Importance of Botanicals for Pest and Disease Management: The Neem Experience. Daniel Obeng-Ofori

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1 Importance of Botanicals for Pest and Disease Management: The Neem Experience Daniel Obeng-Ofori Biopesticide workshop, Accra, March 21, 2012

2 Biopesticide workshop, Accra, March 21, 2012

3 Outline of Presentation Botanicaks Advantages of use of botanicals Botanicals in West Africa Neem, origin, uses and mode of action Neem for Control of Vegetable pests Neem for stored product protection Challenges Research needs and Conclusion Biopesticide workshop, Accra, March 21, 2012

4 Botanicals Botanicals are plant-derived compounds with different modes of action The Use of plant materials against pests of field and stored products by Resource-poor farmers in different countries in Asia and Africa is an ancient practice Many of these plants are widely used in traditional medicine by local communities for the treatment of several ailments

5 Advantages of Botanicals Break down rapidly to harmless metabolites and appear less likely to build up genetic resistance in insect species No toxic residues in food They are less harmful to mammals and other beneficial organisms Broad spectrum in activity & act in different ways under different circumstances Could be used reliably and safely to treat grains stored in small quantities at the farm level

6 Examples of Botanicals Rotenone is obtained from Derris and Lonchocarpus species common in East Africa and China where the roots have been used as fish poison. Pyrethrum has been produced commercially for more than 150 years. Over 90% of the world s production coming from Kenya, Tanzania, Ecuador, Rwanda and Japan A preparation containing 70% β -asarone, is marketed by Alrich of Germany Carvone--a monoterpene from essential oil of Carum carvi with the trade name TALENT inhibit the sprouting of potatoes during storage

7 Different names of the Neem tree The Wonder tree The Village Pharmacy The Blessed tree The Miracle tree The Magic tree The tree of life The tree for solving global problems

8 Nursery in China Neem Nursery Fruits Flowers Avenue trees Biopesticide workshop, Accra, March 21, 2012

9 4-year old trees Court virescence Demonstration forest 3-year old trees Biopesticide workshop, Accra, March 21, 2012 Raw material woods

10 Neem Tree Journey NORTH AMERICA Florida Arizona South California Oklahoma Mexico Miami Cost Rica Panama SOUTH AMERICA Brazil Cuba Jamaica Surinam Guyana Haiti AFRICA Saudi Arabia Iran Qatar Yemen Somalia Ethiopia Madagascar Sudan Kenya Nigeria Tanzania Mauritius ASIA India Myanmar Bangladesh China Sri Lanka Pakistan TRAINING WORKSHOP FOR PESTICIDE INSPECTORS AT GLAMOSSAY HOTEL, Ghana SUNYANI MAY 19 23, 2008 Ivory Coast SOUTH PACIFIC Australia Papua New Guinea Fiji Islands Hawaii Indonesia Philippines

11 NEEM APPLICATION Veterinary medicine Unani medicine NEEM Ancient medicine Ayurvedic medicine Antifertility and other medical application Modren medicine Cosmetics Malaria control - public health AGRICULTURE CROP PROTECTION AGENT Silviculture Agro-forestry Nitrogen efficiency Biopesticide workshop, Accra, March 21, 2012

12 MOST ACTIVE GROUP OF LIMONOIDS COOCH 3 R 1 O O 11 R 4 O OH 1 AZADIRACHTINS R 2 O AZADIRACHTIN- A 3 H 3 COOC O OR 3 O O O (1) R 1 =, R 2 = Ac, R 3 = H, R 4 = OH (2) R 1 = H, R 2 =, R 3 = R 4 = H O Biopesticide workshop, Accra, March 21, 2012

13 Deterring females from laying eggs (Antiovipositants) Mode of Action of Neem Poisoning larvae and adults of insects (Toxicants) Repelling larvae and adults of insects (Repellents) Deterring insect feeding (Antifeedants) Disrupting or inhibiting the development of eggs, larvae and pupae of insects (Growth-regulation)

14 Mode of Action of Neem Sterilising adult insects Disrupting moulting of larvae and nymphs of insects (Moulting-inhibitors) Disrupting mating and sexual communication Inhibiting the formation of chitin in arthropods Blocking the ability to swallow by reducing the mobility of the gut Impaired fitness and reproductive activity

15 Botanicals used in West Africa Nicotiana tabacum Tephrosia vogelii Securidaca longepedunculata

16 Clausena anisata Dracaena arborea Momordica charantia

17 Botanicals Used in West Africa Chromolaena odorata Capsicum annum

18 Botanicals Used in West Africa Chamaecrista spp

19 Botanicals used by farmers to protect food stuffs against pest infestation in Ghana Azadiracta indica, Capsicum annuum Cassia sophera, Chamaecrista nigricens, Citrus sinensis, Combretum sp., Cymbopogon schoenanthus, Khaya senegalensis, Lippia multiflora, Ocimum americana Pleiocapa mutica, Pterocarpus erinaceus Securidaca longepedunculata Synedrella nodiflora Chromolaena odorata Vitellaria paradoxa Mitragyna inermis,

20 Botanicals Used in Ghana Cassia sp

21 Botanicals Used East Africa Ocimum sp Eugenia aromatica

22 Botanicals Used East Africa Tagetes sp Lantana camara

23 Common Stored-Grain Insects Red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Rice Moth, Corcyra cephalonica Almond Moth, Cadra cautella Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais

24 LGB: Prostephanus truncatus Adult larger grain borer (LGB) Severe LGB damage on maize grain LGB damage on maize LGB, the wood borer

25 Pest prevention Structural design Inspection sampling Drying Cooling Hygiene Packaging Integrated Stored Product Protection Early pest detection Visual inspection Check: temperature moisture movement product density bioacoustics traps Pest control physical biological biotechnical chemical

26 Commercial neem botanicals for pest and disease control Over 100 neem-based products are marketed in India alone Commercial neem-based products are marketed in a few African countries including Kenya, Benin, Nigeria, Senegal and Ghana. A number of commercial neem products are also registered and marketed in some developed countries such as the USA, Germany, Australia, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Spain and Israel

27 HERBAL DRUGS NEEM Tablets Antifungal Antibacterial Capsules NEEM Tea Rejuvenating Anti Stress Detox and weight loss Blood rectifier tonic Neuro stimulant Diabetics & Pancreas Arthritis Oil Various categories of Neem products in the market COSMETIC PRODUCTS NEEM Lip balm NEEM eye gel NEEM Night Cream Moisturing Cream Face Wash Gel Body Scrub Body massage oil Face Scrub Face pack Facial massage oil Sunscreen lotion Cleansing gel Pedicure Powder Hair Gel PERSONAL HYGIENE Soaps Shaving Cream Toothpaste Tooth powder Medicated soap for acne Body lotions NEEM Shampoo NEEM hair oil NEEM Hair conditioners NEEM hair rejuvenating tonics NEEM Mouthwash Face wash gel Skin toner Cleansing milk Washing gel Antibacterial Disinfectant Detergent Spray Air Purifier Face Scrub Anti lice Deodorant Anti dandruff AESTHETIC PRODUCTS Incense Sticks NEEM Coir NEEM Candles NEEM Room freshener VET CARE PRODUCTS Pet Shampoo Lice Spray Powders NEEM Scabies pet care Soap AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS Pesticides Fertilizers Manures Urea Coating agent Soil conditioners Bio control agents Pruning paste TRAINING WORKSHOP FOR PESTICIDE INSPECTORS AT GLAMOSSAY HOTEL, SUNYANI MAY 19 23, 2008 OTHER PRODUCTS Cockroach Repellent Mosquito Repellent Insect Repellent

28 Treatment methods used by small-scale farmers Placing of dry whole leaves as layers when un-dehusked maize cobs are stacked in cribs or other locally constructed storage structures. Milled dry leaves in the form of powder are also admixed with grains in storage Hot water extract of plants for use as grain dip Admix wood ashes of various plants with grains Use smoke from burning plant materials to protect on-farm stored cereal grains Mixing of Plant oils with grains such as maize, rice, wheat and cowpea.

29 Grain damage caused by S. zeamais and P. truncatus in maize treated with mixtures of neem oil and pirimiphosmethyl and stored in traditional cribs for 3 months in Ghana Pirimiphos-methyl (mg/kg) Neem oil (mg/kg) Weight loss (%) LSD (P<0.05) 0.3

30 Drying of neem seeds Bulking of dried neem seeds Extraction equipment Calneem oil product

31 Protectant effect of Calneem oil and Actellic on damage caused by E. cautella to maize stored in the crib for 5 to 20 weeks in Ghana Treatment (ml/l) Calneen oil Weight loss ± SE (%) Time (weeks) ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±0.26 Actellic ± ± ± ±0.15 LSD (P<0.05)

32 Percent dry weight loss of maize caused by E. cautella after 60 days of storage Dosage (ml/l) Dry weight loss ± SE (%) Control 2.5±0.0 Hocklicombi 0.4±0.0 Novaluron 0.6±0.0 Neem oil 0.6±0.0 LSD (P<0.05) 0.9

33 SIMPLE TECHNOLOGY FOR PROCESSING NEEM AQUEOUS EXTRACT Collection of fresh Neem fruits Depulping of fruits Drying of seeds Decortication of seeds to obtain kernels Grinding kernels into powder Mixing powder in water & adding of surfactant Overnight storage Spraying

34 Preparation of crude extracts Neem seeds collected Pounding Soaking punded seed Sieving crude extract

35 Main Project Objectives To train farmers on the production of organic cabbage, okra and pepper using biopesticides Demonstrate the efficacy of Calneem Oil and Neem Seed Extract against vegetable pests To train farmers on the preparation of compost and neem seed extract To popularize organic farming in the Weija locality and Accra Metropolis

36 Project sites

37 Some Farmers and Resource persons

38 Sieving of neem extract into sprayer

39 Established pepper field Established Cabbage field

40 Major Pests of Cabbage

41 Major Pests of Cabbage

42 Effect of insecticides & Botanicals on leaf and head damage of cabbage leaf damage treatment no dead hearts control NSWE (50G/l) calneem karate (2ml/l) Insecticides

43 Effect of insecticides on yield of cabbage yield (kg /ha) Yield (Kg/ha) Control NSWE (50G/l) Calneem Karate (2ml/l) Insecticides

44 Major Pests of okra Cotton stainer Aphids Green shield bug spiralling Whitefly

45 Percent Okra Leaf and Fruit Damage Percentage damage Crude Seed Extract Calneem Oil Pawa Control 0 Leaf damage Fruit damage Damage indicator

46 Abundance of beneficial insects on okra Abundance of beneficials C. lunatus C. vicinia Rhinocoris spp. Pest Coccinella spp. R. rapax Odonata spp. Control Calneem Pawa Bachyplatus spp.

47 Effect of insecticides on fruit yield of okra yield (kg/ha) Yield (Kg/ha) Crude neem ex Calneem oil Callidim 400 EC Control Insecticides

48 Major Pests of Cucumber Cotton stainer Cotton stainer melon fruit fly Melon aphids Epilachna beetle

49 Mole cricket Oriental fruit fly White flies Banded cucumber beetle

50 Abundance of leaf feeders and fruit borers on cucumber 250 control calneem NSE caliidim Number of insects Epilachna beetle Cucumber beetle Aphids Cucurbit leaf beetle Melon fly Psyllid Melon worm moth Assasin bug Leaf feeders Fruit feeders

51 Pest damage to leaf and fruit of cucumber percent leaf damage percent fruit damage Percent damage control calneem NSE caliidim Insecticide

52 Effect of insecticides on yield of cucumber Yield of cucumber Yield (Kg/ha) Control Calneem NSE Caliidim Insecticides

53 PESTS OF TOMATO cotton bollworm cotton semi-looper tomato fly lesser pumpkin fly

54 Aphids Budworm cotton leafworm Green sting bug

55 Effect of Insecticides & Neem on numbers of major insect pests on tomato plants Control NSE Calneem Oil Callidim Short horned grasshoppers Mealybugs Aphids Variegated grasshoppers Whiteflies Tomato mirid bugs

56 Percent Tomato Leaf Damage Control Calneem oil NSE Callidim 16.9

57 60000 Yield of Tomato fruit Yield (kg/ha) Control Calneem oil NSE Callidim Insecticides

58 Challenges to the practical utilization of botanicals Low appreciation of the efficacy of botanicals for pest control Doubts as to the effectiveness of plant-derived products (both home-made and commercial products) due to their slow action and lack of rapid knock-down effect Genetic variability of plant species in different localities Difficulty of registration and patenting of natural products and lack of standardization of botanical pesticide products

59 Challenges to the practical utilization of botanicals Seasonal supply of seeds, and change in potency with location and time Handling difficulties as there is no method for mechanizing the process of collecting, storing or handling the seeds from some of the perennial trees Instability of the active ingredients when exposed to direct sunlight Competition with synthetic pesticides through aggressive advertising Commercial formulated botanicals are more expensive than synthetic insecticides and are not as widely available

60 Challenges to the practical utilization of botanicals Possible health hazards when neem seeds are infected with the fungus Aspergillus flavus which produces aflatoxins, which is one of the most potent carcinogens known in the world Rapid degradation, although desirable in some respects, creates the need for more precise timing or more frequent applications. Data on the effectiveness and long-term (chronic) mammalian toxicity are unavailable for some botanicals, and tolerances for some have not been established.

61 Research & Training Needs There is often an erroneous assumption that plant compounds because of their natural source are innately safer Some botanicals such as nicotine are as toxic to mammals as some synthetic pesticides A largely neglected area has been the safety of botanicals from the point of environmental contamination

62 Research & Training Needs Residual effects of plant materials over a longer duration period of 6-12 months or more against key insect species needs to be determined Toxicity of the materials to non-target organisms Local availability of appropriate extraction and application techniques

63 Research & Training Needs Of important research priority is well designed onfarm trials to validate the efficacy of plant materials under real farm conditions. Agricultural Extension Officers must be trained in the practical utilization of plant materials to enable them transfer the technology to farmers. Develop appropriate infrastructure at the community level for the introduction of plant materials for pest control

64 Research & Training Needs Botanical pesticide research is undertaken to find solutions to economic problems. Research efforts should therefore not focus only on their efficacy but also cost implications relating to processing, storage, extraction, formulation, product stability and application.

65 Conclusion Calneem oil & neem seed extracte were effective against the major pests of okra, tomato, cabbage and cucumber and less harmful to the beneficial organisms than synthetic insecticides and significantly increased the yield of the vegetables IPM projects should therefore stress --farmer empowerment --practical field training --institutional changes and policy issues The Neem Industry must be developed into a viable economic venture for employment generation and poverty alleviation in Ghana

66 Conclusion The potential for the use of neem products in crop production is extremely high Farmers need to be educated on the economic and environmental benefits of neem products Accurate economic evaluation of the sustainability of their usage for the management of crop pests need urgent attention Governments and development agencies should encourage and promote the preparation and adoption of neem products by resource poor and medium to largescale farmers to protect their crops against insect pest infestation

67 Conclusion Donor agencies must support research projects which pursue optimal methods and safety standards of using botanicals at the farm for grain protection

68 Neem Processing Factory in China - No. 1 in the near future?? 印 楝 在 中 国 STI

69

70 There is no single intervention that can establish to advance innovation, technology, economic growth and prosperity. And it is my hope, however, that we can strive to create prosperity and wealth from this rich knowledge of Neem with realistic expectations for the future. We can all be wealthy and healthy by efficient utilization of Neem knowledge.. But most important, is that we need to learn to work together Holistically forgetting our individual differences TRAINING WORKSHOP FOR PESTICIDE INSPECTORS AT GLAMOSSAY HOTEL, SUNYANI

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