Farmers Cultural Practices. Availability of Planting Material

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1 Identification of Appropriate Postharvest Technologies for Improving Market Access and Incomes for Small Farmers in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia Commodity Systems Assessment Sunil Saran Amity International Centre for Post harvest Technology & Cold Chain Management CSAM Problem Identification & Solution Identification and description of the problem Pitfalls in problem analysis Over reliance on readily available literature Over dependence on a few national technicians Focus on few disciplines instead of overall approach Timing of project implementation Biased nature of specialties Identification and formulation of the solution Execution of the solution Problem Identification Formulation of solution Solution execution Note The key to problem solution is proper problem identification Components of the project Components of CSAM The 25 components are grouped into 4 categories Pre production Production Post Harvest Marketing Crops selected for study Fruit crops Mango Litchi Guava Banana Vegetable crops Cauliflower Okra Brinjal Cucurbits Potato Onion Tomato Government Policies Various incentives and subsidies ranging from production to post harvest management are provided by National Horticulture Mission (NHM), National Horticulture Board (NHB), State Department of Horticulture, Agricultural & Processed Product Export Development Authority (APEDA) etc. Small & Marginal farmers are not able to avail these subsidies Central Insecticides Board & Registration Committee has issued a detailed list of banned pesticides but their usage is continuing (e.g.. Calcium carbide in Mango) There is no existing price support & control. Facilitating Services Government Agencies through KVKs, Extension workers, Farmer visits, Farm demonstrations and Fairs provide information on modern technology but nearly 60 % of farmer households in India are not able to access any source of information on Modern technology as depicted in the tables:

2 Table 1 :Access to Extension Service Workers as Source of Information on Modern Technology for Farming by Size of Holdings (Percentage of Farmer Households ) 2003 STATE Marginal Small Marginal & Small Medium & Large Total Andhra Pradesh Arunchal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttranchal West Bengal All India Note : All India includes the small states Goa, Delhi, Pondicherry & Uts Source : Computed using NSS unit lelvel data 59th Round on Situatin Assessment Survey of Farmers Table 2 : Percentage of Farmers with knowledge of Modern Farming Practices Trhough Training Programmes, KVKs, and Government Demonstrations, ( ), (Size Class in Hectares) STATE Participation in Training Programme Krishi Vigyan Kendra Government Demonstration Marginal & Medium & Marginal Medium & Marginal Medium & Small Large Total & Small Large Total & Small Large Total Andhra Pradesh Arunchal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttranchal West Bengal All India Table 3 :Access to any Government agency as a source of Information on Modern Technology by Size of Holdings (Percentage of Farmer Households ) 2003 STATE Marginal Small Marginal & Small Medium & Large Total Andhra Pradesh Arunchal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttranchal West Bengal All India Note : All India includes the small states Goa, Delhi, Pondicherry & Uts Source : Computed using NSS unit lelvel data 59th Round on Situatin Assessment Survey of Farmers Availability of Planting Material Although good quality seeds are available from various sources, their use is limited. If improved seeds/planting material are provided to all the farmers it would greatly augment production. The table shows the percentage of farmer households using improved seeds Table 4 :Percentage of Households reporting use of Improved Seeds of the total farmer households STATE Marginal & Small Marginal & Small Medium & Large All Medium & Large All Andhra Pradesh Arunchal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chattisgarh Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttranchal West Bengal All India Note : All India includes the small states Goa, Delhi, Pondicherry & Uts Source : Computed using NSS unit lelvel data 59th Round on Situatin Assessment Survey of Farmers Farmers Cultural Practices Irrigation, Weed Control, Fertilization Practices and Field Sanitation affect production directly but their applications are not Uniform Irrigation : The figures provided by National Commission on Agriculture show that during summer season 42 % and during winter 56 % of farm areas are under irrigation. Irrigation is done mostly by flooding. Basin and drip methods are uncommon. Canal Irrigation Tube well Irrigation

3 Fertilization practices Farmers Cultural Practices Contd. Weed Control Weeding Banana farm Tomato field 6 7 Fertilization Practices Fertilization Practices Use of Pesticide Use of trellis system in Cucurbits Although using trellis (Machan) in cultivation of cucurbits, production is nearly three times more as compared to ground cultivated, but because of high cost of trellis construction (Rs. 30,000/acre), most farmers grow cucurbits on ground. Pesticide spraying Gloves used for harvesting Bottle gourd on ground Sponge gourd on ground Sponge gourd on trellis

4 Pruning Practices In fruit crops like mango, litchi and guava, rejuvenation of old orchard is essential but this is not being followed to the extent required. Pruning, thinning and canopy management are also neglected In Litchi the top is cut back only in old trees when yield goes down considerably. Normally pruning is done at the time of harvesting in which a portion of branch is removed along with the fruits. New fruits appear on such pruned branches. Harvesting Litchi showing vegetative growth in the 2 nd year after top cut back Training, pruning and canopy management in mango, litchi and guava help in increasing the quality of fruit as well as yield. Hence, these are essentially required in orchard management. Harvesting Sorting and Grading Packaging Sorting and Grading Packaging Transport Marketing Current Status of Fruit & Vegetable Markets Transport

5 Marketing Marketing Losses During Harvest & Handling Commodity Minimum % Maximum % Mango Litchi Banana Guava Onion Cucurbit Okra Potato Cauliflower Brinjal Tomato Losses at Retailers Level S.No. Crop Loss (Kg) Total quantity (Kg) Losses (%) 1 Potato Onion Tomato Pea Cauliflower Cabbage Banana dozen Guava Sponge gourd Brinjal Stored banana kept cool by ice slabs Storage Income & Consumption Income & Consumption contd 8

6 Research Needs Exact fertilization dosages to be worked out combining with NPK+FYM+Neem Cake+ Rapeseed Cake+ Azotobacter along with spacing Standardize : use of growth regulators use of micronutrients postharvest management protocols Farm sanitation and pesticide load on crops Application of deoiled alcholic extract of sal seeds for control of Alternaria. Low cost Low technology food processing Management and Utilization of fruit and vegetable waste Integrated Postharvest Management (100% utilization of the produce) Extension /Training Needs Providing shade on farm for collection, sorting, grading and packaging of produce Establishment of Zero Energy Cool Chambers of various capacities Low cost technology for processing tomato concentrate, juice and puree Solar drying of vegetables Standardization of cling film packaging Standardization of technology for packaging in plastic crates with liners Preparation of different types of organic manures, biopesticide and fungicides Organic and mineral value addition of site specific crop residues for enrichment of nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur, its optimization and technology dissemination to farmers Cling film packaging in plastic crates with liners 1. Providing shade on farm for collection, sorting, grading and packaging of produce Establishment of cool chamber Establishment of Zero Energy Cool Chambers Contd..

7 Low cost technology for processing : Whole Tomato Concentrate, Juice & Puree Low cost technology for processing : Puree & Juice Contd.. Solar drying : Bitter gourd Solar drying : Papaya leather Contd.. Advocacy Issues Training women farmers in land, water management and modern farming practices. Establishment of village extension services and Self Help Groups. Building effective marketing linkages Food processing and storage facilities to be established near the farm Linking small & marginal farmers with processing industries. Amendment in APMC Act Delays, Bottlenecks, Vested interests etc. perpetrated by various agencies to be exposed Bank loans to be made more accessible to marginal and small farmers Use of GIS and remote sensing to forewarn farmers on impending weather disasters.

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