Surface plasmon nanophotonics: optics below the diffraction limit

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1 Surface plasmon nanophotonics: optics below the diffraction limit Albert Polman Center for nanophotonics FOM-Institute AMOLF, Amsterdam Jeroen Kalkman Hans Mertens Joan Penninkhof Rene de Waele Teun van Dillen Jen Dionne Luke Sweatlock Harry Atwater Arjen Vredenberg Christina Graf Alfons van Blaaderen PPM conference, Utrecht,

2 Optical fiber: long distance communication

3 Photonic integrated circuits on silicon SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 /Si 1 mm with C. van Dam, M.K. Smit, TUD

4 The world s smallest erbium-doped optical amplifier 1.53 µm signal, 1.48 µm pump, 10 mw, gain: 2.3 db Waveguide spiral size: 1 mm 2 minimum bending radius > 50 µm Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1886 (1996)

5 From a FOM/PPM prototype to a 40 M$ company Symmorphix Sunnyvale CA, USA

6 The first Er laser on Si fully made with CMOS technology Single-mode lasing -20 Nanophotonic materials group Signal (dbm) Wavelength (nm) with K. Vahala group, CALTECH Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1037 (2004) Phys. Rev. A 70, (2004)

7 Surface plasmon: EM wave at metal-dielectric interface z x ( ) t z k x k i z x e E t z x E ω = 0 ),, ( r r 2 1/ " ' + = + = d m d m x x x c ik k k ε ε ε ε ω = ε ω c k

8 Dielectric constants for silver: ε = ε + iε 50 0 ε" -ε d ε Measured data: ε' ε" Drude model: ε' ε" bound SP mode: ε m < -ε d Modified Drude model: ε' Wavelength (nm) ε'

9 Surface plasmons dispersion: ω ck x ε d k x = ω ε mε d c ε m + ε d 1/ 2 large k small wavelength 3.4 ev (360 nm) Ag/SiO 2 Ar laser: λ vac = 488 nm λ diel = 387 nm λ SP = 100 nm X-ray wavelengths at optical frequencies Re k x

10 SPs can have very long propagation distance 100 µm High loss in region of small λ SP Tune SP dispersion with index dielectric

11 Photonic integrated circuits on silicon Plasmonic SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 /Si Al Opto-electronic integration, (e.g. interconnects) Plamonic nanolithography 1 mm 10 µm

12 Surface plasmons can improve solid state lighting interaction between plasmon and radiating dipole 500 kev Er e 0 φ= 1.0 Er/cm 2 glass glass silver Normalized intensity e -1 e -2 e -3 Normalized PL intensity Energy (ev) Wavelength (nm) 4 I 13/2 4 I 15/2 Silver Air Time (ms)

13 Coupling to surface plasmons W rad far-field emission W tot = W rad + W SP W SP metal

14 Decay rate as a function of distance to metal 1.0 Air Glass W rad 10 4 Normalized decay rate Silver Glass Er distribution W total W rad W SP W nr Distance (nm) λ=1535 nm Power E k (k glass ) ln(normalized intensity) Ag τ=5.8 ms Air τ=9.3 ms time (ms) Decay near Ag is faster than in air Appl. Phys. Lett. in press (2005)

15 Si quantum dots at different depths: theory & experiment Normalized decay rate silver-glass interface air-glass interface λ em =750 nm PL intensity 1xe 0 1xe -1 1xe -2 1xe -3 Ag λ=750 nm, d=40 nm Air Excess Si (10 21 Si/cm 3 ) Depth (nm) Coupling to SPs 1xe -4 Decay rate (10 4 s -1 ) Air Ag Time (µs) λ em =750 nm Depth (nm)

16 Turning a slow emitter into a fast emitter W rad W rad +W SP far-field emission W SP recycling of a non-radiative decay path! QE 1 metal Applications: Fast modulation of Er LEDs, Si quantum dot LEDS Increased quantum efficiency of solid state emitters

17 Erbium ions implanted in silica glass substrate Grating etched in silica Ag film deposited λ pump =488 nm Herasil glass µm thick 350 kev kev Er, cm -2, 77 K Thermal anneal 800 C, 1 hr e-beam lithography, dry etching grating: p=1070±1 nm, d=230 nm Ag sputter evaporation (t=300 nm) θ SiO 2 Er Ag

18 PL intensity as a function of angle (λ=1534 nm) 6 PL Intensity 4 2 's' 'p' 'p' 's' Angle θ ( o ) Angle θ ( o ) Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4137 (2003)

19 Dispersion of thin-film surface plasmons Two surface plasmon modes Thinner film: Shorter SP wavelength Example: λ HeNe = 633 nm λ SP = 60 nm L - L - (symm) L + (asymm)

20 Thin-film surface plasmons: propagation length L - (symm) L + (asymm) More loss for thinner films Less loss for thinner films Challenge: fabricate smooth thin metal films

21 Dispersion-controlled plasmonic devices Electrically pumped single-mode SP source Ag NC Si Plasmonic concentrator Y Axis Title Small λ SP Large field enhancement v group =0 Plasmonic lens Distance (nm) thin section Surface plasmon laser Ag NC Si

22 The ultimate confinement of light: surface plasmons in metal nanoparticles Low frequency On resonance ε m = 2.2 E r E r SiO 2 Molecules Metal nanoparticles Surface-enhanced Raman scattering Surface-enhanced fluorescence single molecule detection (S. A. Maier et al.) Electromagnetic energy transfer well below diffraction limit high integration density: true nanophotonics

23 Tuning the plasmon resonance by shape: core-shell colloids nm Au/SiO 2 SiO 2 /Ag nm extinction [a.u.] MeV Cu cm λ [nm] Adv. Mater. 16, 235 (2004) Adv. Mater. In press (2005)

24 Modeling plasmon resonances in particle arrays 10 nm 30 MeV Si 9x10 14 /cm 2 s-pol p-pol 5000-fold enhancement field concentration: r=3 nm (3 db) Phys. Rev. B., in press (2005) Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4137 (2003)

25 Final goal: surface plasmon nanophotonic waveguides nm 500 nm 500 nm Nanophotonic materials group Plasmonics: energy transfer and confinement of light below the diffraction limit

26 Fundamental Reseach & Innovation Center for Nanophotonics FOM-Institute AMOLF Center for Nanophotonics Group leaders A. Polman K. Kuipers A. Lagendijk W.L. Vos J. Verhoeven A. Tip NN (Philips) Total staff 45 fte Fundamental concept Materials development Nanophotonics is a unique field of research because it combines a wealth of scientific challenges with a large variety of near-term applications. Prototype component Transfer to industry

27 km Conclusions mm µm photonics plasmonics

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