Solar Energy Systems. Matt Aldeman Senior Energy Analyst Center for Renewable Energy Illinois State University

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1 Solar Energy

2 Solar Energy Systems Matt Aldeman Senior Energy Analyst Center for Renewable Energy Illinois State University 1

3 SOLAR ENERGY OVERVIEW 1) Types of Solar Power Plants 2) Describing the Solar Resources 3) Photovoltaic (PV) System Components 4) Photovoltaic (PV) System Mounting Types 2

4 Solar Energy Types of Solar Energy : Solar Thermal Residential Systems (hot water) Utility-scale trough collectors Power Towers Solar Chimneys Solar Photovoltaic Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon (thin-film) Multi-Junction Concentrated PV

5 Solar Energy Types of Solar Energy : Solar Thermal Residential Systems (hot water) Utility-scale trough collectors Power Towers Solar Chimneys Solar Photovoltaic Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon (thin-film) Multi-Junction Concentrated PV

6 Solar Energy Types of Solar Energy : Solar Thermal Residential Systems (hot water) Utility-scale trough collectors Power Towers Solar Chimneys Solar Photovoltaic Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon (thin-film) Multi-Junction Concentrated PV

7 Solar Energy Types of Solar Energy : Solar Thermal Residential Systems (hot water) Utility-scale trough collectors Power Towers Solar Chimneys Solar Photovoltaic Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon (thin-film) Multi-Junction Concentrated PV

8 Solar Energy Types of Solar Energy : Solar Thermal Residential Systems (hot water) Utility-scale trough collectors Power Towers Solar Chimneys Solar Photovoltaic Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon (thin-film) Multi-Junction Concentrated PV

9 Photovoltaic Effect

10 Photovoltaic Panel Components Cell Module Array Source: US DOE

11 Solar Energy Types of Solar Energy : Solar Thermal Residential Systems (hot water) Utility-scale trough collectors Power Towers Solar Chimneys Solar Photovoltaic Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon (thin-film) Multi-Junction Concentrated PV

12 Solar Energy Types of Solar Energy : Solar Thermal Residential Systems (hot water) Utility-scale trough collectors Power Towers Solar Chimneys Solar Photovoltaic Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon (thin-film) Multi-Junction Concentrated PV

13 Solar Energy Types of Solar Energy : Solar Thermal Residential Systems (hot water) Utility-scale trough collectors Power Towers Solar Chimneys Solar Photovoltaic Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon (thin-film) Multi-Junction Concentrated PV

14 Solar Energy Types of Solar Energy : Solar Thermal Residential Systems (hot water) Utility-scale trough collectors Power Towers Solar Chimneys Solar Photovoltaic Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon (thin-film) Multi-Junction Concentrated PV

15 Solar Energy Types of Solar Energy : Solar Thermal Residential Systems (hot water) Utility-scale trough collectors Power Towers Solar Chimneys Solar Photovoltaic Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Amorphous Silicon (thin-film) Multi-Junction Concentrated PV

16

17 Path of the Sun Actually, path of the Earth Two motions of interest: 1) yearly rotation of Earth about the Sun. The Earth rotates in a circle (actually a slight ellipse) around the Sun. The perimeter of this ellipse defines the ecliptic plane 2) daily rotation about Earth s axis. Earth s axis is 23.5 degrees tilted from the ecliptic plane. The equator of the Earth defines the equatorial plane

18 Ecliptic vs Equatorial planes Ecliptic plane Equatorial plane Angle between ecliptic plane and equatorial plane is always 23.5

19 Solstices, Equinox Summer Solstice: Solar declination is at its maximum (+23.5 ). Days are longer than nights in Northern Hemisphere. All points south of Antarctic Circle are in total darkness. Sun is at zenith (straight up) at noon for locations on Tropic of Cancer. Equinox (Spring, Fall): Every location on Earth has equal length day and nights. Sun is at zenith at noon on the equator. Sun rises due east and sets due west across the globe. Winter Solstice: Minimum solar declination ( 23.5 ). Days are shorter than nights in the Northern Hemisphere. All points north of the Arctic Circle are in total darkness. Sun is at zenith at noon for locations on Tropic of Capricorn.

20 Where is the sun? Azimuth Angle: The horizontal angle between a reference direction (typically south) and the direction that a solar array faces Solar altitude angle: The vertical angle between the horizon and the sun (how high is the sun in the sky?) Tilt angle (for solar arrays): vertical angle between the horizontal and the plane of the solar array

21 Sun Paths

22 U.S. Solar Resources

23 Worldwide Solar Resources

24 Absorbed by O 3, CO 2, H 2 O Scattered by particles Atmospheric Effects

25 Atmospheric Effects 10-20% diffuse clear day

26 Atmospheric Effects 100% diffuse cloudy day

27 Flat plate collectors use diffuse and direct radiation

28 Concentrating collectors use only direct radiation

29 Irradiance is a measure of solar power 1000 W/m 2 = peak sun Sunrise Noon Sunset

30 Insolation is the solar energy in 1 day 4.5 kwh/m 2 /day peak sun hours Sunrise Noon Sunset

31 Sun path at summer solstice Sun path at equinoxes Sun path at winter solstice East North Solar Window South West

32

33 How much electric energy is produced by a PV Module? Photovoltaic panels are rated at 1 peak sun (1000W/m 2 ) 200 W x 4.5 sun hours/day 900 Wh or.9 kwh of energy/day 200W

34

35

36

37 PV Market Segments Residential Market: <30kW Homeowners Commercial Scale: kw Factories and Retail outlets Utility Scale: >300 kw Subject to same regulations as power plant contruction/operation

38 Solar Energy Annual Growth

39 System Types 1) Grid Tie 2) Grid Tie with Battery Backup 3) Off-Grid

40 Grid Tie Systems Most systems installed in the US are grid tie. Grid tie inverters use high voltage PV series strings for simplified wiring. Grid tie systems cost $6-8 per watt installed. The system does not have to support the entire load, keeping costs low. The system cannot function when the grid is disrupted. Home Power, December 2011, p.60

41 Grid tie inverter To grid

42 Net Metering Grid tie inverter To grid

43 Battery based inverters use low voltage PV wiring. This is more complex and expensive. Off grid systems require extra equipment. Battery bank Charge controller Generator backup Transfer switch Off grid systems cost $10-12 per watt installed. The system must support the entire load, usage must be carefully monitored Stand Alone (Off Grid) Systems Batteries require maintenance and must be replaced. Home Power, April/May p. 82

44 Roof Mount Systems Most systems are installed from the top Rails are bolted to rafters Clips are used to mount panels to rails

45 Roof Mount Systems Modules are close to roof for neat appearance Panels get hot and performance is reduced Flashing guards against water damage

46 Many of these homes have no south facing roof slopes.

47

48 Crystalline PV modules mounted on steel roof

49 PV modules mounted on standing seam steel roof Special clips are available to mount directly to seams

50 PV integrated with cool roof membrane Good application for California because many roofs cannot support much extra weight

51 Rack mounted and ballasted on flat roofs Inexpensive and easy to install, no roof penetrations Adds extra weight to roof

52 2.4 kw PV array, Turner Hall, Illinois State University

53 Ground Mounts for Large Scale PV

54

55 Single Axis Trackers on N-S Axis

56 Single Axis Azimuth Trackers

57 Single Axis Azimuth Trackers

58 Dual Axis Trackers

59 Up to 30% more energy compared to fixed mounted PV

60 Questions? Matt Aldeman Senior Energy Analyst Center for Renewable Energy Illinois State University (309)

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