PREVALENCE OF INSECT PESTS, PREDATORS, PARASITOIDS AND ITS SURVIVAL IN GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CORN IN PAKISTAN

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1 PREVALENCE OF INSECT PESTS, PREDATORS, PARASITOIDS AND ITS SURVIVAL IN GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CORN IN PAKISTAN BY DR. HABIB IQBAL JAVED National Agricultural Research Centre Islamabad, Pakistan

2 INTRODUCTION Stem borer (Chilo partellus), is the most notorious insect pest of maize in Pakistan It damages the crop throughout the season It damages the crop usually 20-25% and sometimes upto 80% At initial stage, the plants turned to dead hearts At later stages, it makes feeding galleries inside the stem, feed on tassels and cobs and reduced the yield significantly Applications of insecticides in the non-bt plots reduced biocontrol agents and other useful insect communities by 33 to 70%

3 Goal: Increase productivity through Genetically Engineered maize without any risk Objectives: To save the maize crop from the damage due to insect pests To assess adverse effects on predators and parasites To assess the requirement of insecticides that could be injurious to human being and animals

4 MATHODOLOGY

5 For field studies, Germplasm used was transgenic corn and their isogenic hybrids available with Pioneer in Pakistan. These hybrids were planted in containment area by Pioneer in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications which was according to NBC guidelines. A set of conventional hybrids were planted in the field of MSM&F field at NARC. The artificial stress was given at 4-5 leaf stage of the plants by releasing 15 newly hatched larvae per plant near whorls in the crop planted in MSM&F field. Cont

6 Data were recorded from both crops (Pioneer field and MSM&F field) on leaf damage by counting the number of infested plants and intensity of damage through feeding lesions on leaves by 0-9 standard scale. The data on stem was recorded by counting the stem with holes, number of holes, number and length of feeding galleries in damaged stems. Dead hearts were also recorded.

7 For lab studies, Thirty 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th instars larvae of Chilo. partellus were released in each jar having leaves and stems of conventional hybrids in IPMP laboratory Four jars were used per replication for each instar and replicate four times The jars were arranged in Completely Randomized Design After 4 days feeding on natural and artificial diet, the larvae were collected, counted and transferred to insectary and were kept in jars separately where Chrysoperla carnea and Cotesia flavipes were released The survival and predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cotesia flavipes was observed The growth and development of C. partellus, C. carnea and C. flavipes were observed Cont

8 RESULTS Objective 1 and 3 To save the maize crop from the damage due to insect pests To assess the requirement of insecticides that could be injurious to human being and animals

9 MEAN DAMAGE CAUSED BY CHILO PARTELLUS ACROSS LOCATIONS SPRING 2013 Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Leaf Stem Exit/ Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) Transgenic Chemical Check

10 MEAN DAMAGE CAUSED BY CHILO PARTELLUS ACROSS LOCATIONS AUTUMN 2013 Treatment s Damage Rating (1-9) Leaf Damage Stem Damage Exit/Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) Transgenic Chemical Check

11 MEAN DAMAGE CAUSED BY CHILO PARTELLUS ON MAIZE PLANTED IN MSM&F FIELD (ARTIFICIAL CONDITIONS) Hybrids Leaf Damage Intensity (1-9) Leaf Damage Dead Hearts Stem Damage Holes/ Stem Galleries/ Stem Gallery Length/ D.Stem (cm.) 31R R Check

12 RESULTS Objective 2 To assess adverse effects on predators and parasites

13 GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CHILO PARTELLUS FED ON CONVENTIONAL MAIZE HYBRID STEMS IN LAB (24 ±1 C) Developmental Stage Developmental Duration (Days) Developmental Duration range (Days) Survival Rate Incubation Larval Pupal Adult Total life cycle

14 RISK ASSESSMENT OF CUTESIA FLAVIPES REARED ON 3 rd LARVAL INSTAR OF CHILO PARTELLUS FED ON CONVENTIONAL MAIZE HYBRIDS IN LAB UNDER 25±1 C Parameters Unit Measurement Developmental duration from days 16.2 parasitism to adult emergence Parasitism % 66.4 Adult duration Hours 48.6 Cocoons per larvae No Cocoons duration days 4-7

15 RISK ASSESSMENT OF CUTESIA FLAVIPES REARED ON 4 th LARVAL INSTAR OF CHILO PARTELLUS FED ON CONVENTIONAL MAIZE HYBRIDS IN LAB UNDER 25±1 C Parameters Unit Measurement Developmental duration from Days 16.0 parasitism till adult emergence Parasitism % 75.2 Adult duration Hours 42.4 Cocoons per larvae No. 45 Cocoons duration Days 4-6

16 RISK ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT INSTARS OF CHRSOPERLA CARNEA FED ON 1 st and 2 nd INSTAR OF CHILO PARTELLUS LARVAE IN LAB UNDER (24±1 C) Larval instrs of Chrysoperla carnea Developmental Duration (Days) Predatory Potential against 1 st instar larvae of Chilo partellus Predatory Potential against 2 nd instar larvae of Chilo partellus 1 st instar nd instar rd instar Total stage larval

17 RISK ASESSMENT OF CHYSOPERLA CARNEA REARED ON 3 rd INSTAR LARVAE OF CHILO PARTELLUS COLLECTED FROM CONVENTIONAL MAIZE HYBRIDS IN LAB UNDER 25±1 C Developmental stage of Chrysoperla carnea Duration (Days) Duration Range (Days) Survival Rate Predatory Potential/Larva 1 st instar larvae nd instar larvae rd instar larvae Pupae First instar to adult emergence

18 RISK ASESSMENT OF CHYSOPERLA CARNEA REARED ON 4 th INSTAR LARVAE OF CHILO PARTELLUS COLLECTED FROM CONVENTIONAL MAIZE HYBRIDS IN LAB UNDER 25±1 C Developmental stage of predator Duration (Days) Developmental Range (Days) Survival Rate Predatory Potential/Larva 1 st instar larvae nd instar larvae rd instar larvae Pupae First instar larvae to adult emergence

19 RISK ANALYSIS

20 Transgenic maize genetically engineered for lepidopterous pests didn t allow respective insect pests without insecticides. The risk of hazards to human, animals and biocontrol agents due to insecticides is not present in GE corn but occurred in conventional hybrids. It is proved in current studies, no mortality of predators, parasitoids and other useful insects was occurred in transgenic maize but mortality of bio-control agents and other useful insects was occurred in chemically controlled crop. The mortality of predators and parasitoid can be occurred in the absence of their food (target insect pests). In the long run, it can be a threat when transgenic maize spread on large area. There was no risk for parasitoids and predators when feed on Chilo partellus larvae reared on conventional maize. Cutesia flavipes doesn t parasitized first two instars of Chilo partellus because of smaller size of Chilo partellus. This is risk that first two instars of Chilo partellus could be controlled if alone Cotesia is used for natural control. 1 st instar of Chrysoperla avoids last three instars of Chilo partellus because of size but there is no risk for 2 nd and 3 rd instars of Chrysoperla. The only risk is that alone Chrysoperla carnea will not work against Chilo partellus at its later stages.

21 CONCLUSIONS

22 Genetically Engineered maize showed no damage without insecticide Conventional maize even with two applications of insecticides showed damage Larval transfer among conventional maize plants was occurred but from conventional plants to transgenic plants was failed No mortality of bio-control agents and other useful insects was occurred in transgenic maize crop Mortality of bio-control agents and other useful insects was occurred in chemically controlled crop 1 st instar larvae of Chrysoperla carnea didn t work properly but 2 nd and 3 rd intars performed well and successfully against all instars of Chilo partellus fed on conventional maize without any risk Cutesia flavipes didn t parasitize first two instars of Chilo partellus

23

24

25 Appendices

26 MEAN DAMAGE CAUSED BY STEM BORER (CHILO PARTELLUS) ACROSS LOCATIONS SPRING 2013 Hybrids Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Leaf Stem Exit/ Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) 32B31 Transgenic B33 Chemical B33 Check X18B760YHR Transgenic P41 Chemical P41 Check X13A433YHR Transgenic P1543 Chemical P1543 Check

27 MEAN DAMAGE CAUSED BY STEM BORER (CHILO PARTELLUS) ACROSS LOCATIONS AUTUMN 2013 Hybrids Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Leaf Damage Stem Damage Exit/Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) 30R50YHR Transgenic R50 Chemical R50 Check X40B760YHR Transgenic Y87 Chemical Y87 Check R88YHR Transgenic R88 Chemical R88 Check

28 Appendix 1: Mean damage caused by stem borer (C. partellus) (Chichawatni) spring 2013 Hybrids Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Plants Stem Exit/ Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) 32B31 Transgenic B33 Chemical B33 Check X18B760YHR Transgenic P41 Chemical P41 Check X13A433YHR Transgenic P1543 Chemical P1543 Check

29 Appendix 2: Mean damage caused by stem borer (C. partellus) (Pak Patten) spring 2013 Hybrids Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Plants Stem Exit/ Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) 32B31 Transgenic B33 Chemical B33 Check X18B760YHR Transgenic P41 Chemical P41 Check X13A433YHR Transgenic P1543 Chemical P1543 Check

30 Appendix 3: Mean damage caused by stem borer (C. partellus) (Renala Khurd) spring 2013 Hybrids Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Plants Stem Exit/ Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) 32B31 Transgenic B33 Chemical B33 Check X18B760YHR Transgenic P41 Chemical P41 Check X13A433YHR Transgenic P1543 Chemical P1543 Check

31 Appendix 4: Mean damage caused by stem borer (C. partellus) (NARC, Islamabad) spring 2013 Hybrids Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Plants Stem Exit/ Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) X18B760YHR Transgenic P41 Chemical P41 Check X13A433YHR Transgenic P1543 Chemical P1543 Check B34 Transgenic B33 Chemical B33 Check

32 Appendix 5: Mean damage caused by stem borer (C. partellus) (Sahiwal) Autumn 2013 Hybrids Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Plants Stem Exit/ Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) 32B31 Transgenic B33 Chemical B33 Check X18B760YHR Transgenic P41 Chemical P41 Check X13A433YHR Transgenic P1543 Chemical P1543 Check

33 Appendix 6: Mean damage caused by stem borer (C. partellus) (Pak Patten) Autumn 2013 Hybrids Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Plants Stem Exit/ Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) 32B31 Transgenic B33 Chemical B33 Check X18B760YHR Transgenic P41 Chemical P41 Check X13A433YHR Transgenic P1543 Chemical P1543 Check

34 Appendix 7: Mean damage caused by stem borer (C. partellus) (Renala Khurd) Autumn 2013 Hybrids Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Plants Stem Exit/ Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm) 32B31 Transgenic B33 Chemical B33 Check X18B760YHR Transgenic P41 Chemical P41 Check X13A433YHR Transgenic P1543 Chemical P1543 Check

35 Appendix 8: Mean damage caused by stem borer (C. partellus) (NARC, Islamabad) Autumn 2013 Hybrids Treatments Damage Rating (1-9) Plants Stem Exit/ Entry Holes Feeding Galleries Gallery Length (cm Transgenic Transgenic Chemical Chemical Check Check Transgenic Transgenic Chemical Chemical Check Check Transgenic Transgenic Chemical Chemical Check Check

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