Pesticides for use on Mangoes

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1 Pesticides for use on Mangoes Brian Thistleton, DPIFM and Scott Spencer, Landmark

2 Talk Outline Insecticide issues Types Registration Labels Off label use Withholding periods Problems with insecticides Insecticides for mangoes and costs Residue testing programme

3 Types of insecticides Organochorines DDT, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan Organophosphates malathion, parathion, dimethoate, trichlorfon, acephate Carbamates carbaryl, methomyl, pirimicarb Pyrethroids pyrethrins, cypermethrin, permethrin, bifenthrin Other chemistry imidacloprid, spinosad, IGRs

4 Chemical classification Based on target Insecticide, miticide, fungicide, herbicide Based on activity Contact, residual, stomach, systemic, physical Based on formulation Emulsions (EC), Suspensions (SC), Flowables (F) Wettable powder (WP), Dusts, Granules Based on mode of action 21 groups, based on how they kill insects

5 Mode of action Interfere with nervous system OP, carbamates, OC, pyrethroids, neonicotinoids Disrupt hormone balance Insect growth regulators (IGR) Applaud Mechanical Mineral oils (suffocation), dusts (abrasion) Biological Destroy activity of gut or cause septicaemia Dipel (Bt)

6 Registration All pesticides required to be registered with the Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) Use of pesticides in NT is controlled under The Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (Control of Use) Act If pesticide is not registered for the crop it may be possible to apply for a Minor Use Permit or an Emergency Use Permit.

7 Registration Trials to establish efficacy Residue levels if used following the directions on the label then the residues should be within the Maximum Residue Limits Requirements apply to registrations and permits Once registered, the label (or the permit) gives the conditions for use

8 Pesticide Label Human hazard - Toxicity Mode of action Target pests Withholding period Safe handling & disposal Batch #, expiry date First aid

9 Signal Headings Schedule 5 Schedule 6 Schedule 7 WARNING POISON DANGEROUS POISON

10 NT conditions on pesticide use Must be used in accordance with the label But State Column may be disregarded unless the label contains a statement to the effect of Not in the Northern Territory.

11 A product may be also be used in any of the following off label ways: (unless label contains a direction to the contrary) at a concentration less than that on the label at a rate of application less than that on the label less frequently than specified on the label to control an insect or disease other than those specified on the label

12 Providing that: a pesticide is not used on a crop that is not listed on the label a pesticide must not be used at a rate above the recommended rate produce must not be harvested before the witholding period has elapsed These points are covered in DPIFM Agnote No 775 Use of Pesticides.

13 Withholding period Minimum period which must elapse between the last application of the product and harvest e.g. Do not apply later than 7 days before harvest Depends on active ingredient in the product and the crop type

14 Problems with insecticides Disruption to natural enemies and pest upsurges Development of resistance

15 Spraying within IPM programmes Insecticides are used as little as possible but as much as necessary Spray decisions are based on pest monitoring Products are chosen depending on the pests present, state of the crop and resistance management strategies

16 Choosing a Pesticide for IPM Consider softer option(s) first Select a specific pesticide where possible Be aware of different chemical groups

17 Soft options Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) used against caterpillars only - specific Potassium soaps are soft options for small pests such as thrips, mealybugs, scales and whiteflies Horticultural spray oils are also effective against whiteflies, aphids, scales and mites

18 Pesticides registered or with permits for mangoes Organophosphates methidathion, fenthion, dimethoate, chlorpyriphos Carbamates carbaryl Organochlorides endosulfan, dicofol Pyrethroids (natural and synthetic) pyrethrum Biologicals Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Insect growth regulators (IGRs) buprofezin (Applaud), pyriproxifen (Admiral permit for mango scales) Neonicotinoid thiamethoxam (Actara) (permit for seed weevil) Oils (Mineral, vegetable)

19 Pesticides for each pest Redbanded thrips spinosad, dimethoate Mango Leafhopper carbaryl, buprofezin Mango Planthopper carbaryl, buprofezin Fruitspotting bug carbaryl Large Mango Tip Borer Bacillus thuringiensis, spinosad Flower Caterpillars Bacillus thuringiensis, spinosad Mango Seed Weevil carbaryl, fenthion, thiamethoxam Fruit Flies dimethoate, fenthion Scales, mealybugs, etc. petroleum oil, paraffinic oil, potassium soaps, buprofezin, pyriproxifen Mites dicofol Giant Termite fipronil

20 Spray volumes for mango trees in the Top End Tree base diameter (m) L/tree open L/tree dense Ave. L/ha (100 tree/ha) , ,500 These rates are meant as a guide only, growers will have to use their own judgement for their situation. Source: Agnote No. D36, Preparation and Setting Up Air Blast Sprayers M. Poffley, formerly Horticulture Division, Darwin

21 Insecticide Costs Active Ingredient Product(s) Concentr ation (g/l or g/kg) Pack Size (L or Kg) Cost Rate (ml) per 100 litres Cost per 100 litres Cost per ha (100 trees) at 500 litres Cost per ha (100 trees) at 1000 litres buprofezin Applaud Bacillus thuringiensis Dipel DF Bacillus thuringiensis Dipel DF carbaryl Carbaryl, Bugmaster chlorpyrifos Lorsban dicofol Dicofol dimethoate Dimethoate endosulfan Endosulfan petroleum oil DC Tron potassium soap Natrasoap, Neemtech potassium soap Natrasoap, Neemtech spinosad Success

22 Pesticide Residue Sampling Program Control of Use legislation requires that products are used according to label instructions. Maximum Residue Limits s (MRL s) are set by APVMA and will not be exceeded if instructions for use on the registered label or relevant permit are followed. MRL s also take into account the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). The ADI is the amount of chemical that can be consumed every day without appreciable risk to a persons health.

23 Pesticide Residue Sampling Program DPIFM take samples from transport / packing companies each year. The samples are tested for large range of actives in NATA tested facility Greater than MRL +3CV is considered a violation This give the grower considerable leaway and takes into account laboratory precision If the product is not registered for use on the crop there will not be assigned an MRL and this is a violation. Violations are followed up with the grower to attempt to remedy the problem. Infringement Noticers can be issued.

24 Pesticide Residue Sampling Program As well DPIFM purchase the Fresh Care testing for the NT. This improves statistics and will provide pointers to further work. FreshTest results are confidential and cannot be traced back to the farm. There were no residue violations from 51 samples of Territory mangoes (5 from DPIFM test program) in 2007 Follow up usually requires a check of records. Records should be made as required, signed and dated.

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