# 5.33 Lecture Notes: Introduction to Spectroscopy

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 5.33 Lecture Notes: ntroduction to Spectroscopy What is spectroscopy? Studying the properties of matter through its interaction with different frequency components of the electromagnetic spectrum. Latin: spectron ghost or spirit Greek: σκοπειν to see With light, you aren t looking directly at the molecule the matter but its ghost. You observe the light s interaction with different degrees of freedom of the molecule. Each type of spectroscopy different light frequency gives a different picture the spectrum. Spectroscopy is a general methodology that can be adapted in many ways to extract the information you need (energies of electronic, vibrational, rotational states, structure and symmetry of molecules, dynamic information). Goals: Understand how light interacts with matter and how you can use this to quantitatively understand your. Understand spectroscopy the way you understand other common tools of measurement like the watch or the ruler. See that spectroscopy is a set of tools that you can put together in different ways to understand systems solve chemical problems. The immediate questions that we want to address are: What does light do to? How do you produce a spectrum? What EXACTLY is a spectrum a measurement of?

2 What does a spectrum measure? nteraction of light with a can influence the and/or the light. Method involves: (1) excitation and (2) detection. The basic idea: 1 2a Characterize light after. Light (E.M. wave) Sample Other excitation source 2b Characterize change in. (photoacoustic spec.) This borders on photochemistry n most spectroscopies, we characterize how a modifies light entering it. 1) Absorption: Change in intensity of incident light Sample attenuates light transmission T=/ 0 0 We measure the absorption of light at different frequency or wavelength. ω/λ/ν (characteristic frequency/wavelength of light entering ) 5.33 Lecture Notes: ntroduction to Spectroscopy Page 2

3 2) Emission: Excitation induces emission of light from the (usually of different frequency). (Emitted in all directions) λ in λ out ncludes: Fluorescence (emission from excited electronic singlet states) Phosphorescence (emission from excited electronic triplet states) Raman Scattering (light scattering involving vibrational transition) 3) Optical Rotation: Change of phase of light incident on (rotation of polarization) Let s work on describing absorption. A Let s look at a typical absorption spectrum. ω/λ/e 5.33 Lecture Notes: ntroduction to Spectroscopy Page 3

4 What are the axes? X-axis: Characterizes the input light in terms of frequency-wavelength-energy Wavelength Frequency Energy λ (nm, µm, Å), ν (cycles/sec or s -1 or Hz) ω c = = 2 π λ ω = 2πν (rad/sec) (angular frequency) ν = ω/2πc = 1/λ expressed in units of cm -1 (wavenumbers) E = hν (expressed as ev or as cm -1 using E/hc = ν/c) Conversions ν ( cm -1 ) = 10 7 / λ( nm ) ν ( ev ) = 1240 / λ( nm ) y-axis: Absorption A ( ) ν = log 0 ( ) = ε ν c L (Beer s Law) 0 = light intensity incident on the = light intensity after the ε = molar decadic extinction coefficient (M 1 cm c = concentration (M) L = length (cm) 1 ) the molecular quantity This comes from assuming that the fraction of light absorbed as you propagate though the is proportional to the distance traversed: d = α dx 5.33 Lecture Notes: ntroduction to Spectroscopy Page 4

5 How do your measure absorption spectra? Measure the change of intensity of light at different frequencies as it passes through a. Two types of spectrometers: 1) Dispersive 2) Fourier transform Dispersive spectrometer: Separate different frequency components red slit prism blue 0 A ω/λ ω/λ Well talk about Fourier transform spectrometers later. This is a way of processing all wavelength/frequencies simultaneously R/NMR 5.33 Lecture Notes: ntroduction to Spectroscopy Page 5

### where h = 6.62 10-34 J s

Electromagnetic Spectrum: Refer to Figure 12.1 Molecular Spectroscopy: Absorption of electromagnetic radiation: The absorptions and emissions of electromagnetic radiation are related molecular-level phenomena

### Molecular Spectroscopy

Molecular Spectroscopy UV-Vis Spectroscopy Absorption Characteristics of Some Common Chromophores UV-Vis Spectroscopy Absorption Characteristics of Aromatic Compounds UV-Vis Spectroscopy Effect of extended

### EXPERIMENT 11 UV/VIS Spectroscopy and Spectrophotometry: Spectrophotometric Analysis of Potassium Permanganate Solutions.

EXPERIMENT 11 UV/VIS Spectroscopy and Spectrophotometry: Spectrophotometric Analysis of Potassium Permanganate Solutions. Outcomes After completing this experiment, the student should be able to: 1. Prepare

### Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory

u Chapter 15 Infrared Spectroscopy: Theory An important tool of the organic chemist is Infrared Spectroscopy, or IR. IR spectra are acquired on a special instrument, called an IR spectrometer. IR is used

### The Fundamentals of Infrared Spectroscopy. Joe Van Gompel, PhD

TN-100 The Fundamentals of Infrared Spectroscopy The Principles of Infrared Spectroscopy Joe Van Gompel, PhD Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. The electromagnetic

### Austin Peay State University Department of Chemistry Chem 1111. The Use of the Spectrophotometer and Beer's Law

Purpose To become familiar with using a spectrophotometer and gain an understanding of Beer s law and it s relationship to solution concentration. Introduction Scientists use many methods to determine

### Using the Spectrophotometer

Using the Spectrophotometer Introduction In this exercise, you will learn the basic principals of spectrophotometry and and serial dilution and their practical application. You will need these skills to

### Raman spectroscopy Lecture

Raman spectroscopy Lecture Licentiate course in measurement science and technology Spring 2008 10.04.2008 Antti Kivioja Contents - Introduction - What is Raman spectroscopy? - The theory of Raman spectroscopy

### Lecture 1: Basic Concepts on Absorption and Fluorescence

Lecture 1: Basic Concepts on Absorption and Fluorescence Nicholas G. James Cell and Molecular Biology University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu The Goal The emission of light after absorption of an outside

### Raman Scattering Theory David W. Hahn Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Florida (dwhahn@ufl.edu)

Introduction Raman Scattering Theory David W. Hahn Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University of Florida (dwhahn@ufl.edu) The scattering of light may be thought of as the redirection

### Solar Energy. Outline. Solar radiation. What is light?-- Electromagnetic Radiation. Light - Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

Outline MAE 493R/593V- Renewable Energy Devices Solar Energy Electromagnetic wave Solar spectrum Solar global radiation Solar thermal energy Solar thermal collectors Solar thermal power plants Photovoltaics

### Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing

Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) and Remote Sensing 1 Atmosphere Anything missing in between? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) is radiated by atomic particles at the source (the Sun), propagates through

### Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry

Spectrophotometry and the Beer-Lambert Law: An Important Analytical Technique in Chemistry Jon H. Hardesty, PhD and Bassam Attili, PhD Collin College Department of Chemistry Introduction: In the last lab

### Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to:

1 Learning Outcomes EXPERIMENT B4: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Upon completion of this lab, the student will be able to: 1) Analyze the absorbance spectrum of a sample. 2) Calculate the equilibrium constant for

### Raman Spectroscopy Basics

Raman Spectroscopy Basics Introduction Raman spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light, usually from a laser source. Inelastic scattering means that

### Infrared Spectroscopy

Infrared Spectroscopy 1 Chap 12 Reactions will often give a mixture of products: OH H 2 SO 4 + Major Minor How would the chemist determine which product was formed? Both are cyclopentenes; they are isomers.

### Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered

### Problem Set 6 UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy. 13-1. Express the following absorbances in terms of percent transmittance:

Problem Set 6 UV-Vis Absorption Spectroscopy 13-1. Express the following absorbances in terms of percent transmittance: a 0.051 b 0.918 c 0.379 d 0.261 e 0.485 f 0.072 A = log P o /P = log1/t = - log T

### Reaction Stoichiometry and the Formation of a Metal Ion Complex

Reaction Stoichiometry and the Formation of a Metal Ion Complex Objectives The objectives of this laboratory are as follows: To use the method of continuous variation to determine the reaction stoichiometry

### Take away concepts. What is Energy? Solar Energy. EM Radiation. Properties of waves. Solar Radiation Emission and Absorption

Take away concepts Solar Radiation Emission and Absorption 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Conservation of energy. Black body radiation principle Emission wavelength and temperature (Wein s Law). Radiation vs. distance

### Energy Transport. Focus on heat transfer. Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Conduction Radiation Convection (mass movement of fluids)

Energy Transport Focus on heat transfer Heat Transfer Mechanisms: Conduction Radiation Convection (mass movement of fluids) Conduction Conduction heat transfer occurs only when there is physical contact

### 13.4 UV/VIS Spectroscopy

13.4 UV/VIS Spectroscopy The spectroscopy which utilizes the ultraviolet (UV) and visible (VIS) range of electromagnetic radiation, is frequently referred to as Electronic Spectroscopy. The term implies

### Section 6 Raman Scattering (lecture 10)

Section 6 Scattering (lecture 10) Previously: Quantum theory of atoms / molecules Quantum Mechanics Valence Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy Scattering The scattering process Elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic

### Time out states and transitions

Time out states and transitions Spectroscopy transitions between energy states of a molecule excited by absorption or emission of a photon hn = DE = E i - E f Energy levels due to interactions between

### Simple Laser-Induced Fluorescence Setup to Explore Molecular Spectroscopy. Abstract

Simple Laser-Induced Fluorescence Setup to Explore Molecular Spectroscopy S. B. Bayram and M.D. Freamat Miami University, Department of Physics, Oxford, OH 45056 (Dated: July 23, 2012) Abstract We will

### INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (IR)

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY (IR) Theory and Interpretation of IR spectra ASSIGNED READINGS Introduction to technique 25 (p. 833-834 in lab textbook) Uses of the Infrared Spectrum (p. 847-853) Look over pages

### Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy One of the most important areas in the field of analytical chemistry is that of spectroscopy. In general terms, spectroscopy deals with the interactions

### The Phenomenon of Photoelectric Emission:

The Photoelectric Effect. The Wave particle duality of light Light, like any other E.M.R (electromagnetic radiation) has got a dual nature. That is there are experiments that prove that it is made up of

### Raman Spectroscopy. 1. Introduction. 2. More on Raman Scattering. " scattered. " incident

February 15, 2006 Advanced Physics Laboratory Raman Spectroscopy 1. Introduction When light is scattered from a molecule or crystal, most photons are elastically scattered. The scattered photons have the

### Group Theory and Chemistry

Group Theory and Chemistry Outline: Raman and infra-red spectroscopy Symmetry operations Point Groups and Schoenflies symbols Function space and matrix representation Reducible and irreducible representation

### 4. Molecular spectroscopy. Basel, 2008

4. Molecular spectroscopy Basel, 2008 4. Molecular spectroscopy Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Schema of a spectrometer 3. Quantification of molecules mouvements 4. UV-VIS spectroscopy 5. IR spectroscopy

### UV-Visible Spectroscopy

UV-Visible Spectroscopy UV-Visible Spectroscopy What is UV-Visible Spectroscopy? Molecular spectroscopy that involves study of the interaction of Ultra violet (UV)-Visible radiation with molecules What

### Introduction to Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry

Introduction to Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry What is FT-IR? I N T R O D U C T I O N FT-IR stands for Fourier Transform InfraRed, the preferred method of infrared spectroscopy. In infrared spectroscopy,

### From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

### Concept 2. A. Description of light-matter interaction B. Quantitatities in spectroscopy

Concept 2 A. Description of light-matter interaction B. Quantitatities in spectroscopy Dipole approximation Rabi oscillations Einstein kinetics in two-level system B. Absorption: quantitative description

### Chemistry 111 Lab: Intro to Spectrophotometry Page E-1

Chemistry 111 Lab: Intro to Spectrophotometry Page E-1 SPECTROPHOTOMETRY Absorption Measurements & their Application to Quantitative Analysis study of the interaction of light (or other electromagnetic

### Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing

LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview What

### Improved predictive modeling of white LEDs with accurate luminescence simulation and practical inputs

Improved predictive modeling of white LEDs with accurate luminescence simulation and practical inputs TracePro Opto-Mechanical Design Software s Fluorescence Property Utility TracePro s Fluorescence Property

### electron does not become part of the compound; one electron goes in but two electrons come out.

Characterization Techniques for Organic Compounds. When we run a reaction in the laboratory or when we isolate a compound from nature, one of our first tasks is to identify the compound that we have obtained.

### HUMBOLDT-UNIVERSITÄT ZU BERLIN MATHEMATISCH-NATURWISSENSCHAFTLICHE FAKULTÄT I

HUMBOLDT-UNIVERSITÄT ZU BERLIN MATHEMATISCH-NATURWISSENSCHAFTLICHE FAKULTÄT I INSTITUT FÜR PHYSIK Physik von Makromolekülen UV-VIS absorption characterization of (macro)molecular solutions Persons in charge:

### Fundamentals of modern UV-visible spectroscopy. Presentation Materials

Fundamentals of modern UV-visible spectroscopy Presentation Materials The Electromagnetic Spectrum E = hν ν = c / λ 1 Electronic Transitions in Formaldehyde 2 Electronic Transitions and Spectra of Atoms

### The excitation in Raman spectroscopy is usually. Practical Group Theory and Raman Spectroscopy, Part II: Application of Polarization

Electronically reprinted from March 214 Molecular Spectroscopy Workbench Practical Group Theory and Raman Spectroscopy, Part II: Application of Polarization In this second installment of a two-part series

WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION All waves are characterized by their wavelength, frequency and speed. Wavelength (lambda, ): the distance between any 2 successive crests or troughs. Frequency (nu,):

### SPECTROSCOPY. Light interacting with matter as an analytical tool

SPECTROSCOPY Light interacting with matter as an analytical tool Electronic Excitation by UV/Vis Spectroscopy : X-ray: core electron excitation UV: valance electronic excitation IR: molecular vibrations

### CHAPTER 13 MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY

CHAPTER 13 MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY Our most detailed knowledge of atomic and molecular structure has been obtained from spectroscopy study of the emission, absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation

### Aspects of an introduction to photochemistry

Aspects of an introduction to photochemistry Ground state reactants Excited state reactants Reaction Intermediates Ground state products Orbital occupancy Carbonyl photochemistry Vibrational structure

### Hydrogen Bonds in Water-Methanol Mixture

Bulg. J. Phys. 34 (2007) 103 107 Hydrogen Bonds in Water-Methanol Mixture G.M. Georgiev, K. Vasilev, K. Gyamchev Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia 5J.Bourchier Blvd., 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria Received

### UV/VIS/IR SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS OF NANOPARTICLES

UV/VIS/IR SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS OF NANOPARTICLES SEPTEMBER 2012, V 1.1 4878 RONSON CT STE K SAN DIEGO, CA 92111 858-565 - 4227 NANOCOMPOSIX.COM Note to the Reader: We at nanocomposix have published this

### - thus, the total number of atoms per second that absorb a photon is

Stimulated Emission of Radiation - stimulated emission is referring to the emission of radiation (a photon) from one quantum system at its transition frequency induced by the presence of other photons

### Limiting factors in fiber optic transmissions

Limiting factors in fiber optic transmissions Sergiusz Patela, Dr Sc Room I/48, Th. 13:00-16:20, Fri. 9:20-10:50 sergiusz.patela@pwr.wroc.pl eportal.pwr.wroc.pl Copying and processing permitted for noncommercial

### Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science

Radiation Transfer in Environmental Science with emphasis on aquatic and vegetation canopy media Autumn 2008 Prof. Emmanuel Boss, Dr. Eyal Rotenberg Introduction Radiation in Environmental sciences Most

### 2.02 DETERMINATION OF THE FORMULA OF A COMPLEX BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

2nd/3rd Year Physical Chemistry Practical Course, Oxford University 2.02 DETERMINATION OF THE FORMULA OF A COMPLEX BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRY (4 points) Outline Spectrometry is widely used to monitor the progress

### 2 Spectrophotometry and the Analysis of Riboflavin

2 Spectrophotometry and the Analysis of Riboflavin Objectives: A) To become familiar with operating the Platereader; B) to learn how to use the Platereader in determining the absorption spectrum of a compound

### PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS

PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT AND DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATIONS 1. Photons 2. Photoelectric Effect 3. Experimental Set-up to study Photoelectric Effect 4. Effect of Intensity, Frequency, Potential on P.E.

### Molecular Spectroscopy:

: How are some molecular parameters determined? Bond lengths Bond energies What are the practical applications of spectroscopic knowledge? Can molecules (or components thereof) be identified based on differences

### Near-field scanning optical microscopy (SNOM)

Adviser: dr. Maja Remškar Institut Jožef Stefan January 2010 1 2 3 4 5 6 Fluorescence Raman and surface enhanced Raman 7 Conventional optical microscopy-limited resolution Two broad classes of techniques

### Section 5 Molecular Electronic Spectroscopy (lecture 9 ish)

Section 5 Molecular Electronic Spectroscopy (lecture 9 ish) Previously: Quantum theory of atoms / molecules Quantum Mechanics Vl Valence Molecular Electronic Spectroscopy Classification of electronic states

### Colorimetry Extinction coefficient (ε) Lambda max (λ max ) Qualitative vs. quantitative analysis

Lab Week 2 - Spectrophotometry Purpose: Introduce students to the use of spectrophotometry for qualitative (what is it) and quantitative (how much is there of it) analysis of biological samples and molecules.

### What s in the Mix? Liquid Color Spectroscopy Lab (Randy Landsberg & Bill Fisher)

What s in the Mix? Liquid Color Spectroscopy Lab (Randy Landsberg & Bill Fisher) Introduction: There is more to a color than a name. Color can tell us lots of information. In this lab you will use a spectrophotometer

### Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

Ultraviolet Spectroscopy The wavelength of UV and visible light are substantially shorter than the wavelength of infrared radiation. The UV spectrum ranges from 100 to 400 nm. A UV-Vis spectrophotometer

### Physics 1230: Light and Color

Physics 1230: Light and Color Instructor: Joseph Maclennan TOPIC 3 - Resonance and the Generation of Light http://www.colorado.edu/physics/phys1230 How do we generate light? How do we detect light? Concept

### FTIR Instrumentation

FTIR Instrumentation Adopted from the FTIR lab instruction by H.-N. Hsieh, New Jersey Institute of Technology: http://www-ec.njit.edu/~hsieh/ene669/ftir.html 1. IR Instrumentation Two types of instrumentation

### ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION

Chem 306 Section (Circle) M Tu W Th Name Partners Date ANALYSIS OF ASPIRIN INFRARED (IR) SPECTROSCOPY AND MELTING POINT DETERMINATION Materials: prepared acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), stockroom samples

### Absorption by atmospheric gases in the IR, visible and UV spectral regions.

Lecture 6. Absorption by atmospheric gases in the IR, visible and UV spectral regions. Objectives: 1. Gaseous absorption in thermal IR. 2. Gaseous absorption in the visible and near infrared. 3. Gaseous

### Spectroscopic Methods

Chapter 10 Spectroscopic Methods Chapter Overview Section 10A Overview of Spectroscopy Section 10B Spectroscopy Based on Absorption Section 10C UV/Vis and IR Spectroscopy Section 10D Atomic Absorption

### Preface Light Microscopy X-ray Diffraction Methods

Preface xi 1 Light Microscopy 1 1.1 Optical Principles 1 1.1.1 Image Formation 1 1.1.2 Resolution 3 1.1.3 Depth of Field 5 1.1.4 Aberrations 6 1.2 Instrumentation 8 1.2.1 Illumination System 9 1.2.2 Objective

### 2 Absorbing Solar Energy

2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2.1 Air Mass and the Solar Spectrum Now that we have introduced the solar cell, it is time to introduce the source of the energy the sun. The sun has many properties that could

### ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2

Forensic Spectral Anaylysis: Warm up! The study of triangles has been done since ancient times. Many of the early discoveries about triangles are still used today. We will only be concerned with the "right

### Lecture 3: Fibre Optics

Lecture 3: Fibre Optics Lecture aims to explain: 1. Fibre applications in telecommunications 2. Principle of operation 3. Single- and multi-mode fibres 4. Light losses in fibres Fibre is a transparent

### Energy. Mechanical Energy

Principles of Imaging Science I (RAD119) Electromagnetic Radiation Energy Definition of energy Ability to do work Physicist s definition of work Work = force x distance Force acting upon object over distance

### DETERMINACIÓN DE ESTRUCTURAS ORGÁNICAS (ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY) IR SPECTROSCOPY

DETERMINACIÓN DE ESTRUCTURAS ORGÁNICAS (ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY) IR SPECTROSCOPY Hermenegildo García Gómez Departamento de Química Instituto de Tecnología Química Universidad Politécnica de Valencia 46022

### AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008

AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

### 6. 3. Molecular spectroscopy. Unit 6: Physical chemistry of spectroscopy, surfaces and chemical and phase equilibria

6. 3 Molecular spectroscopy Spectroscopy in its various forms is a technique with wide applications across many disciplines. From qualitative analysis in toxicology through to quantitative measurements

### Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Introduction: The NMR Spectrum serves as a great resource in determining the structure of an organic compound by revealing the hydrogen and carbon skeleton.

### Chemistry 307 Chapter 10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Chemistry 307 Chapter 10 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is one of three spectroscopic techniques that are useful tools for determining the structures of organic

### A Beer s Law Experiment

A Beer s Law Experiment Introduction There are many ways to determine concentrations of a substance in solution. So far, the only experiences you may have are acid-base titrations or possibly determining

### Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th. Properties of Light

Chemistry 102 Summary June 24 th Properties of Light - Energy travels through space in the form of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). - Examples of types of EMR: radio waves, x-rays, microwaves, visible

### Katharina Lückerath (AG Dr. Martin Zörnig) adapted from Dr. Jörg Hildmann BD Biosciences,Customer Service

Introduction into Flow Cytometry Katharina Lückerath (AG Dr. Martin Zörnig) adapted from Dr. Jörg Hildmann BD Biosciences,Customer Service How does a FACS look like? FACSCalibur FACScan What is Flow Cytometry?

### AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity Free Response Questions KEY page 1

AP* Atomic Structure & Periodicity ree Response Questions KEY page 1 1980 a) points 1s s p 6 3s 3p 6 4s 3d 10 4p 3 b) points for the two electrons in the 4s: 4, 0, 0, +1/ and 4, 0, 0, - 1/ for the three

### Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition

Organic Chemistry Tenth Edition T. W. Graham Solomons Craig B. Fryhle Welcome to CHM 22 Organic Chemisty II Chapters 2 (IR), 9, 3-20. Chapter 2 and Chapter 9 Spectroscopy (interaction of molecule with

### Atomic Calculations. 2.1 Composition of the Atom. number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number

2.1 Composition of the Atom Atomic Calculations number of protons + number of neutrons = mass number number of neutrons = mass number - number of protons number of protons = number of electrons IF positive

### Photons. ConcepTest 27.1. 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy. Which has more energy, a photon of:

ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which has more energy, a photon of: 1) red light 2) yellow light 3) green light 4) blue light 5) all have the same energy 400 nm 500 nm 600 nm 700 nm ConcepTest 27.1 Photons Which

### Symmetric Stretch: allows molecule to move through space

BACKGROUND INFORMATION Infrared Spectroscopy Before introducing the subject of IR spectroscopy, we must first review some aspects of the electromagnetic spectrum. The electromagnetic spectrum is composed

### Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy

4 Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy Spectroscopy is the study of interaction of radiation with matter and imparts information regarding molecular structure (molecular symmetry, bond distances, bond

### 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z

Mass spectrum for the ionization of acetone MS of Acetone + Relative Abundance CH 3 H 3 C O + M 15 (loss of methyl) + O H 3 C CH 3 43 58 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 m/z It is difficult to identify the ions

### 2. Molecular stucture/basic

2. Molecular stucture/basic spectroscopy The electromagnetic spectrum Spectral region for atomic and molecular spectroscopy E. Hecht (2nd Ed.) Optics, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,1987 Spectral regions

### WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

### Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀

Infrared Spectroscopy 紅 外 線 光 譜 儀 Introduction Spectroscopy is an analytical technique which helps determine structure. It destroys little or no sample (nondestructive method). The amount of light absorbed

### How To Understand Light And Color

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order

### Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy cont... Recommended Reading:

Applied Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy cont... Recommended Reading: Banwell and McCash Chapter 7 Skoog, Holler Nieman Chapter 19 Atkins, Chapter 18 Relaxation processes We need

### NMR SPECTROSCOPY A N I N T R O D U C T I O N T O... Self-study booklet NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 4 3 2 1 0 δ PUBLISHING

A N I N T R O D U T I O N T O... NMR SPETROSOPY NULEAR MAGNETI RESONANE 4 3 1 0 δ Self-study booklet PUBLISING NMR Spectroscopy NULEAR MAGNETI RESONANE SPETROSOPY Origin of Spectra Theory All nuclei possess

### Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope

Physics 441/2: Transmission Electron Microscope Introduction In this experiment we will explore the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to take us into the world of ultrasmall structures. This

### The Role of Electric Polarization in Nonlinear optics

The Role of Electric Polarization in Nonlinear optics Sumith Doluweera Department of Physics University of Cincinnati Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 Abstract Nonlinear optics became a very active field of research

### The Electromagnetic Spectrum

INTRODUCTION The Electromagnetic Spectrum I. What is electromagnetic radiation and the electromagnetic spectrum? What do light, X-rays, heat radiation, microwaves, radio waves, and gamma radiation have

### Acousto-optic modulator

1 of 3 Acousto-optic modulator F An acousto-optic modulator (AOM), also called a Bragg cell, uses the acousto-optic effect to diffract and shift the frequency of light using sound waves (usually at radio-frequency).

### Waves Sound and Light

Waves Sound and Light r2 c:\files\courses\1710\spr12\wavetrans.doc Ron Robertson The Nature of Waves Waves are a type of energy transmission that results from a periodic disturbance (vibration). They are

### Gas emission measurements with a FTIR gas analyzer - verification of the analysis method Kari Pieniniemi 1 * and Ulla Lassi 1, 2

ENERGY RESEARCH at the University of Oulu 117 Gas emission measurements with a FTIR gas analyzer - verification of the analysis method Kari Pieniniemi 1 * and Ulla Lassi 1, 2 1 University of Oulu, Department

### Applications of Infrared Multiple Angle Incidence Resolution Spectrometry

Electronically reprinted from August 2015 Applications of Infrared Multiple Angle Incidence Resolution Spectrometry Multiple angle incidence resolution spectrometry (MAIRS has proven useful for characterization