Culture in the Cockpit Collision or Cooperation?

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1 Culture in the Cockpit Collision or Cooperation? Dr. Nicklas Dahlstrom Human Factors Manager Understanding Safety - The Changing Nature of Safety 1

2 Lives lost per year How safe is flying? Health care (in USA) Road transport (in USA) Climbing Mt Everest Chemical manufacturing Chartered flights million 10 million Numbers of events for each accident Scheduled airlines Rail transport (Europe) (Adapted after Amalberti, 2005) A Story about Safety? Ok Great! Turkey Well-being Shelter Regular feeding Attention from farmer 29 th November th November 2014 Days (Taleb, 2007) 2

3 Why is this important now? Why is this important now? (Flight Safety Foundation, 2015) 3

4 The Changing Situation for Pilot Expertise EXPOSURE EXPERIENCE EXPERTISE VARIETY REFLECTION PRACTICE Limited exposure Degraded experience Need for more training and more effective training Reliability and Resilience Yes! We can design a perfect safe system! No! We cannot design a perfect safe system! Accidents = Human Error Avoiding accidents: Technology and SOPs Restrict the operator! Goal: Safety The human operator keeps the system together! Accidents = Weaknesses in system Avoiding accidents: Understand the system Support the operator! Reliability Learning from failure Reliance on prediction Limit operator action Understanding of Human Factors Resilience Learning from success Reliance on competence Support operator action 4

5 Changing the Direction Focusing on Culture Training People Safety (Flight Safety Foundation, 2013) What is it? Different types? Culture? Does it affect or even determine behaviour? 5

6 Does culture affect behaviour? A Multicultural Airline More than 4000 Pilots from more than 120 countries ALGERIA ARGENTINA AUSTRALIA AUSTRIA BAHAMA BAHRAIN BANGLADESH BELGIUM BOLIVIA BRAZIL BRUNEI BULGARIA CANADA CHILE COLOMBIA COSTA RICA CROATIA CYPRUS CZECH DENMARK DOMINICAN ECUADOR EGYPT ETHIOPIA FIJI FINLAND FRANCE GERMANY First GHANA GREECE GRENADA GUATEMALA HUNGARY ICELAND INDIA INDONESIA IRAN IRELAND ITALY JAMAICA JAPAN JORDAN KENYA KOREA KUWAIT English First Language 45 % UAE 7 % LATVIA LEBANON LUXEMBOURG MADAGASCAR MALAWI MALAYSIA MALTA MAURITIUS MEXICO NAMIBIA NETHERLANDS NEW ZEALAND NORWAY OMAN PAKISTAN P. NEW GUINEA PERU PHILIPPINES POLAND PORTUGAL QATAR ROMANIA RUSSIAN FED. SERBIA English Second Language 55 % SENEGAL SEYCHELLES SINGAPORE SLOVAKIA SLOVENIA SOUTH AFRICA SPAIN SRI LANKA SWEDEN SWITZERLAND SYRIA TAIWAN TANZANIA THAILAND TONGA TRIN. & TOBAGO TURKEY U.A.E. UKRAINE U.S.A. U.K. VENEZUELA YUGOSLAVIA ZIMBABWE 6

7 National Culture Dimensions Power Distance Acceptance of differences in power and hierarchy Uncertainty Avoidance Desire to avoid any form of ambiguity or uncertainty Individualism versus Collectivism Motivation for decisions and actions, doing something for oneself or for a group (family, community, nation etc.) Masculinity versus Femininity Assertiveness/competitiveness versus modesty/caring National Culture - Exercise Where in the world do you think that Power Distance is likely to be very high? Maybe in the Far East? Yes, I think so. Me too. I will fill this up to almost full about 80%. 7

8 National Culture - Exercise ROK 400 Emirates Pilot Culture Collision or Cooperation? My professional culture as a pilot overrides my national culture when on the flight deck Number of Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree (Scott, 2013, based on 613 responses from EK pilots) 8

9 Emirates Pilot Culture Collision or Cooperation? 600 I feel respected My colleagues and valued treat by me fellow differently crew on members. account of my nationality/culture. 500 Number of Respondents Strongly Agree Agree Undecided Disagree Strongly Disagree (Scott, 2013, based on 613 responses from EK pilots) Influencing Culture via HF/CRM Training Development and delivery for: Flight Crew Cabin Crew Combined CRM Dispatch, Third Party etc. Train the Trainer (Standardisation meetings, instructor courses, etc.) Knowledge Interaction Tools 9

10 Does it work? Research at a UK academic medical center Initial mandatory CRM training for 517 staff (surgeons, anaesthesiologists, nurses etc.), including checklists, pre/ and post-operative briefs Pre-operative briefings up in the operating room from 6.7% to 99% within four months Wrong site surgeries and retained foreign bodies down from 7 in 2008 to none in 2008, but after 14 months of additional training up to 9 in 2009 Malpractice expenses from $ ( ) to 0 (zero) since 2008 (Ricci & Brumsted, 2012) Training to Become Safer 10

11 Evolution of Evidence Based Training (EBT) REGs ATQP REGs EBT EBT EBT EBT REGs From Regulatory Definitions to Operational Needs Training for Resilience & Expertise Trainee ownership and motivation Development of general competencies, not only actions for specific situations Focus not only on correct answers, also on exploring useful methods Integration of HF/CRM in all training, more HF/CRM knowledge for trainers 11

12 Pilots and Expertise? Pilots and Expertise 12

13 Driving Team Efficiency Forward Safety and Efficiency? 13

14 Challenges and Ways Forward Information Exploration Compliance Expertise Safe Actions Safety Culture Balance Safety and Efficiency Thank you! 14

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