To explore human attitudes
Alaska Forest Pest Control Supplemental Information Category Twelve In general, applicators who apply pesticides to property other than their own, or act as a pesticide consultant must obtain certification
University of Hawaii at Manoa, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources J. Sugano, J. Uyeda, S. Fukuda, K. Wang, M. Kawate, C. Tamaru, B. Fox, and T. Radovich College of Tropical Agriculture
DEPARTMENT OF PRIMARY INDUSTRY AND FISHERIES Principles of Integrated Pest Management Deanna Chin and Brian Thistleton, Entomology, Diagnostic Services What is a pest? Principles of IPM Introduction to
Chapter 34 Diseases and Their Control In This Chapter Keywords Diseases After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. List the causes of disease symptoms. 2. Describe how fungi,
Chapter 1: Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Introduction Pests are an inevitable problem faced by nursery growers. For the purposes of this document, the term pest refers to insects, diseases, weeds, slugs,
Effect of Pesticide in soil 346 BOT The most common chemicals involved in causing soil pollution are: Petroleum hydrocarbons Heavy metals Pesticides Solvents Soil pollutant any factor which deteriorates
Hop Pest Control H. E. Morrison its of jpf^vrsiolnrru; - «th ' s ibntoj."' «- '',orto JUN 6 I-JJ3 Agricultural Experiment Station Oregon State College Corvallis Circular of Information 589 May 1958 Hop
Revised April 1992 (reformatted May 2000) A Workbook for Certified Pesticide Applicators To accompany the VHS tape "Pesticides in the Environment" Based on materials developed by: Colorado State University
Page 1 of 5 Chemical and Biological Control of Grasshoppers in Utah Fact Sheet No. 73 December 1990 Edward W. Evans Extension Entomologist This fact sheet provides general information and perspective on
Section 5.1 Food chains and food webs The ultimate source of energy in an ecosystem comes from sunlight This energy is converted to an organic form using photosynthesis which is then passed between organisms
AP ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE 2012 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 The active ingredients in many pesticides are chemical compounds that kill organisms such as insects, molds, and weeds. Proponents claim that
A Introduction 1. Very species rich 2. Characteristics a. 3 pairs of legs b. 2 pairs of wings (most) except flies (1 pair of wings - Diptera) B. Distribution 1. All habitats except saltwater - replaced
1. Recent evidence indicates that lakes in large areas of New York State are being affected by acid rain. The major effect of acid rain in the lakes is (1) an increase in game fish population levels (3)
The Sugarcane Aphid: A New Pest of Grain and Forage Sorghum Allen Knutson, Robert Bowling, Pat Porter, Ed Bynum, Raul Villanueva, Charles Allen and Stephen Biles. Texas A&M AgriLife Extension, Texas A&M
Chapter 8 Health Risks of Pesticide Use In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define risk. 2. List possible routes of exposure. 3. Compare acute
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN PADDY SMS (Entomology) Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dhemaji Assam Agricultural University Silapathar INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) IN PADDY Among the food grains paddy occupies
Science Grade 10-12 Classroom Individual Reading DESCRIPTION Pesticides are used extensively to control pests, which can harm crops and other plant species. There are many different types of pesticides.
ANALYZING 3 OF THE MOST COMMON CORN PESTICIDES 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS Analyzing 3 of the most common corn pesticides 3 Glyphosate 4 Atrazine 5 Lambda-cyhalothrin 2 Glyphosate herbicides are one of the most
Page 1 of 5 The Alfalfa Weevil in Utah Fact Sheet No. 58 January 1989 Edward W. Evans Extension Entomologist Introduction The alfalfa weevil is a major pest throughout Utah. It is a beetle with one generation
FS 905 Economic Thresholds in Soybeans Grasshopper and Bean Leaf Beetle Michael A. Catangui, Ph.D. Extension entomologist & assistant professor Plant Science Department South Dakota State University Economic
Integrated Pest Management At Boise State University Purpose The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of Boise State University Landscape Service department s philosophy regarding plant health
SLIDE 1: This is Steve Johnson, University of Maine Cooperative Extension, bringing you information on Integrated Pest Management. It is possible to receive a Maine Board of Pesticides Control recertification
Unit D: Controlling Pests and Diseases in the Orchard Lesson 1: Managing and Controlling Pests of Fruit and Nut Crops Student Learning Objectives: Instruction in this lesson should result in students achieving
19 TOPIC 3 INTEGRATED PEST CONTROL Scope Chemical pesticides are now the traditional solution to pest problems, and they have saved lives and crops. Their use, however, has created significant problems,
Farm Energy IQ Conserving Energy in Nutrient Use and Pest Control INTRODUCTION Fertilizers and pesticides are the most widely used sources of nutrients and pest control, respectively. Fertilizer and pesticides
Sun The Sun The suns energy allows plant life to grow so that animals can survive. Produces heat and light Plants Plants Plants need the sun to make their own food through a process called photosynthesis.
Integrated Pest Management Ecology and Human Impact R. Bruce Chapman Insect Science Ltd Pest organisms When do organisms become pests? When an organism s population exceeds a threshold level, and control
Integrated Mosquito Management Rosmarie Kelly Public Health Entomologist Georgia Dept of Public Health Topics of discussion: Integrated pest management (IPM) History of pest management Definition of IPM
What are GMOs? You ve heard or seen all of these terms: genetic engineering, genetically modified, genetically modified organism (GMO). They are all related to biotechnology. Basically, they refer to the
Edward J. Bechinski and William H. Bohl Potato growers who use IPM consider all available pest control tools. Alternatives to conventional pesticides are the foundation of every IPM plan. Pesticides play
Grade Level: 4-6 Risks vs. Benefits in Food Production Approximate Length of Activity: 30-40 Minutes Objectives Teacher 1. Integrate food production into the subject area of safety. 2. Present information
Cypress Aphid Pest Control in Ethiopia FAO Subregional Office for Eastern Africa (SFE) The Subregional Office for Eastern Africa (SFE) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
Best Lawns News Late Spring 2014 Edition Virginia Cooperative Extension Prince William Unit Featured in This Issue Stilt Grass 2 National Arboretum s Grass Roots Exhibit 4 Grub Control 5 All content was
LEARN MORE about our unique insect control service THROUGHOUT THE YEAR, your lawn and surrounding areas are susceptible to insects that can lurk beneath the surface waiting to feed on the roots of your
Use of Pesticides in Horticultural Crop Integrated Pest Management John C. Wise, Ph.D. MSU Department of Entomology Trevor Nichols Research Complex What is a Pesticide? Historical definition: all inclusive
Looking at Agricultural Sustainability Sustainable Small Farming & Ranching Understanding Sustainability and Whole Farm Concepts What is sustainable agriculture? USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and
A DISCOVERY REGARDING THE DEATH OF ASH TREES IN THE PLYMOUTH AREA As you are probably aware, we have seen a significant amount of dying ash trees in the Plymouth, Canton, Northville area. This prompted
Formulation of bio-pesticides and mass culture of natural enemies for pest management D. Ahangama Bio-pesticides Microbial pesticides Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa, Nematodes Biochemical Substances
BARRIERS TO WIDESPREAD CONVERSION FROM CHEMICAL PEST CONTROL TO NON-CHEMICAL METHODS IN U.S. AGRICULTURE 1 Leonard Gianessi and 2 Nathan Reigner CropLife Foundation, Crop Protection Research Institute,
United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Asian Longhorned Beetle Control Program Environmental Assessment, December 1996 United States Department of Agriculture
Arthropod Pests of Sugarcane: New Threats to Major Production Areas of North America Gregg Nuessly University of Florida Everglades Research and Education Center Belle Glade, Florida USA Sugarcane production
Lecture 11: PEST - DEFINITION, CATEGORIES, CAUSES FOR OUTBREAK, LOSSES CAUSED BY PESTS PEST - Derived from French word Peste and Latin term Pestis meaning plague or contagious disease - Pest is any animal
Tech Prep Articulation Agriculture & Natural Resources Tech Prep Education: Tech Prep education in Missouri is an articulated two-year secondary and two or more year post-secondary education program which:
Macadamia problem solver & bug identifier Reprint information current in 2003 REPRINT INFORMATION PLEASE READ! For updated information please call 13 25 23 or visit the website www.deedi.qld.gov.au This
Protect and Survive: research on plant micro organism interactions to improve crop health Roger Cook, Tim Carver, Bill Eason, Hywel Roderick & Judith Webb Disease causing organisms Beneficial interactions
Open your students eyes to the importance of scientific literacy. As a Science Educator, you can help them draw connections between science, engineering, math, and language. These lessons can help build
- A9/1 - - A9/1 - APPENDIX 9 FORMAT FOR THE LISTING OF END POINTS TO BE INCLUDED IN THE REASONED STATEMENT OF THE OVERALL CONCLUSIONS DRAWN BY THE REGULATORY AUTHORITY (LEVEL 2)8 General remark: Testing
Chapter-12 Biotechnology and its Applications Very Short Answers Questions: 1. Give different types of cry genes and pests which are controlled by the proteins encoded by these genes? A: cryiac, cryiiab
STATE OF WYOMING AGRICULTURE &NATURAL RESOURCES CLUSTER AND PLANT SCIENCE PATHWAY COMPETENCIES AGRICULTURE COMPETENCIES Cluster Level Core Competencies & Objectives AS1 Students will demonstrate knowledge
Lesson 361b Introduction to Plant Pests Core Area. Plant Science Unit 360. Pest Management Topic 361. Intro to Plant Pests California Academic Standard. Science Grades 9 through 12 Biology/Life Sciences
Created June 2014 IPM Plan for Campus Landscape Statement of Purpose The purpose of this integrated pest management (IPM) plan is to guide the use of environmentally sensitive pest management strategies
In this presentation, we will discuss several pesticide and human health related topics. 1 First, we will learn how pesticides are important in modern agriculture and how there are health benefits associated
Workshop Title: Plant Signals: Nutritional Deficiencies & Disease Speaker: Av. Singh, Ph.D., P.Ag. Executive Summary A detailed explanation of how to identify nutritional deficiencies and disease was given
Managing Sugarcane/Sorghum Aphid (SA) on Sorghum Michael Brewer Texas A&M AgriLife Research Corpus Christi http://ccag.tamu.edu/entomology/ http://ccag.tamu.edu/entomology/ Outline I. Identification and
Aspects of Applied Biology 106, 2011 Crop Protection in Southern Britain New EU pesticide legislation the view of a manufacturer By J C WILLIAMS Bayer CropScience Ltd, 230, Cambridge Science Park, Milton
mulching Action Sheet 34 So what is mulching? nutrients release as leaves decompose leaf litter shallow roots take up Have you ever looked closely at a forest floor? It s covered in leaf litter - a nutrient-rich,
Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Agriculture Now a Real Option Guy Webb B.Sc. REM Agricultural Consultant The Pursuit of Protein and Profit All agricultural enterprises, in essence, are based on the pursuit
Exampro GCSE Biology B Chapter 6 Variation Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 63 Marks: 63 Comments: Page of 26 Q. Read the information. Insects can be both useful and harmful to crop plants.
CATEGORY A PESTICIDE APPLICATIONS AND SAFETY PRACTICE QUESTIONS 1. When wall voids and dead spaces must be treated from small openings, the most effective formulation to use would be: A. Liquid residual
PESTICIDE USE ON SCHOOL CAMPUSES I Pesticide Risks to Children The use of pesticides and chemicals has become increasingly common in our schools when dealing with such problems as pests and weeds. Many
Christmas Trees Pseudotsuga menziesil (Douglas-fir), Abies grandis (Grand fir), Abies procera (Noble fir) (Pinaceae) Fast Facts: Acres in Washington: 25,000 acres Number of growers: 300 Value of Production
8 Identification & Monitoring IPM Practitioner, XXXIII(11/12) Published September 2013 33rd Year of Publication Volume XXXIII, Number 11/12, (Published September 2013) 2013 Directory of Least-Toxic Pest
PESTICIDES & ASTHMA Causes of asthma are complex and include factors related to early life environmental exposures such as pesticides. Pesticides are chemicals commonly used to kill or control pests (including
Pest Management - Holistic Pest Control? 2. Modern control tactics and the birth of IPM The action of parasites, predators, and pathogens in maintaining another organism s density at a lower average than
Economics of Pesticide Use 1 What are the Benefits of Pesticides?! Despite well-deserved demonization, pesticides have many benefits! e.g. Americans pay less of their income on food (7-8%), than any other
The Good, The Bad, and The Downright Ugly: Genetically Modified Crops and Their Use of Agricultural Pesticides May Determine Adverse Health Effects in Humans. Ahmed SC, Borum LD, Brito MC, Jones DT, Trice
Green industry professionals should understand exactly how Asian longhorned beetles affect trees; it is critical to being able to detect ALB infestations! 1 It's important to review the basic structure
Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics (Humidtropics) Determining the effect of stemborers on yields of cereal crops, principally maize and sorghum International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology
Kimberly Schofield Program Specialist- IPM email@example.com Pest Check Subterranean Termite Swarming Season For one subterranean termite genus, Reticultermes, the months of February through May means