Formulation of bio-pesticides and mass culture of natural enemies for pest management. D. Ahangama

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1 Formulation of bio-pesticides and mass culture of natural enemies for pest management D. Ahangama

2 Bio-pesticides Microbial pesticides Fungi, Bacteria, Viruses, Protozoa, Nematodes Biochemical Substances from biological sources Commercially produced natural enemies Predators and parasitoids

3 Mode of control of pests Fungi: Biopestide contains fungal spores + additives Spore germination and penetration through the body surface (cuticle) of insects and mites Fungus multiplication inside the body Death due to septicemia and/or toxeamea

4 Mode of control of pests Bacteria and viruses: Biopestide contains bacterial spores/viral particles + additives Bacterial spores/viral particles are ingested by insects Bacteria/Viral particles penetrate into the body through the mid gut Multiplication of bacteria/virus utilizing body tissues Death due to septicemia and/or toxeamea

5 Mode of control of pests Natural enemies Predators and parasitoids Predators: Some species eat pest organisms aggressively Some suck the body fluids of pests Parasitoids: Lay eggs on or inside eggs, larvae, pupae or adults of pest organisms Parasitoids develop inside pest organisms Death of the pest organism Emergence of adult parasitoids

6 Demand for Biocontrol agents increases Pesticide resistance Deregistering of pesticides (regulatory) Requirement for new more selective Cost of pesticides (registration) Alien invasive species pesticides Cropping systems (protected cultures, organic farming)

7 Unique features of biological pesticides Human safety Limited host range (very low risk to non-target organisms) Absence of toxic residues on fruit and vegetables Environment friendly Easily applied using conventional spray equipment

8 Limitations Slow acting Low persistence when exposed to solar UV Cost of production Lack of awareness among Sri Lankan growers But A large number of microbial products and commercially produced natural enemies are available and used worldwide

9 Microbial pesticides-research Findings Sri Lanka Most of the research on: Isolation, identification and efficacy testing of local strains of Bacteria - Bacillus thuringiensis Fungi Metarrhizium sp. Beauveria sp. Fusarium sp. Hirsutella thompsonii Nematodes Steinernema sp. Viruses Baculo viruses

10 Res. findings ctd. Laboratory(small scale) mass culture of the bacterium, B. thuringiensis and fungi Field testing of mass cultured organisms Most studies have shown promising results

11 This existing knowledge and capability remain immobilized Should aim at a successful transition from the laboratory to the field and to the market

12 Production of Biopesticides Steps involved: Selection of a biocontrol agent Mass production Formulation Field testing Marketing

13 Mass production of Fungi Metarrhizium sp. (broad effective host range) Growth medium : Main constituents Carbohydrate source(eg. Rice) Nitrogen source (eg. Fishmeal) Process: Inoculation of the sterilized growth medium Observation for hyphal growth providing conditions for sporulation Harvesting fungal spores and drying Formulation Required conditions: Aseptic conditions at the initial stages Main Equipment : Laminar Flow Cabinet

14 Quality parameters to be maintained Biological purity (devoid of contaminations) Viability of spores Virulence of the pathogen Moisture content Number of spores per unit weight

15 Major Commercial Natural Enemies

16 Local Research on Natural enemies of pests Most of the research on: Field collection and identification of indigenous natural enemies Rice pests 36 species of natural enemies Tea pests 34 Coconut pests 18 Grain legume pests - 56 Chili pests 24 Cabbage pests 16 Cucumber pests 11 Laboratory culture and efficacy testing of some species Mass-culture and field releases

17 Green Lacewing Larvae in a Bottle

18 Mass rearing of natural enemies Trichogramma sp. - Effective Egg parasitoid (broad host range) Can be easily reared on eggs of Rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica Process: Paste Corcyra eggs on a card Place in a Glass jar and introduce adults of Trichogramma parasitoid to lay eggs inside Corcyra eggs

19 Egg Parasites, Trichogramma sp.

20 Commercialization of Biological Control Strengthen the commercial microbial pesticide and natural enemy industry. Promote research and education on the use of biocontrol agents Exploit the export market Develop quality certification programs for bio-control agents

21 Requirements for Commercialization Research teams vs. individual isolated studies Financial support for R&D Practical technology Improved rearing and release methods Field tests to determine efficacy Quality control Effective against pest High benefit/cost Safe for the environment

22 Customer Service Companies need to provide detailed information on how to use their products Companies need to deliver excellent customer service for site-specific biological control The marketplace ultimately determines the usefulness of commercial natural enemies and the viability of the industry

23 Way forward Commercialization of research findings with the involvement of public and private entrepreneurs Achieving development and sustainability of biological control programs in the island through establishment of a national biological control facility

24 Thank you

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