International Fuel Prices 2012/2013

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1 International Fuel Prices 212/213 8 th Edition Published by

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3 International Fuel Prices 212/213 8 th Edition Disclaimer Findings, interpretation and conclusions expressed in this document are based on the information gained by the author and from the contributors. GIZ does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of information in this document and cannot be held responsible for any errors, omissions or losses which emerge from its use. The linked sites are not under the control of GIZ and GIZ is not responsible for the contents of any linked site or any link contained in a linked site. Copyright This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, whenever acknowledgement of the source is made. The GIZ would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this GIZ publication as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever. i

4 CONTENTS 1 Executive summary 1 2 GIZ International Fuel Prices 3 About our work 3 Our fact sheets International Fuel Prices Observatory 3 Reading List Fuel Price Policies GIZ fuel price newsgroup 3 3 Fuel prices by continent Fuel prices in Africa Fuel prices in America Fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific Fuel prices in Europe Retail fuel prices of 174 countries 59 4 Annex 62 5 About us 63 ii

5 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ 1 Executive summary The 212/213 International Fuel Prices report provides an overview of the retail prices of Gasoline and in over 17 countries based on our survey in November 212. As depicted in the Figure 1 at a global scale, crude oil prices were relatively steady and less volatile in 211 and USD / Barrel Nov 21 Jan 211 Jul 211 Jan 212 Jul 212 Nov 212 Price data reflects crude oil price (Brent) of USD 11 per barrel (69 US-cents per litre) as of mid-november 212. On the reference day of the survey the crude oil price had increased by 35% compared to 21. Converted, a price increase of USD.18 per litre was registered. Between November 21 and November 212 the lowest price per barrel of Brent crude was USD (22 November 21). At its highest, the price briefly touched USD 128. (13 March 212). There was a slight increase (6 %) in the dollar-euro exchange rate between November 21 (USD 1 = EUR.73) and November 212 (USD 1 = EUR.78). Figure 1: Europe Brent Spot Price FOB (dollars per barrel) Source: ashx?n=pet&s=rbrte&f=d, 8 August 214 In the United States Gasoline prices were 97 US-cents per litre (: 15 US-cents) in mid-november 212. In November 212, Gasoline and prices in Luxembourg were the lowest in EU-27. 1

6 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Our survey at a glance Survey conducted in mid-november 212. and prices in over 17 countries. Price data reflect crude oil price (Brent) of USD 11 per barrel. Fuel price data are mainly based on the global network of regional GIZ offices. Further data sources include German embassies/consulates worldwide and the German Automobile Association (ADAC) amongst others. Crude oil prices and exchange rates: Brent crude oil price trend Exchange rate USD/barrel US-cents/litre USD 1 = Mid-November EUR November EUR November EUR November EUR November EUR.78 On the reference day of the survey the crude oil price had increased by 35 % compared to November 21. There was an increase in the dollar-euro exchange rate between November 21 (USD 1 = EUR.73) and November 212 (USD 1 = EUR.78). 4 country categories were introduced to benchmark transport and energy policies: High Subsidies (below red benchmark line) Fuel Subsidies (below green benchmark line) Fuel Taxation (below grey benchmark line) High Taxation (above grey benchmark line) The retail price of Gasoline and is below the price for crude oil on the world market (Brent). The retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price for crude oil on the world market and below the price level of the United States. Note: The fuel prices of the United States are average cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. 1 US-cents for the 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price may be considered as the international minimum benchmark for a non-subsidised road transport policy; though not yet covering external costs for health and environmental damages. The retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price of the United States and below the price level of Luxembourg. Note: In November 212, Gasoline prices and prices in Luxembourg were the lowest in EU-27. Prices in EU countries are subject to VAT, specific fuel taxes as well as other country specific duties The EU sets minimum taxation rates for fossil fuels. The retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price level of Luxembourg. Note: At these levels, countries are effectively using taxes to generate revenues and to encourage energy efficiency in the transport sector. More information and all previous surveys are available online: 2

7 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ 2 GIZ International Fuel Prices About our work Since 1998, GIZ has been providing comprehensive data on fuel taxation in developing countries, thus making a valuable contribution to the discussion of the issue. Decision-makers in partner countries benefit from access to essential information on pricing, potential income from fuel taxes and reform processes that have been carried out in other countries. The International Fuel Prices report provides an overview of the retail prices of Gasoline and in over 17 countries. It further explores recent trends and case studies on fuel prices and fuel pricing policies in developing countries. More here: Our fact sheets International Fuel Prices Observatory Our International Fuel Prices Observatory fact sheets offer concise information on: Price in USD and local currency (some since 1991); Price composition (production costs, taxes, fees, margins, etc.); Pricing policy; Transparency-index on price composition and pricing policy; Related Links. More than 12 fact sheets on: https://energypedia.info/index.php/ International_Fuel_Prices. Reading List Fuel Price Policies Appropriate fuel price levels are major prerequisite for effectiveness of sustainable transport policies. Getting fuel prices right, involving stakeholders adequately and using revenues properly are challenging tasks. In this context, our new reading list on fuel price policies covers publications, articles etc from 1 to 214 on fuel price policies, Fuel Price Policies Reading List taxation and subsidies. It provides a good starting point to reflect on what Published by has already been done in this field and how the debate has evolved. Please don t hesitate to alert us to additional sources and material for subsequent inclusion in this list. Download: sutp.org/images/articles/fuel_price_policies_readinglist_ GIZ_214.pdf GIZ Fuel Price Newsgroup Our GIZ Fuel Price Newsgroup aims to facilitate the exchange and dissemination of information on recent developments and trends related to that issue. GIZ fuel price news keeps you updated with selected articles related to fuel prices and taxation, subsidies and energy demand from all over the world. Subscription/Unsubscription/Contact: 3

8 4 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ

9 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ 3 Fuel prices by continent 3.1 Fuel prices in Africa ÂÂRetail fuel prices in Africa     Comparison of retail fuel prices in Africa  Time series of retail fuel prices in Africa  Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa 5

10 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Retail fuel prices in Africa as of November 212 (in US-cents/litre) 6 [Western Sahara] Morocco Algeria Tunisia Libya Cape Verde Mauritania Mali Niger Senegal Eritrea Sudan Burkina Chad Djibouti Faso Guinea-Bissau Guinea Gambia Côte Benin Nigeria South Sudan Somaliland Sierra Leone d Ivoire Togo Ethiopia Central Ghana African Republic Liberia Cameroon Somalia Sao Tomé & Principé Uganda Congo Kenya Equat. Guinea Rwanda Gabon D.R.Congo Burundi Reading Example: Retail Price US-Cents per Litre Tanzania Seychelles Comoros High Fuel Subsidies Angola Fuel Subsidies Malawi Zambia Fuel Taxation Madagascar High Fuel Taxation Zimbabwe Mozambique Namibia (Shaded areas represent different price categories for Gasoline and in individual countries.) Botswana Fuel Taxation Category 1: High Subsidies The retail price of Gasoline and is below the price for crude oil on the world market. Fuel Taxation Category 2: Fuel Subsidies The retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price for crude oil on the world market and below the price level of the United States. South Africa Egypt Swaziland Lesotho Mauritius Note: The fuel prices of the United States are average cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. 1 US-cents for the 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price may be considered as the international minimum benchmark for a non-subsidised road transport policy; though not yet covering external costs for health and environmental damages. Fuel Taxation Category 3: Fuel Taxation Retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price of the United States and below the price level of Luxembourg. Note: In November 212, Gasoline prices and prices in Luxembourg were the lowest in EU-27. Prices in EU countries are subject to VAT, specific fuel taxes as well as other country specific duties The EU sets minimum taxation rates for fossil fuels. Fuel Taxation Category 4: High Taxation The retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price level of Luxembourg. Note: At these levels, countries are effectively using taxes to generate revenues and to encourage energy efficiency in the transport sector.

11 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Comparison of retail fuel prices in Africa as of November 212 (in US-cents/litre) US Eritrea Cape Verde Sudan, South Malawi Djibouti Rwanda Senegal Central African Republic Mauritius Mozambique Zimbabwe Ivory Coast Madagascar Congo, D.R. (Kinshasa) Zambia Burundi Burkina Faso Mauritania Morocco Mali South Africa Kenya Guinea Tanzania Swaziland Benin Lesotho Namibia Botswana Liberia Togo Congo, R. (Brazzaville) Niger Cameroon Ethiopia Sierra Leone Gabon Chad Tunisia Ghana Libya 1 Sudan Angola Nigeria Egypt Algeria Gasoline Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 7

12 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Time Series of retail fuel prices in Africa in US-cents/litre (last survey November 212) [US-cents/litre] [US-cents/litre] Country Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Centr. African Rep Chad Congo, D.R. (Kin.) Congo, R. (Brazzav.) Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon Ghana Guinea Ivory Coast Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda Senegal Sierra Leone South Africa Sudan Sudan, South Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda n.n. Zambia Zimbabwe

13 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa, (from Algeria to Burkina Faso) Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 9

14 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa, (from Burundi to Chad) 2 2 Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde Central African Republic Chad Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 1

15 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa, (from DR Congo to Eritrea) Congo, D.R. (Kinshasa) Congo, R. (Brazzaville) Djibouti Egypt Eritrea Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 11

16 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa, (from Ethiopia to Ivory Coast) 2 2 Ethiopia Gabon Ghana Guinea Ivory Coast Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 12

17 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa, (from Kenya to Madagascar) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 13

18 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa, (from Malawi to Morocco) Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 14

19 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa, (from Mozambique to Rwanda) Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 15

20 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa, (from Senegal to South Sudan) 2 2 Senegal Sierra Leone South Africa Sudan Sudan, South Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 16

21 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa, (from Swaziland to Uganda) Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 17

22 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Africa, (from Zambia to Zimbabwe) 2 2 Zambia Zimbabwe Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 18

23 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ 3.2 Fuel prices in America ÂÂRetail fuel prices in America     Comparison of retail fuel prices in America  Time series of retail fuel prices in America  Detailed time series of fuel prices in America 19

24 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Retail fuel prices in Ameria as of November 212 (in US-cents/litre) Canada United States of America Reading Example: Retail Price US-Cents per Litre High Fuel Subsidies Fuel Subsidies Fuel Taxation High Fuel Taxation (Shaded areas represent different price categories for Gasoline and in individual countries.) Mexico Cuba Haïti Dominican Republic Antigua & Barbuda Belize Jamaica Puerto Guadeloupe Honduras Guatemala Rico El Salvador Barbados Nicaragua Grenada Costa Rica B.R. Trinidad & Tobago Venezuela Panama Suriname Colombia French Guiana Guyana Ecuador Fuel Taxation Category 1: High Subsidies The retail price of Gasoline and is below the price for crude oil on the world market. Fuel Taxation Category 2: Fuel Subsidies The retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price for crude oil on the world market and below the price level of the United States. Note: The fuel prices of the United States are average cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. 1 US-cents for the 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price may be considered as the international minimum benchmark for a non-subsidised Peru road transport policy; though not yet covering external costs for health and environmental damages. Fuel Taxation Category 3: Fuel Taxation Retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price of the United States and below the price level of Luxembourg. Note: In November 212, Gasoline prices and prices in Luxembourg were the lowest in EU-27. Prices in EU countries are subject to VAT, specific fuel taxes as well as other country specific duties The EU sets minimum taxation rates for fossil fuels. Fuel Taxation Category 4: High Taxation The retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price level of Luxembourg. Note: At these levels, countries are effectively using taxes to generate revenues and to encourage energy efficiency in the transport sector. Chile Brazil Bolivia 54 7 Paraguay Uruguay Argentina

25 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Comparison of retail fuel prices in America as of November 212 (in US-cents/litre) US Uruguay Paraguay Peru Dominican Republic Costa Rica Suriname Chile Argentina Belize Cuba Grenada Brazil Canada Colombia El Salvador Haiti Honduras Nicaragua Jamaica Guatemala Guyana Panama United States Mexico 54 Bolivia 29 Ecuador Venezuela Gasoline Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 21

26 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Time Series of retail fuel prices in America in US-cents/litre (last survey November 212) [US-cents/litre] [US-cents/litre] Country Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Rep Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname United States Uruguay Venezuela

27 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in America, (from Argentina to Canada) Argentina Belize Bolivia Brazil Canada Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 23

28 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in America, (from Chile to Dominican Republic) 2 2 Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Dominican Republic Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 24

29 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in America, (from Ecuador to Guyana) Ecuador El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Guyana Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 25

30 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in America, (from Haiti to Nicaragua) 2 2 Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 26

31 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in America, (from Panama to USA) Panama Paraguay Peru Suriname United States of America Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 27

32 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in America, (from Uruguay to Venezuela) Uruguay Venezuela Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 28

33 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ 3.3 Fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific ÂÂRetail fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific     Comparison of retail fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific  Time series of retail fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific  Detailed time series of fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific 29

34 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Retail fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific as of November 212 (in US-cents/litre) Russian Federation Lebanon Palestine Jordan Israel Georgia Azerbaijan Turkey Armenia Syria Iraq Kuwait U.A.E. Saudi Arabia 7 16 Yemen Turkmenistan 2 22 Iran Bahrain Qatar Oman Fuel Taxation Category 1: High Subsidies The retail price of Gasoline and is below the price for crude oil on the world market. Fuel Taxation Category 2: Fuel Subsidies The retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price for crude oil on the world market and below the price level of the United States. Note: The fuel prices of the United States are average costcovering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales Kazakhstan Uzbekistan Afghanistan Tadjikistan Pakistan Maldives Kyrgyzstan India Nepal Sri Lanka Bhutan Bangladesh Mongolia People s Republic of China Myanmar Lao PDR Thailande Cambodia Vietnam Reading Example: Retail Price US-Cents per Litre M High Fuel Subsidies Fuel Subsidies Fuel Taxation High Fuel Taxation (Shaded areas represent different price categories for Gasoline and in individual countries.) a l a Singapor I n Macao y s i a Brunei d o South Korea Taiwan North Korea 131 PRC Hong Kong n Philippines e s Timor Leste Australia Japan i a Papua New Guinea Fiji New Zealand tax and incl. approx. 1 US-cents for the 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price may be considered as the international minimum benchmark for a non-subsidised road transport policy; though not yet covering external costs for health and environmental damages. Fuel Taxation Category 3: Fuel Taxation Retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price of the United States and below the price level of Luxembourg. Note: In November 212, Gasoline prices and prices in Luxembourg were the lowest in EU-27. Prices in EU countries are subject to VAT, specific fuel taxes as well as other country specific duties The EU sets minimum taxation rates for fossil fuels. Fuel Taxation Category 4: High Taxation The retail price of Gasoline and is at least as high as the price level of Luxembourg. Note: At these levels, countries are effectively using taxes to generate revenues and to encourage energy efficiency in the transport sector. 3

35 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Comparison of retail fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific as of November 212 (in US-cents/litre) US Turkey China, Hong Kong Israel Japan Palestine (West Bank and Gaza) Korea, South (R.) New Zealand Singapore Timor-Leste Thailand Jordan Nepal Fiji Australia China, P. R. Cambodia Georgia Lao PDR Mongolia Sri Lanka Afghanistan Armenia India Philippines Bhutan Taiwan (PR China) Bangladesh Vietnam Pakistan Lebanon Maldives Uzbekistan Kazakhstan Turkmenistan 2 Saudi Arabia 6.7 Russian Federation Syria Azerbaijan Malaysia Yemen Indonesia United Arab Emirates Brunei Iran Oman Bahrain Qatar Kuwait Gasoline Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 31

36 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Time Series of retail fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific, in US-cents/litre (last survey Nov. 212) [US-cents/litre] [US-cents/litre] Country Afghanistan Armenia Australia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China, Hong Kong China, P. R Fiji Georgia India Indonesia Iran Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Korea, North (D.R.) n.n. Korea, South (R.) Kuwait Kyrgyzstan n.n Lao PDR Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar (Burma) n.n Nepal New Zealand Oman Pakistan Palestine (WB + Gaza) Philippines Qatar Russian Federation Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan (R. China) Tajikistan n.n Thailand Timor-Leste Turkey Turkmenistan Utd. Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

37 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific, (from Afghanistan to Bahrain) Afghanistan Armenia Australia Azerbaijan Bahrain Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 33

38 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific, (from Bangladesh to China HK) 2 2 Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China, Hong Kong Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 34

39 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific, (from PR China PR to Indonesia) China, P. R Fiji Georgia India Indonesia Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 35

40 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific, (from Iran to Kazakhstan) 2 2 Iran Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 36

41 International Fuel Prices 212/213 provided by GIZ Detailed time series of fuel prices in Asia, Australia and Pacific, (from D.R. North Korea to Lao PDR) Korea, North (D. R.) Korea, South (R.) Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao PDR Grey Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and of Luxembourg. In November 212, Gasoline () prices in Luxembourg Green Benchmark Line: Retail price of Gasoline and in the United States. Cost-covering retail prices incl. industry margin, VAT/sales tax and incl. approx. US 1 cents for 2 road funds (federal and state). This fuel price being without other specific fuel 37

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