# Enough Solar Energy falls on New York in ONE DAY to power the state for ONE YEAR

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1 Enough Solar Energy falls on New York in ONE DAY to power the state for ONE YEAR Dr., physicist 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 1

2 3% of the State of New York s land area is covered with buildings and parking lots. 1% of NY s land area could power the state if covered with photovoltaics. If we covered just 1/3 of these buildings and parking lots with photovoltaics, we could power the entire state! 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 2

3 The Sun A powerful nuclear reactor a safe 93 million miles away. Output: 100 billion billion kwh per second! Just collect the energy. No waste disposal! Life expectancy: 5 billion more years. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 3

4 Solar Power 24 hours per day! concentrator PV transmitter 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 4

5 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 5

6 Use Renewable Energy because: You care about the future Earth is our one and only home You want to grow your own electricity Sources of fossil fuel are finite Increasing CO 2 leads to climate change Distributed generation is more robust than centralized generation. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 6

7 How Much is a Kilowatt-Hour? TEN 100 W lightbulbs left on for 1 hour use: 10 bulbs x 100 Watts x 1 hr = 1000 WATT-HOURS = 1 KILOWATT-HOUR = 1 kwh 1 hair dryer that uses 1000 Watts left on for 1 hour uses: 1 dryer x 1000 W x 1 hour = 1000 WATT-HOURS = 1 KILOWATT-HOUR = 1 kwh 1 microwave oven at 1500 W run for 3 minutes only uses 1.5 kw x 3/60ths of an hour = kwh! You will use about 1 kwh of energy in bicycling for 3 hours at a modest pace! 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 7

8 How Much Sun? The Definition of Full Sun is 1000 Watts/square meter Under these conditions: In 1 hour 1 square meter of the Earth s surface intercepts 1 Kilowatt-hour of solar energy. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 8

9 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 9

10 30 yr average hours of full sun per year in: San Diego, Ca Phoenix, Az.2336 Syracuse, NY Binghamton, NY.1496 New York City 1642 Seattle, Wa Seattle gets 60% of the amount of sun that Phoenix gets. Binghamton gets 73% of the amount of sun that San Diego gets. This means we need a LARGER AREA of photovoltaics in Binghamton than they do in San Diego to make the same amount of KILOWATT-HOURS. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 10

11 New York City, Long Island and NJ get 70% of the amount of sun Phoenix gets Summer peaking load (air conditioning) + high utility rates + lots of sun in the summer + dire need of grid support = some of the best places in the USA for Solar power! 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 11

12 Stepping up to solar power Solar electricity (photovoltaics) And wind power Active solar heating (solar hot water) Passive solar design Energy efficiency 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 12

13 Solar Hot Water System 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 13

14 Solar hot water heaters 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 14

15 What is Photovoltaic? Photo is Greek for Light Voltaic is defined as electricity produced by chemical action. Its root is Volts, named for Allesandro Volta the inventor of the battery. The battery was the first means of generating electricity. Photovoltaics (PV) literally means Electricity from Light. It is a semiconductor device, a simple p-n junction. It is made of the second most abundant element on Earth Silicon. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 15

16 Photovoltaic Array 8.66 ft wide 24.2 long 2.5 kw module 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 16

17 What s the World picture of PV? US market for PV: 90 MW World Market for PV: 1000 MW PV produced in 2002: 350 MW PV produced in 2003: 750 MW PV produced in 2004: 1000 MW PV produced in 2005: Silicon shortage. Photo credit: Iris Krampitz, RE World Germany and Japan have an installed capacity of PV 10 times larger than the US. The US is 9% of the world market. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 17

18 Source: Evergreen Solar Market Analysis 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 18

19 PV manufacturers, 2005 Sharp 400 MW Kyocera about 250 MW BP 100 MW Shell 100 MW Isofoton 65 MW (8 th ) UniSolar 25 MW GE Evergreen 15 MW ASE America 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 19

20 Source: Evergreen Solar Market Analysis 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 20

21 Electricity Farming in Germany Village Solar Power Plant 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 21

22 Source: U.S. Department of Energy, International Energy Outlook 2004; Energy Information Administration, 2003 Annual Energy Review. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 22

23 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 23

24 Photovoltaics In New York 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 24

25 Stand-alone photovoltaics 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 25

26 Really, Really Remote Cathead Mountain Adirondacks No damage from Ice storm! Jan /19/2006 Solar Power to the People 26

27 Store energy in a battery bank For off-grid solar power 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 27

28 Don t like batteries? Try 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 28

29 Albany Hockey Facility 40 kw 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 29

30 Different ways of planting your electricity garden: Roof-top, sloped, on top of existing roofing Horizontal on flat roof, NO penetrations On poles or custom ground mount in the yard Building integrated PV roofing 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 30

31 PV on aluminum rack, bolted to rafters will withstand a hurricane! 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 31

32 Don t like panels? Try photovoltaic roofing! Unisolar PV Laminates stick to Galvalume metal roof. 7 kw on Green Cinderella in Brooklyn NY 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 32

33 UniSolar PV Shingles do Double Duty Speonk NY 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 33

34 Solar Electric Roof with Atlantis SunSlates 50 year warranty! 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 34

35 Atlantis Energy Day-lighting PV Light AND electricity for your building! 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 35

36 NY Department of Transportation goes solar. 40 kw in Kirkwood NY Powerlight PV system generates electricity, protects roof and adds insulation to roof. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 36

37 Tompkins County Public Library in Ithaca NY sq.ft. of PV Goes solar: 186 kw 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 37

38 60,000 sq.ft. PV array, 612 kw Just in case you are still thinking that solar power can t serve a large load here s over ½ a megawatt in Farmingdale NY! Every 100,000 square feet of roof space can generate 1 megawatt with PV on it. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 38

39 How much photovoltaics do YOU need for your building? Your Load in KILOWATT-HOURS per year Divided by Hours of Full Sun x system efficiency If your yearly load is 5000 kwh, the sun in Binghamton is 1496 Hours of Full Sun per year and the system efficiency is 75% (typical) then the PV system you will need to run it is: 5000/ (1496 x 0.75) = 4.46 kw Photovoltaic System South roof, NO shade 4.46 kw requires about 446 square feet of roof. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 39

40 Cost of Solar Electricity The 4.46 kw PV system will cost around \$44,600 (or \$10/Watt). Words to the Wise: But what you pay is: Larger systems cost less per Watt. \$44,600 Solar roofing costs more per Watt than panels. Battery backup adds \$5000 to \$7000 to the cost. -\$17,840 NYSERDA Roof mounts are less expensive than ground-mounts Some contractors are less expensive than others \$26,760 Some contractors are better qualified than others You can finance this with the Energy Smart Loan Then at tax time, you get a \$3750 CREDIT So the cost is ultimately: \$23,010 So it is comparable to buying a new car. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 40

41 Incentives New York NYSERDA: \$4/Watt up to 50 kw LIPA: \$3.75/Watt up to 10 kw Tax credit: up to \$3750 Federal Tax credit: up to \$2000 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 41

42 Cost of Solar Electricity Cost of 5.7 kw PV System: \$49,000 Incentive from NY State: \$22,800 Cost to you: \$26,200 Feeling you get generating your own electricity: Priceless! 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 42

43 Cost of Solar Electricity SUV Life expectancy: 8 years 4 kw Solar Electric System Life expectancy: 35 years These things both cost the same, \$35,000 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 43

44 Emissions offset each year with 10 kw PV system NOx (lbs) SO2 (lbs) CO2 (lbs) ,033 Care to put a price tag on it? 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 44

45 Oil Spill It is YOU, the taxpayer who pays for these messes! This is part of the external cost of conventional energy that the big money interests hope you will forget about! Dealing with nuclear waste 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 45

46 Subsidies for conventional energy In the latest federal energy bill, coal alone still gets TWICE as much as all renewable energy subsidies. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 46

47 Figuring YOUR part of energy subsidies The latest energy bill is just part of the subsidy energy companies get. The total is in the \$60 Billion per year range. There are million households (census) 60 Billion = 60,000 Million 60,000/108.8 = \$551/household. (This is in addition to the \$1226 / year NYSEG bill) About 5% of these subsidies are for renewable energy. 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 47

48 Save money, Protect Earth: Reduce Your Load! 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 48

49 Gas prices got you down? Get a hybrid gas-electric car. 50 mpg Oh What a Feeling! Toyota Prius 1/19/2006 Solar Power to the People 49

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