ODTÜ Makina Mühendisliği Öğretim Üysesi. ODTÜ Mezunları Derneği, Vişnelik Tesisi

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1 Dr. Derek K. Baker ODTÜ Makina Mühendisliği Öğretim Üysesi ODTÜ Mezunları Derneği, Vişnelik Tesisi

2

3 US: Globalization of Engineering Education Problem: Industry says engineering graduates weak in international skills University of Texas-Austin (UT): Goal: Give international experience to ½ of engineering graduates ~ 500 students per year!

4 Fundamental Shift in Engineering Education Not will engineering students go abroad But Where will they go? What will they study? US Universities want Strategic International Partners

5 METU s Response: Summer Engineering Program Engineering Students Clean Tech Where will they go? METU Turkey: Cultural Bridge between East and West METU: Academic bridge between Turkey and US What will they study? Clean Tech Good for METU Good for Turkey (Good for US Universities)

6 METU s Summer Engineering Program The Middle East Technical University The University of Texas-Austin The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) The International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies (UNIDO-ICHET), Istanbul Hidronerji, Ankara Need Additional Sponsors!

7 1. Solar Resources and Economics 2. Solar Photovoltaics 3. Solar Thermal 4. Solar Powered Air Conditioning

8 Solar Resource & Economics Assessment Goal: Solar energy to displace/generate electricity Economics: Want Solar Energy < Current Electricity Amount of solar resources and value of electricity varies with Hour of day Season Location

9 Solar and Electricity Demand: Summer, New England (US DOE)

10 Impact of Solar on Electricity Demand: Spring (US DOE)

11 Enabling Technologies for Solar Complimentary Generation Technologies Thermal Storage: Relatively mature Electrical Storage: Immature Batteries Hydrogen Smart Grid: Long distance transmission Control Demand (Load shifting)

12 Electrical Demand Modeling/Analyses Dr. Merih Aydınalp-Köksal, Hacettepe U., Project Director Levent Türker, Graduate Student, Hacettepe U. Emre Demirci, Undergrad/Graduate Student, METU Pelin Girep, Graduate Student, METU Melis Bilgiç, Graduate Student, Hacettepe U. Yeşer Aslanoğlu, Graduate Student, Hacettepe U. Predict Regional Hourly Electrical Demand Based on Weather Calendar Data (weekday/weekend, holidays, month) Long term predictions: Economic trends Integrate with Hourly Solar resource data Air conditioning load data

13 9 Electrical Regions in Turkey

14 Kepez (Antalya) Hourly Electrical Demand 2008 Focus on regions with good match between solar resources and electrical demand

15 Kepez (Antalya) Hourly Elec Demand, July 2008 Couple electrical demand analysis with Solar Resource data Energy system models (e.g., storage)

16 Matching Solar Resource to Technology Global = Beam + Diffuse + Reflected Concentrating technologies only use Beam Radiation Non-concentrating technologies use global radiation

17 Solar Radiation Monitoring: Pyranometer Global Radiation on Surface = Beam + Diffuse + Reflected

18 Solar Radiation Monitoring: Pyrheliometer Tracks the sun Measures Beam (Direct) Radiation

19 Solar Photovoltaics

20 Solar Photovoltaics (PV) Direct conversion: Solar radiation Electricity Semiconductor Basic Theory: Photon strikes electron in Semiconductor Photon (Solar Radiation) Conduction Band Band Gap (ev) Varies with Material Electron Valence Band

21 Solar Photovoltaics (PV) Energy Transfer: Photon Electron Excited Electron Moves to Conduction Band Photon (Solar Radiation) Conduction Band Band Gap (ev) Varies with Material PV Cell (Semi- Conductor) Electron Valence Band

22 Solar Photovoltaics (PV) Excited electron forced through external circuit before returning to Valence band. External Circuit (Electrical Output) Conduction Band Band Gap (ev) Varies with Material Electron Valence Band

23 Energy in Solar Radiation Photon Energy = Constant / Wavelength Solar Energy Wavelength

24 Solar PV: Over Energized Photon Photon (Solar Radiation) Heat Conduction Band Band Gap (ev) Varies with Material Electricity Total Photon Energy Electron Valence Band

25 Solar PV: Under Energized Photon Photon (Solar Radiation) Conduction Band No Electricity! Band Gap (ev) Varies with Material Heat Total Photon Energy Electron Valence Band

26 Solar PV: Perfectly Energized Photon Photon (Solar Radiation) Conclusion: Single band gap PV has limited efficiency! ~15% for commercial cells Conduction Band No Heat! Band Gap (ev) Varies with Material Electricity Total Photon Energy Electron Valence Band

27 Solar PV: Multi-Junction PV Cells Photons with Different Wavelengths Material 1 Band Gap 1 Material 2 Band Gap 2 Multijunction (2-3) PV Cell Material 3 Band Gap 3

28 Concentrating PV Uses Beam (Direct) not Diffuse Radiation (US DOE)

29 PV Types Crystalline Single Multi Thin Film (Amorphous) Multi-junction Non-Concentrating Concentrating Emerging Organic Dye (US DOE)

30 Best PV Cell Efficiencies (US DOE)

31 Solar PV: Energy Payback (EP) EP = Lifetime Energy Produced Energy to Produce 1960 s: EP < 1 Currently: EP 10 (US DOE) Near Future: EP 30 (US DOE)

32 PV: Cell, Module, Array Cells in Series Increase voltage Cells in Parallel Increase current (US DOE) Best Performance: All cells have same solar irradiation Power management/control electronics very important

33 California Grid Intertie: Residential PV connected to grid Time of use metering: Value of electricity varies with time Residential Net Metering and PV: Peak Times (day): Sell PV electricity at $0.30/kWh Off Peak Times (night): Buy grid electricity at $0.12/kWh Silicon Valley: Pursuing Disruptive Clean Technologies Google: RE < C (Renewable Energy < Coal)

34 Trends: Building Integrated PV (BIPV) (US DOE)

35 Trends: Dual Land Use global.kyocera.com

36 Solar Thermal

37 Solar Thermal: Flat Plate Low to Medium Temperature Applications Inexpensive

38 Non-Concentrating Evacuated Tube Collector sunmaxxsolar.com Medium Temperature Applications Moderately Expensive

39 Solar Thermal Collector Efficiency Collector Efficiency Air Collector Evacuated Tube Flat Plate Collector Temperature Efficiency Decreases with Increasing Temperature! energytech.at

40 Concentrating: Solar Thermal Power Tower Concentrated Solar Energy Drives Heat Engine (e.g., Rankine Cycle) As Absorber Temperature Increases Collector Efficiency Decreases Heat Engine Efficiency Increases Uses Beam (Direct) not diffuse radiation (US DOE)

41 Thermal Storage

42 Parabolic Trough Collector New Commercial Units Being Installed in Nevada (Las Vegas) Arizona (Phoenix) Start-up Company: Australia Silicon Valley, California Ahmet Çağlar (PhD Student), Yasemin Usta (MS Student)

43 Stirling Dish High Efficiency Modular Thermal Storage not possible (US DOE)

44 CSP: Concentrating Solar (Thermal) Power (US DOE)

45 (Solar) Thermal Powered Air Conditioning Cooling: Absorption System Commercially Available: Combustion Powered Development: Solar thermal powered Adsorption System Research at METU Dehumidification: Desiccant Solid Desiccant: Commercially available Development: Solar thermal powered Liquid Desiccant: Under Development Easy storage for supply shifting

46 Thermal Powered Air Conditioners: Motivation T Vapor-Compression Air Conditioning Cycle (e.g., Split Klima) Waste Heat Electricity Consumption T cond Condenser T evap Throttling Device Evaporator Compr. Cooling

47 Thermal Powered Air Conditioners: Motivation T Vapor-Compression Air Conditioning Cycle (e.g., Split Klima) Waste Heat Thermal Power T cond Condenser T evap Throttling Device Evaporator Compression Cooling

48 Adsorption Cooling System T T bed,max Thermal Compression Process T bed Adsorbent Bed T bed,min T cond Condensate Tank Condenser Closed Valve q loss T evap Throttling Device Open Valve Evaporator Cooling Open Valve

49 Adsorption Cooling System T T bed,max q fuel Thermal Compression Process T bed Adsorbent Bed T bed,min T cond Condensate Tank q cond Condenser Open Valve T evap Throttling Device Closed Valve Evaporator Closed Valve

50 Adsorption Cooling System Solar Thermal Powered Adsorbent: Currently: Natural Zeolite (Mineral) from Turkey Possible: Synthetic adsorbents Refrigerant: Water

51 Adsorption Cooling System

52 Adsorption Cooling System Dr. Bilgin Kaftanoğlu Dr. Cemil Yamalı İsmail Şolmuş, Ph.D. Student Ahmet Çağlar, Ph.D. Student Onur Taylan, MS Student Emre Demirocak, MS Student Mustafa Yalçın, Technician

53 Conclusion Climate Change, Resource Depletion, Energy Security Problem? Opportunity? Whichever person, company or country commercializes Clean Technologies will Have a positive global impact (Idealist) Be rich (Capitalist) US: Big push to base future economic growth on clean technologies. Turkey: High Energy Prices Economics of alternate energy technologies better.

54 Thank You for Your Time Derek Baker

Updated: 17 August 2015

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