Chapter 1. Concepts and Cognitive Science. Stephen Laurence and Eric Margolis

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 1. Concepts and Cognitive Science. Stephen Laurence and Eric Margolis"

Transcription

1 Chapter 1 Concepts and Cognitive Science Stephen Laurence and Eric Margolis L. Introduction: Some Preliminaries Concepts are the most fundamental constnrcts in theories of the mind. Given their importance to all aspects of cognition, ifs no su{prise that concepts raise so many.oitto,rersies in philosophy and cognitive science. These range from the relatively local Should concepts be thought of as bundles of feafures, or do they embody mental theories? to the most global Are concepts mental representations, or might they be abstract entities? Indeed, it's even controversial whether concepts are objects, as opposed to cognitive or behavioral abilities of some sort. Because of the scope of the issues at stake, it's inevitable that some disputes arise from radically different views of what a theory of concepts ought to achieve-differences that can be especially plonounced across discipiinary boundaries. Yet in spite of these differertces, there has been a significant amount of interdisciplinary interaction among theorists working on concepts. In this respect, the theory of concepts is one of the great success stories of cognitive science. Psychologists and linguists have borrowed freely from philosophers in developing detailed empirical theories of concepts, drawing inspiration from Wittgenstein's discussions of family resemblance, Frege's distinction between sense and reference, and Kripke's and Putnam's discussions of externalism and essentialism. And piilosophers have found psycjrologists' work on categorization to have powerful implications for a wide r*g" of philosophical debates. The philosopher Stephen Stich (1993) has gone so far as to remark that current empirical models in psychology undermine a traditional approach to philosophy in which philosophers engage in _co:rceptual analyses. As a.*"qrrence of this *ork Stich and others have come to believe!h{ philosophers have to rethink their approach to topics in areas as diverse as the philosophy of mind and ethics. So even if disciplinary boundaries have generated the appearance of dis;oint research, it's hard to deny that significant interaction has taken place. We hope this volume will underscore some of these achievements and- open the way for increased cooperation. In this introduction, we sketch the recent history of theories of concepts. However, our purpose isn't solely one of exposition. We also provide a number of reinteqpretations of what have come to be standard arguments in the field and develop a framework that lends more prominence to neglected areas This paper was fully collaborative; the order of the authors'narnes is arbihary.

2 ro'uolr?tpsanul "r p",ff::?ffi: lffi H ffiitfi'fr#ffi ffi:"f,f#;1:;:sil#tfri ilapo of 4"q saop ll 1nq 'dnqs pw tp q,usg ldaauoo lptfq e to uonou aql 'qpaliluuptr(geil surelllm plre ollnps 161 aas 'suogdaouoa a usrua{s aruos ro; lnq) s! Proi p 1e{m,t1pu? poqe l(uom l,uom a ^ prre,pjorlr E sasn Jaqpus alaq A aeerqd p asn ltetu a8enstrq auo 1eql lhryqlssod aql 1noq frrom l,uorl im,repgred rq 'sauaqdroru a18ugs {q papoua f11msn ar? leql sauo arz uonsitnb u1 sldaeuoe?ql leql tugou qrog pedu 'uopez.uapereqr aspard aloru p uo lspul ol Fau ou s! arag 'sasodrnd luasard rod 'U 1*fp' I[^ a^^ qpnb uaq ^'sdec -rrulsun 1eql fes puu,,arnlpat,, lo asn allsspruad e ldopu il,am '(qdaruoj /fuosuas a^nfulrd,tro ol ratar ol ^a'l) flarrlp;rlsar arotu pasn saruneruos sl pue (ldaruor P ilstts u; suopsard:o Bupn ^q qd"#tf:rt?rilllfiffl$:t"ffitt to luauoduroe fue ol JaJar ol ^a'i) rtlanrssnruad aroru pasn saugaruos q,prryee!,, Pql pe aql fq pasryuor sr fsoloquual s1q1 g8noqlp 'nnpat ro sldaruor xnaota_pel1w saugaruos are sldaeuor annrurud 'arn;eral{ ajualts aaprusor eql q 'a HIurlJd 1,uare lprll sldaeuor are lserluor ul 'sldatuot ngduo7 'arnldnqs IIPI lutll seuo an s7datuot aaquuud teql fes gp14 'pauolluau aq pfoqs [8o1ouFr.ual to slulod raqp olrtl 'suoheluasardar pluaru puonfodordqns ag ol sydatuot a{bl IIFu arrn 'ff"prorrv 'sldaeuoe aq o1 8tq ool are-suonlsodord aloq/vr ssardxa feur l?rfi sauo 'sl letll-s1q8noql alalduor ;o p^al aql lp suollquasardag 'ralaosleqrl azls l(ue ;o suolleluasardar ljluaru ldae -uoj se aleuslsap o1 Suorm sruaas li 'aug arues aql lv 'suopquasardar xaldruoe sa^psruaql are sldaruor p)ixa1 'srnala rtueur uo paapul :pazqerlxal aru riuuoj aql lptll lrej aql wort pede strdaruor xalduo) ratllo puu sldaruot IE lxaf uaa^qaq ajua -Iatlp anill aq rteru araql 'sluanlhsuof, rlaql sp asaql a^sq leql saxaldruor ol flenba dlddu sldaruor sb a)h arfi pue rrrr pup )D\ns lno apuls ol a^eq Plno/n a.t9 letll suossar aql Jo lsoru laa 'sldaruor aq ppollt Jalpl aq1,tpo irto PtrE )f,ws qdaruoc raldrurs aql to pasodrtor sl C,lBr 1rBI$, uolssardxa qsqsug aql o1 Sulpuodsarror) r\lr xj\rre ldaruor ag 1eql 'aldurexa ro; 'r[es ol alqu aq l,uplno/vt auo 'suolssardxa asen8usl l?rqeu xalduroe ltq passardxa are lstn suonpluasardar asog sldaluor se Surlaqpl sllq;qord ll aruls 'premlaau sg a8esn slql 'ralar^o11 'satent*l Prnleu ul sprom ltq passardxa arp lpql suollquasardar Fluaw asog lsnf aq ol u?pl are sldae -uoj,suorssmsrp auros ui 'ssardxa ol pasn are faql strdaruor aql tuojt ssugeaul 4a{l lpaqgl sabbnbubi prnleu q spro/n lpql {ufil ol uounuor s,ll lptll s sldaruot P)Ixal ul lsaralul ag Jot uosear auo,'sasensuel prqeu q sruall [E]1xal o1 puodsarjot lpql sauo,flq8nor-ilm pue 'oue torardvs all sldaf,uoj are sldaruoj PJlxal'sldauot pxlxq punorp palaluaf, aabq sldaruor to suolssn:ts1p Foru 'suospal ;o f;aperr B ro{,sldatuo) pjtrrl pua ra1&uo) taallrttt td 'luarulpaq papuelxa aroru e sa4nbar-sldajuor Jo snlqs prpol -oluo aql Sulruaruof,-prlrll aql lnq tgtpb,(fpj tplru lleap aq rrer o/r I 'Pauoll -uaru ae or Peau r'qr **i:ff:hn:x ",#:.TfiH;:1il:[# ;ff:ffl",, -raperprlp pe4lsapl to suual u1 sgl op pub strdaruoryo safoaql u.iuru aql aq ol a{bl am leiyvr truasard ol s! f8alertrs mo 'uopualle ssal allaf,ar l1jrrt s/na! urqrer 's!tn sb ilor{s se areds e u1 'fpelllaq lnq 'lualxa aluos ol sarlorp rno /$nsn[ o1 lh1 arn '8uop o8 arvr sv 1prlnau ltppldruoe a{ ol tulelr l,uop arvr fetfi ^ ou ltlep fes ppoqs a^ os 'saldms lerlproa{l aruos Supuago porllr^^ allluelsqns Sulqytue lles o; alqpsodurl aq ppoftl ll 'f,e1d lp sapoaql,o a8uer ls?a aql ua^19 'fqdersoas pnlralplq aql Jo sg1otre61 pus aruarne"i V

3 Concepts and Cognitive Science 5 fured concepts are primitive or atomic. What exactly it means to say that a concept has, or lacfcs, stmcture is another matter. This brings us to our second preliminary point. Two Models of Conceptual Stntcture Most theories of concepts treat lexical concepts as structured complexes. This raises the issue of what it is for such representational complexes to have structure. Despite the important role that conceptual structure plays in many debates, there has been little explicit discussion of this question. We discem two importantly different models of stmcture that are irnplicit in these debates. The first view we'll call the Containment Model. On this view, one concept is a structwed complex of other concepts iust in case it literally has those other concepts as proper parts. In this way, a concept C might be composed of the concepts X, Y, *a Z. fnen an occturence of C would necessarily involve an occuffence of X, Y, and Z because X, Y, and Z are contained within C, C couldn't be tokened wiihout X, y, and Z being tokened. For example, the concept DRoppED rhe AccoRDloN couldn't be tokened without AccoRDroN being tokened. As an analogy, you might think of the relation that words bear to phrases and sentences. The word "accordion" is a strucfural element of the sentence 'Tony dropped the accordion" in the sense that it is a proper part of the sentence. Consequently, you can't utter a token of the sentence 'Tony dropped the accordion" without thereby uttering a token of the word "accordion." The second view, which we'll can the Inferential Model, is rather different. According to this view, one concept is a stmcfured complex of other concepts just in case it stands in a privileged relation to these other concepts, generally, by way of some type of inferential disposition. On this model, even though X, Y, arrd Z may be part of the structure of C, C can still occur without necessitating their occurence. For example, RED might have a structure implicating the concept colo& but on the Inferential Model, one could entertain the concept neo without having to token the concept color. At most, one would have to have certain dispositions linking nno and color-for example the disposition to infer X s colonep from X s nep. Thus, for any claim that a concept has such-and-such structure-or such-and-such tvpe of strucfure (see sec. 7)-there will be, in principle, two possible inteqpretations of the daim: one in terms of the Containment Model and one in terrns of the Inferential Model. The signiftcance of these distinctions will become clearer once we present some speciftc theories of concepts. For now we simply want to note that discussions of concepfual strucfure are often based on an implicit commitment to one of these models and th"t a proper evaluation of a theory of concepts may hrrn on which model is adopted. Concepts as Abstracta os. Concepts as Mental Representations The third and last preliminary point that we need to discuss concerns a more basic issue-the ontological status of concepts. In accordance with virtually all discussions of concepts in psychology, we will assume that concepts are mental particulars. For examplq your concept crandmother is a mental representation of a certain type Perhaps a shructured mental representation in one of the two senses we've isolated. It should be sai4 however, that not all theorists accept as their starting point the thesis that concepts are mental particulars. In philosophy especially it's not uncommon to

4 'ellpluasardar aq ol smrslp a ^ uolsraa eql a)pl aru lnq "peqsqe se strdaruoe "all saarpadsrad IE $aroaql p fiagea v 'r 'fum rgs.ualrprerp e u; par{,o1drp q 1ap reprgred Fluaru B to uolssaesod q eq auo 1urn arpbar ry8fu sen{n? qrns Qduexa rod srellnlyed are qdaeuoe fsql ^aa!^ eql Wyl plguor q q santp$ ol Jeadde u? 1uql rpalt uala pu s,l! 'rftoagl padopaap e poglm 'sag[lqs asag to arqeu aw 1noq p1es aq ol spaau aroru 1etg q fipdgtlp taqr ar1f,'atrenp a ol raprstl q sapryqe 1ucl -8opq{sd alu sgdaruoe 1eql map eql 'ralarnoh'(esof l(rl*o,d '8'a'aas) prauas rn uquo!^sqaq pqete ansre lnil suosuar auns aql rg lno pafr arp seglllqe prc1,rsqaq 1nn il a:pl am 'san{rp pqsoloq{sd Jo 1ero1an{eq 'peapu! 'are pq IIB lb sreprgred lou ajb qdaeuor lsql,r ara arp s! aqlsualf raqloue p 'g aqt 'luararar aql ssarr? a^^ lptll asuas e lo dsers rno qsnorql q ll Puv 'uols -sardxa up to ilalatar aql sauruua1ap Jo saxg 'uopetruasald to apour p s? 'asuas y 'a8un8uq rno q suolssardxa aql Jo sasuas aql /tq palelpau q ppo^a aql ol ssejje pnldajuo) pue rgsln8r4l rno 'a8arg rog annnpt a4run7ay sesues '7, 'ssardxa f,"ql sasuas eql uaarqaq saruarattp ol puodsarror lualuor arqlpsoj ui satuara#p aql pue 'sasuas a^pq sluarualqs asaql ur pa lo^i4 suogssardxa aql lpql /(us o1 sr apznd aql ol uolplos s,a8al{ 'fraaprslp lurlurouoqse luer$. 8!s P Puof,as aql 'usjnrl s sl ls{t aql pr( 'snuan pwld aql Suqouap srunl lpquarataror Suprlo^u sluaru -alqs 6lguapl arp rnog '$aluor aapp oe ul ra;rlp p[nor-,,pls Suluaaa aq1 sl Jpls Su.nuou eql,, pup,rrpp Stmuou a{l sl JEls Eu.nuour aql,,-sluaualpls,qnuapl o/r l,\aoq qss asarg 'alnnd s,atatl se wi^oq aq ol aruoj sptl lptlrr ol paplar sl alor sf11 tttol'csatdra 41s1t8u11 to ynguot aagy8ot afi en sesrns 'T z(lt OtaSrng p) paqsp8uqslp fpeap aq ol qqsno aaql 'lte1d ol uraql palsp atarg lerll salor aql /tq pazpepsrsrlr Supq se tuag Jo 1luFp oq sfed 1g 'sasuas lnoqe rarpap p8 o1 1nq 'araq splap aql to IIE lnoqe frroan l,upeau am 'luarajar ql roj uolleluasard Jo apotu aql,,sueluor,, uolssardxa ub to asuas aql 1uql pue luarejar p ol uonpp? u1 'asuas B aabr{ suorssardxa leql pprl a8arg 1uql $ sasuas qlfn uolpatruoj aql 'uolleluasard to sapour pullslp rapun fpeap pq 'gqs aurcs aql ol ratar r(eu,,6/ ragunu rltuole tlll { luauap,, pue,,p1o8,,'rtplpls 'aules aql l,uarp lenpl,rpul sfn roj uolleluasard to sapour rlaql lnq 'pnpwpq aures aql ol ratal r(btu,,suanuel) Pnures,, PuB,,lr!P AI IJBI L, 'asenld "!o! ubj a/u s? 1sn[ 'alualuas aloql p uala ro 'uual pupl e Jo 'anusu E JoJ uogeluasard ;o apow aql to ryads ubf, am 'frosapc Jllueruas pus azf frana to suofsardxa o1 paqd -du fprepuels s!-trelleluasard lo aporu PuE luarejar uaafiqaq-ue11f,rnls1p sit{j 'll 8u1zpalr"rprp yo sfeaa luaratlp alerodrorul l(aql lnq 'rnot raqumu aql ol ratar qloq,,9i 1o looj arenbs e$,, PuP,,oml snld onl,,'aluelsul JoJ 'sr(ertl $ajatip u1 trra[qo aql SuFpap?r?rl? fq os op lng pafqo aru?s aql ol ratar suual luarag[p araq^ saser to,$afba p passrdslp a8ard 'uual e Jo luarajar aql rot uottorys?td to apou aql-a8arg ug uopou prluqeal raqloue ro suual q sasuas,o {ufll o1 sdlaq 11 'aetrelsq 1snJ aql ui 'uoppluasardar Fluaur to arnlpu aql 1noge saljoaql puu a8ent*l Iprqeu Jot sansopue a "q ^ alp aq suolljullsro aql ;ng 'arualjs pus 'slgetua{1etu,rpol q pasn sa8en8upl IBIrgHre 'repegrsd ur 'a8en8*l u! pa$aralul,tg"*lrd servt asarg 'atuanpt pup?sui,s uaa^^laq uorpuqsp stq pue a8arg qoppg raqdosopd upuuag frnluar-qluaapulu aql to ltban dq s! upaq ol rle/vr Faq aql sdeqra; 'uo ralpl lup^alar aq IFn alndsp qqtr u1 feld l? are 1er{l suolljullsp ag to awos aruls 'ralamoq 'sn qll { rpaq ffm JappaJ aql adoq a14?'uorssar8lp e sarmbar slrrnojte prrsoloqe{sd prspupls ol uonelar sll pup mall slrll rot suoll?a1lour aq1 8uy!lr?p s'sapllua pprpqs se strdaeuoe ro {tl.nn qp8rery pue etuarne"i g

5 Concepts and Cognitive Science 7 expression "the morning stay'' refers to the object it does because this expression has the sense it does. g. Senses are the indirect referents of erpressions in intmsional conterts Certain linguistic contexts (e.g., "... believes that..." and other propositional attitude reports) have distinctive and peorliar semantic properties. Outside of these contexts, one can freely substitute coreferential terms without affecting the truth value of the sentence ("the morning star is bright" + "the evening star is ' bright"), but within these contexts, the same substifutions are not possible ("Sue believes that the morning star is bright" # "Sue believes that the evening star is bright"1. Frege's explanation of this bype of case is that in such contexts expressions do not refer to their customary referents, but rather to their customary ssrrses. Since the expressions have different customary senses, they actually have different referents in these contexts. Thus Frege is able to maintain the principle that coreferring terms can be substituted one for the other without a.t *gl in truth value, despite what otherwise may have appeared to be a decisive counterexample to the principle. Frege's semantic theory, and the phenomena he used to motivate it, have generated a great deal of controversy, and they have had an enorrnous influence on the development of semantic theories in philosophy and linguistics. For now, though, the important issue is the ontological stafus of senses. Frege argued that senses, construed in terms of these theoretical roles, cannot be mental entities. Since it's conrmon in philosophy to hold that concepts just are Fregean senses, it would seem that Frege's case against mental entities is especially pertinent. The problem, in his view, is that mental entities are subjective, whereas senses are supposed to be obiective. Two people "are not prevented from grasptng the same sense; but they cannot have the same idea" ( , p. 60). (Note that for Frege ideas are mental entities.) If this is the argument against the view that concepts are mental representations, however, it isn't the least bit convincing. To see why, one has to be careful about teasing apart several distinctions that can get lumped together as a single contrast between the subjective and the objective. One of these concerns the difference between mental representation+ thoughts, and experiences, on the one han4 and exha-mental entities on the other. In this sensg a stone is objective but a mental representation of a stone is subiective; it's subjective simply because ifs mental. Notice, however, that sublectivity of this kind doesn't preclude the sharing of a mental representation, since two people can have the same type of mental representation. Whaf isn't possible is for two people to have the very same tolcen representation. This brings us to a second subjective-obiective distinction. It can be put this way: Mental reptisentations are subjective in that their tokens are uniquely possessed; they belong to one and only one subject. Their being subiective in this sense, however, doesn't preclude their being shareable in the relevant sense, since, again, two people can have lhe sa*e representation by eac} having tokens of the same type. When someone says that two people have the same concept, there is no need to suppose that she is saying that they both possess the same token concept. It would make as much sense to say that two people cannot utter the same sentence because they cannot both produce the same token sentence. Clearly what matters for being able to utter the same sentence, or entertain the same concept, is being able to have tokens of the same type. So while mental representations are subiective in the two senses

6 .(sur) arua'nel pue sqosreyrl Fp (s rffi::l,;#h,lffif,#$ fffi"h :; seap!;o r*e'ur(sopr aqr,^orr ai,s or pprr s,rr,r -r"il1lif"11r'ff9i*tilf*tr;$;ffii:f{hil rq br-fprtlt l,ua.re-seapl lpql dpo saf{g"lsa uollpatasqo sp8arg taramog?saq ry'(69),,pqqdaong arusu aql qlp seep! Naraglp pauuor fgeqord pru 1q8o1oqz e pue tlnuacrorl e 'ra14ed V,, 'lxau aql ol uosrad juoutorl elqsup ool arp faql leql sg,,spop!,, to uspllfr spsarg to qtnry 'egerrufsolp,tq8q are,fu$ terfl sl-fal spsarg fq pa1sa88ns oslb-a^prafons ag feu sapnua Fluaul q?hrl u! asuac Prltn V '9 IErlssEIJ aql's1datuo7 lo fuoaq1 prlssnl) aql sp uruorq q leq/n Jo spaudopaap ro,o1 suonjeal sb uaas aq usj sldaeuot to saljoaql lsotu 'Jaqloue ro rte*r auo ui *o14y{ag pua sldatrn) 'I'Z strdauo7 to frnaq1 prtssvl) eql '7 'lldaruot Jo arnleu aql lnoq rtus o1 a^pq sldaruoj Jo salroaql 1uqm 8u1ru1suot to sr(e/r^ rnot SulisnrslP,(q raqlasol spuerls asag Jo aluos Sqrg ll,arrr '(L 'eas) uolpas St4pnpuoe aql ui 'papuedxa aq ubf, arnpruls pnldaruor Surpru8ar suoqdo aql qtq/vr q spadsar Jo raqurnu E uopueru il,arrr 'tfert aql 8uo1y 'sldaruoj ro alqlrqs atfi lnoqe {es faql leqt ul raslp ssrnslp III,r,r a,r,r lprn salroaql aql 'lsraua8 ui 'silmods raqlo dpq oq sfern Surslrdrns ui papllua aq ure sldaeuor to lunojrp auo ol >peq arerl lstll_ sadrnosar_a{l Jo aruos f1reu"4g 'qdaruol to /tuoaql l(ue ltpeau o1 asuapqr praua8 s luasard l(aql raqler Itroaql a18ugs? ol pap l,uale suralqord aruos letll 'aldurexa roj 'aas 'Paumsse 1,a14 uago q sb raqloue auo ruorj lruhslp sp fpeau l,uars {"ql lnq _'aret f3ul sua_l.qora eql pue suollelllou 4aql w raglp d",11 'd8o1oq1fsd pue,l(qdosopd 'srgsps -ur1 ur suorssruslp ul fltruaupuord arn8g 1eql a^lj qsnotll lror't IIF am,'sallastueql.1 sldaruo) to safoag aql ol trlnl ^ ou rrpj a { 'f,ew aql to lno salruuju4lard asaql qllm e'suogpluasardar arb sldaruoc rpqm o1 Eugprorf,B 'a8bsn prpologlfsd prpprqs olloj ol anulluor ^ l,arn-suoppluasardar lquaru aql q Palsaralul /tpruu -pd are a/n ajuls pus-1u1od spn uo uolsnjuoe r(ue aq l,upaau araql {upll alr aruls 'sldaruor pallsr aq pporls qre4sqp aql ro suolleluasardar raqla]{rr aleqap Prl?ol -oujuual " *,il aroru aplll s,;1 ttoloq{sd to uslpuolleilasardar aql WFn sldar -uof, Jo lunorre prlrldosolrud puoqlpsq aroru aq1 Supl{yoe 1o ltean slql ua ID 'sldaruor Sqlunp1lrpq rot suollrpuor aql to ilsd appord faql luogeluasar -dar pluaur ad& o1 dpq sasuas '/,;eur slr{l q 'ool sasuas a^eq Plnorvl (1un9rre pu18po spsarg uo 'sprol qiii suolleluasardar FNau'quara;ar rlaql sb sagradord PrrB spafqo Itlppom tqaeq ol uoq1ops ut 's! lsr11 'suolleuasardar asaql to sanle^ 4luetuas aql sb u! aruoj plnola sasuas 'sluanlpsuor rp{l se-qdaruor-suollquasardar raqlo a^eq leql suopetuasardar Fluau ualol aaioaui plnom sapnlqle puonpodord raqlo pup splpq 'pporu sfil uo 'Plnor aq leql s1 'asrnot to 'ramsup aql 'sasuas PUB suon lrluaiariar pluaur Surrtoldrua 'sfe*r qloq ll a^eq plnor ilasulltl a8arg Fql?q/vl to uoqsanb aql raplsuor fpo peau auo 'sfil aas oi fq8$l8f1 ol usatu suea3arg lerll BpBqsqe aqtr rot alor B apnpard o1 lubau l,usl a8esn sql ]pg 'sldaeuot suon -pluasardar asaql 8u1pr u1 a8esn persolopdsd /vrollot ol lprqeu fla4lua aq Plno,vr,Eulssarord 11 pcleoloqrdsd Jo salroaql q suogpluesardar Fluau to alor aq1 uaal8 puv 'suollsluasardar leuatu aq l,usj sldaruor fqrn uospar ou aes arvt lroqs ui s'alqsaleqs Suraq to asuar ".ll q a^lpafqo Sqaq urog -"ql dop l,usaop s1q1 'palelo$ al,a,lr qpsre;n1 puu a)uams-i I

7 Concepts and Cognitive Science 9 Theory holds that most concepts-especially lexical concepts-have deffnitional skucfure. What this means is that mo.st concepts encode necessary and sufficient conditions for their own application.s Considet for examplq the concept BAcHELoR. According to the Classical Theory, we can think of this concept as a complex mental representation that speciftes necessary and sufficient conditions for something to be a bachelor. So BACHELoR might be composed of a set of representations such as Is Nor MARRTED, rs MAIE, and s ANr ADULT. Each of these components specifies a condition that something must meet in order to be a bacjrelor, and anything that satisftes them all thereby cowrts as a bacjrelor. These components, or feafures, yield a semantic inteqpretation for the complex representation in accordance with the principles of a compositional semantics. T[is conception of concepts has a long history in philosophy. The seventeenthcentury philosopher Iohn Locke seems to be assuming u *t"tsion of the Classical Theory when he gives his account of the concepts strn and cor^o (169A11975, pp. 2gS-299 and p. 317, respectively): [TJhe ldea of the Sun, What is it, but an aggregate of those several simple ldeas, Bright, Hot, Roundish, having a constant regular motion, at a certain distance from us, an4 perhaps, some other... [Tlhe greatest part of the ldeas, that make our complex ldea of Gold, are Yellowness, great Weight, Ductility, Fusibility, and Solubility, in Aquo Regia, etc. all united together in an unknown Substratum...e On the Classical Theory, most concepts-including most lexical concepts-are complex representations that are composed of structurally simpler representations. What's more, it's nafural to construe their structure in accordance with the Containment Model, where the components of a complex concept are among its ProPer parts.lo Some of these components may themselves be complex, as in the case of BACFTELoR. But evenhrally one reaches a level of primitive representations, which are undeftned. Traditionally, these prir.nitive representations have been taken to be sensory or perceptual in character, along broadly empiricist lines. It is, of course, an oversimplification to speak of the Classical Theory of concepts, as though there were just a single, unitary theory to which all classical theorists subscribe. In redity, there is a diverse family of theories centered around the idea that S. By -application" we mean a semantic relatioru that is, a concept encodes the conditions that are singly necessary and lointly sufficient for something to bi in its extension Another sense of the term is to indicate a psychologrcal process in whicjr an object is judged to fall under a concept. We'll try to avoid this ambigurty by always using "application" in the semantic sense, rrrless the context makes it very clear that the psychological sense is intended. Notice, then, that in the ftrst instance we have characterized the Classical tl,uory in semantic terms. This doesrt't mear however, that the theory is devoid of psychological import See the discussion of concept acguisition and categorization, below. 9. Locket views about natural kind concepts are complicated by the fact that he took nafural kinds to have both a nominal and a real essence. For Locke, the real essence of a kind like gold isn't known, but the nominal essence ir, *d must be, in order to possess the corresporrding concept. Arguably, howevet he takes the nominal essence to give necessary and suffcient conditions for the application of a kind concepb since he holds that the nominal essence is deftned relative to the real essence in such a way that the two kack one another. 10. It's naturat, but not mandatory. Alternatively, one could think of a classically shuctured concept as a node that stands in inferential relations to its deffning features. The advantage of the Containment Model is that it makes especially dear which associated concepts are its defining features and which are incidental.

8 s'r arp,rpur il,am,aurnro^ luasard"n'ffi:ffihrff#,1$iil,"j'il;;"":"#1ff1]['"1;l;if"?frtllt '( g-t,g'dd'6g6tlztod sellr/n derue3,,'e8en8us-i to qsfpuy per8o1 q8norql srpfqdelaru to uolleunu{g aqj-, u1 'detuef, JIopnX raqdosopqd uuuuag frnluae-qlanua/q FlruanlJul aql q uoglsod srqi to alejo^ps luarar ajoru letl/uaruos V " "tue$ lnoqu suollujado urno sll luog Jo 'asuas p spafqg ruog raqlla pe{ ll lpql '*rpl raqlasol SuJup[ puu Sugeadar l(q 'yps ll ol saurert SulpuulsJapull eql sb 'qens fpo pf are 'spu!ru u/no rno Jo uogerado fue uro{ Jo 'asuas uroj, ruaas l(eur f,"ql Jalaos aloual,vtotl 'seap1 e$upqu $ou ew uerulal '(ggt' d' Sl.6tlO1gtl twpuapteryn uawnh Eryuat -uo) frasrg uy ul ll lnd a{ro'i urlof sy 'sldaruor frosuas Jo )pols lpurs fplqepr B to suual q peuljap aq p1no^ pua aql q sldacuor IIB 'Aet* sfil ui 'sarqea, asog sagslles l! asu u1 pnf ldaeuoe xalduoc '^ au aql rapun s11e, Su.qtraulos p{l f,en E qrns tn salqpa, lue aler aql se1urodroeur 1eql ldaruor xaldtuor B salqurassb ratueal ag tuaul -uo4lua ra{ u.r aplarroj sa!iladord asa{l fbrvl ".il p"tllou Suyrug 'sapuasupuoj lpl -uauruorl^u? spagar leql fe^ p q paurof arp suohpluasardar 4aql leql os parolluotu ale sallradord frosuas 'uopdaerad qsnor{i '8ul^ olloj aql ati Sulqlaruos s! lp allrre alvr laporu ag 'pnldarrad ro rftosuas arp sarnlpat a^hllrr.ud 1eql uoltrepdlls raqpry eql ppe a ^ 'rtroaql prlssul) aql to uolsral lspr4drua aql ql1rr aruepro)re u! J1 'sarnlea; s11 Sullqurasss ltq ldaruor B sarpbre raur?al aql araq A auo q uolllsjnbre ldaruor ;o Iapou prnleu aql uaql 'uollprlrdde sy roj suolllpuof, luaplgns pw d.ressarau aporua lprll sarnleat ro trno llpq uollepasardar xalduo) s s! ldaruor e;1 uorlrsmbty flatuo2 'suual pnldarrad ro &oeuas u1 'agpsod I tolluelpde 4aql rot suolllpuot lueplttns pue fressaru,o 1as s aporlp lsrn suoquluasardar Fgaru parnpuls a.re (qdaeuor JE lxq 'dsa) qdaruot tsohl tuoaq1 prfsal) alli r xog 'suorlplqoru pnuqsqns E! pue froa{i lprlssplj aql lno qsag o1 sdlaq li aruls 'slunolle asa{l /naller,$npq ilp am '(ItZ raldeqrj 086I 'lb p 'V 't 'ropog aas) sluau -lnuwor tlssq EI urort flparp /vlou tplt{r'lt Jo IIP 'uolleuluuapp aruararar Pue 'luaur lplua rpfpue 'uollprggsnf epualqda 'uo11uz1ro8a1er 'uo111qnbee ldaeuor ro slunojre pagfrn SuJrago 'sarrnosar froleueldxa lryrarviod seq /fuoaql aql lpre8ar q81q qrns ul ppq uaaq froaql lprtsspl3 aql sprl fqm'r(soloqrfsd ul so/6r aql pue '{qdosopqd ug s0g6l aql Ulun l,uaram snlels sll ol sa8ualpqe snolras ls4j aql pul/,r'([aurnlon brul ul U ralduqrl nil o1eld aas),qpbllue ol 1rpq albp froaql aql to spadsy 'froaql lprlssul3 aql to ailpufuopard prlrolsfl aql alulsrelo ol lpr.grtp aq ppo/t ll 'saltrradord frosuas Sulssardxa sarqpaj pasodruoe flaqerullp are strdaruoe p{l /nall pppldula plqs aql pauopwqe a^sq Jo slsfoaql prlsspp luarar fuu;41 :aar8esgp slsfoaql prlsselr qrltl&t uo lulod auo Fn[ uoguau oi 'saruaragp rp{l ;o fueu urort Aellre spe4sq" l?rll lunojts pazllbapl ub s1 qdacuor ro froaql Frlssel3 aql ilpr a/n leqm 'arnlf,ruls lpuolllugap a sq sqdaruor s1p8rery pue aruarns-i OI

9 Concepts and Cognitive Science 11 In the case of many words, speciftcally in the case of the overwhelming maiority of scientiftc words, it is possible to specify their meaning by reduction to oih"t words ("constitution " definition). E.g- "'arthropodes' are animals with segmented bodies and jointed legs."... In this way every word of the language is ieduced to other words and ftn"lly to the words which occur in the so-called "observation sentences" or "protocol sentences-"l2 In the face of repeated failures to analyze everyday concepts in terms of a purely sensory base, contemporary theorists have often relaxed the strong empiricist assumpti,on that all simple concepts must be sensory. I"I example-, Eve Clark (1973') sees the process of acquiring the meaning of a word like 'trother" as comprising several stlges where semantic components get added to an initial representation. In the earliest stage the representation consists of only two components: *Manr, -ADULr. In subsequ"ni stages, -ADULT is changed to tqourr, *slsunc is added, and *necpnocar. is added. In this way, a representation for "brothey'' is gradually constructed from its constifuent representations, which collectively provide a definition of the word and distinguish it from related words, such as 'boy." Though these components may not be primitive Clark isn't comrnitted to the idea that further decomposition will always lead to purely sensory congepts. In fact, she says that many words, especially relational terms, require possibly irreducible features that encode "function"l,,o.ial, or cultural factors" (p. 106). Similarly, the linguist and philosopher Ienold Katzwrites (J:972 [chapter 4 in this volume], P- 4O), ttlhe English noun -chair- can be decomposed into a set of concepts which might be represented by the semantic markers in (a.10): (4.10) obiect, ftryscal NoN-uvING, ARTIFACT, FURNITURE, PoRTABIJ, SoMETIIING wlrh LEGS, SOMETHING WITH A BACK, SOMETHING WITH A SEAT, SEAT FOR ONE. He adds that these semantic markers-or features-reguire further analysis, but, like Clark, he isn't committed to a reduction that yields a purely sensory base. No doubt, a component-by-component model of concept acquisition is compellilg even when it is debached from its empiricist roots. The simplicity and Power of the model provides considerable motivation for pursuing the Classical Theory. Categorizntion The Classical Theory offers an equally compelling model of categorization (i.e., the application of a concept, in the psychological s ose see note S). In fact, the model of categorization is just the ontogeny run backwards; that is, something is judged to fall under a concept iust in case it is judged to fall under the features that.o*pote the concept. So, something might be categorized as falling under the concept charr by noting that it has a seat, ba& legs, and so on. Categorization on this model is basically a process of checking to see if the features that are part of a concept are satisfted by ihe item being categorized. As wilh th-" g"t eral_model of.ot."pt acquisition, this model of categorization is powerful and infuitively appealing, and it's a natural extension of the Classical Theory. fz. Thnoughout we'll ignore certain differences between language and thought, allorring daims about words to stand in for daims about concepts. Carnay's account is about the semantics of linguistic items but otherwise is a useful and explicit version of the Classical'lheory.

10 luoor aql q rpq? s sr araql (gt'r) (err) rrrory sa)uarajul aql Jo,QPIP^ aql to uolleuuldxa aru?s aql q?nul saa18 (Zt ed zp>l 's1sr(pue JaPun're1nu1s aq ol 1no tunl (f) pue (g) snql'uo oj pup'oxluuvlarml 'Nvm sldaruor eql salerqdr4 luql ernpruls Fuolltugap surl uoritrrrvs trdaruor aql lzril SupupP,tq '(s) Sulssassu ul PFolvl aql q {ool l,upaiu auo dqrvr st4eldxa froaql PlIssBI) aql 'fpn1s pcfolopos B -op ol sstl auo JI sb lou s,ll 'uatu arp srolaqf,?q leql,lolaql? q,, lo ttryrearu aql to iled sl ll lerll pe; a{l fq paalubren8 ag ol sruaas lnq parror fpo lou q (S) ul aruaraju! aqj. 'trelu P q qlrus os 'rolaq?eq P q qlnus (g) :(g) rapfuo) 'uollrdvs ldaeuor aql q arnlpralll rtreroduraluor aql ui tq{ -ruuxa palp flappra lsoru aql to au6l raqlo aql q '41/tl -Err? $atu8pnf aql angua I aser auo aql ui 'll qllt uolpauuor u! puep PaaPu saop 11 qsnoqlp 'y ldaeuoe aql apflno sa{ g. ro :y qdacuor slql q Paurcluor (fpraaor) q q?h^ -8u1q1"*os se 'y pafqns ag o1 ssuopq g aprlpard aq1 ra$g, 'luauupluor pttld"i ro" se flpgr(f* to lunorf,? s,llle) Ianueunul ul ParnldP tt lhpn (1ettB to uon -daruoc sfll to rpnn 'suual luanlgsuor sll;o ssujuearu ag /[q patrqlssarau q qlrul sl! aser ul isnf rljrtp.n ag ol ua14 uaaq suq luarualels ro arualuas P PtrB '8t4treau uo paspq aru pg saruarajul aq o1 ua{e uaaq a^pq sajuarajul eg^rtpne 'fgeuoplp"rl,,'uplrl Palrruurun, 'flaureu '(I) u1 aseqd fa1 aql ;o Supreau ag ol 1ruq arerl ol sruaas aaluerens q$ 'raaoaro;41 'aspuard aqt r({ plaltnrens ol sruaas usru B sl tllfu5 ptll uolsnpuor ag '(Z) $l$m '(r) ui "q 'ueru p q qlfus os'raryil-lr{8pm " q qlfus (z) 'tretu s q rnfus os 'usru palrrbtuun u? sl tllltus (f) :(u) Pus (f) ul saruarajul aql uaamlaq aruarafllp +rurgptls e sl alag dpanruul 'satuaraln rgfpue {ppadsa leuaurouaqd rrluaras Jo flalren e upldxa ol dl[qe sll q e9"qf Isrlssul) arn rot uorl?anoru luuilodul raqlouv satuanlul t11fr1mty Wa nwtlnryuv.{s!r enuapgda a1lil rlll/vr samparord aluc[drul sdatrs ryql Jo safas e ol sarnpar -ajuaps Jo sldaeuoe,,pjparoaql,, aq1 Supnpyl-sldaeuor Pale-rllduroe ro pe4sqe rot uoll?rglpnf 1eql q lfsar ajl 'f,llaualqordun aq pa-soddns s! s?rqua-t a^h -ol -Fiqra s,firuo" e rc! anparord uoperggan aql 'salpadord rfuosuas ssardxa ldaeuoe qr?a to sluaqllsuor alaufln aql leql PaumssP uauo s,ll atuls Puv JIa't^ sp PagsllBs s1 faeuor pau$ap ag 1eql bu$luart-oj qtmourelupl q pagslles arp quauodrtor esaql r".ir suy(tlra",iair"- aqi Jo uohluqap? apford lderuor aql olu! ralua luql sluauod -ruoj aql arqs '(g9 'd 'liotlzssl),,; ",s&el palulol seq t,,'f,poq paluau8as B sbtl 4.,Ieurlup rre sl 4 rrrrot aql Jo sasfrard ruor; alqljnpap,, s!,,apodorqlr ub sl r Sqql aqltj uuo, aql Jo arualuas e JI apodorqlr? rre ag 'r u1q1 e_8uqe4 u1 pagnsnf are aan leql _ol yed s1 (aaoqe) durue3 ulort uolplonb aq1. rrrpfa*i rq aseisbd. ra8rel e "r"qlo pagsllbs a.rp quauodtuor Surugap sll raqlaq/u EqnanrrlapP fq ldaruor ual18 p rapun IpJ ol uall ue Suupl q peggsnf aq Ppor auo letll sl EaPI a{i.uollprggsnf cpuafslda;o froaql B se ltuld plnor ll alor aql pazlseqdura osle a Brl &6qf prlisu13 aql to salbrolp? pegqdosopd to raqumu V uouat{1lst I tynpldt slp8rery pus aouams'i ZT

11 Concepts and Cognitive Science to (4.t4)-(4.2I) (4.14) There is a physical object in the room. (4.1,51 There is something nonliving in the room. (4.16) There is an artifact in the room. (4.T7) There is a piece of furniture in the room. (4.1S) There is something portable in the room. (4.19) There is something having legs in the There is something with a back in the room. (4.2I) There is a seat for one person in the room. According to Katz, all of these inferences are to be explained by reference to the concept charr and its definitioo given above as (4.10). The deftnition is supposed to be tnderstood in Kantian terms, by supposing that the one concept contains within it the other concepts that secure the inferences-artrfacr, physrcal o& recr, and so on. The only difference then between (1) and (3), or (1) and the inferences from (4.13) to ( !'), is that the logical form of (f) is manifest, whereas the forms underlying the other inferences are hidden.r3 Refrmce Determination One of the most important properties of concepts is that they are semantically evaluable. A thought may be true or fdse, depending on how things are with that portion of the world which the thought is about. In like fashion, an item may fall under a concept or not, depending on the concept's referential properties. When someone categorizes something as a bir4 for example she may or may not be right. This is perhaps the most basic feature of what is called the normatioity of meafting. lust because she applies the concept srrp to the item (in the sense that she judges it to be a bird) doesn't mean that the concept truly applies to the item (in the sense that the item is in the extension of the concept nno). The referential properties of a concept are among its most essential properties. When one acquires the concept RoBrN, doing so crucially involves acquiring a concept that refers to robins. And when one draws an inference from RoBrN to n A BrRD, or rs AN Ar{rMAr, one draws an inference about robins. This isn't to say that reference is sufficient to distinguish behnreen concepts. rrrancr,rrrr and rmnrrner refer to exactly the sirme dass of mathematical objects, yet they are different concepts for all that. And in Plato's time one might have believed that prery and AcrrNG rn A way rhar rs ple^&srng ro rhe GoDs are coextensive-perhaps even necessarily coextensive-but that doesn't make them the same concept. Thus Plato can sensibly ask whether an action is pious because it is pleasing to the gods or whether it is pleasing to the gods because it is pious (19SI). That concepts have referential properties is a truism, but an important truism. A clear desiderat"* on a theory of coniepts is that it should account for, or at least be 13. If (1) is considered to be a logicd truttr" then much the same point can be put by saying that the Classiel Theory explains the other inferences by reducing informal validity to logical necessity.

12 .augap ol pu?q fpuraqxa are sldaeuor pg sl 'taaairaog 'uolpas pasard aql ro tuajuoj aq1 'atuapadxa pailu4l rno uaag8,op erl s? q?nru se l oud! uh, a*r luorl qlp s! ruajuo) s,flsruoq3 {996I) dlsuoqs upon ltq auztr aru"s aql ua!8 sl qrlq ^ anss! us tilpr pasryuor aq l,uppotls tualqord sppld [tt:l a^ l?tlm 'SI -aqdaqrorssa,r',*,,,,0:""t;tff"x"f, Jlff :ff ihhtliilffhjl:,fij,fi TffiF,J:; pufl luapuadaptr;-pu.nu e sl p4q lou rc Jaqpqru spptl uo1lrupstp sp11 '8uor^ aru nor{ sar4lautos 'P4q e sl 8u1q1auos lsrn lyfll nof uaq,rn ry8p are nof saruparuos 'quau8pnl aqqt Pue arul uaart4ag aruara#lp aql q uo Flsu! ol lu?,r a { leql uollrullslp q?rr arf,l '$aryor luasard aql q parqdqru are faql lnq tqdosolh{ u! sansq IEFra oquor pue dop oqul de1 sruatuot s,goptrape( 'il Sqzrynldaruor;o s[e,n rno to,{puapuad -apq fprjgn splxa ppo^ aql qrlq^ o1 Sr4proris auo 's4s/tqdqau parro)tt! tt? ol PaH are suollou pafpr raqlo pue gru1 pup aruarajar 1afl $fufll aq truql s1 uograloo ttt?tu s,ttopua)p?f 'fiatunlo s$ll ul 91 raldapl 6961l pu? (166I) gogra:1ret,qf ^8'a 'aag'aar8esro s&rqlo 1nq tunlerapfap rpap sl slt1l leg fes am 'ti " frosuas to la^al aql ol nsop fue sn SuJrq a)po"i l(q palsa88ns auo aql sp qjns suoglu -Uap lprll realr uala l,usl ll '(196I 'V '[ topog {aumloa sfn ul 91 raldyqrl g6l''le la Suoqsuuy) paruasqo aaeq sroqlne lpralas sv'sluauoduroo rfuosuas 1dur1s olu! u/vrop ldaruor aql Suuearq 'slsl(leue aql aplduror ol Mor.l sttolaqo fiq flu sl ll 'flaleunilojun 'Jlastunr ol lno a{pul ol alqs aq lnq loutrbr a{?ps uaaq sbq lpq/yr luoj' 'tpflrvl lauo xaldulor sfil oluj sao8 treql 'aepl aldrurs repdgred frana to uolleraurnua alnulru arotu p ql!^ uih alqnorl o _tapeax fut ol ssausnolpel a lsuajjo tre aq nq lou Plnor ll puv $aaf[ a1du4s;o dn aperu sl li let{l '^ aqs o1 q8noua sl PIes a Eq I lbt{m :aft7 s IIpr arn,'aapl xalduror 1urfl ;o qsfpuy aql q DqlrEJ fue o8 1ou Paau 1 rygl I '(ggt'd1 sppe ag 'raleadg aql to pu$r aql q are 'ro; pusls daql *th aql lptfl aslmraqlo 'uoj1e8au ro uogpuusrp fq raqla8ol 1nd susf asoql 'V 'svdpl asog ;o susrs a{l spro^a asoql 'E 'raryadg aqt to pqru aql v saapl ulera) 'z 'spunos alpimhry 'I ppor{s sluauodruor srr lpq' to q4ills s saajb 'ur rrrffir"it'htrjjffrfi';1ffi"1 'sernlrlrls pphdrua WFn ajrrpprojjp u! suual rtrosuas ro pnldarrad q paqjnor ag ol a Eq faql JI dppadsa,ltq aruor ol lprrgtlp z(geuoqdarxa uaaord a^pq suolllu -ga6 'suopprsep,tup l,uare fldrugs ara{l 'strdaruoj lsolu rot 'letil s1 froaql prlsselj aql lsule8e paplal uaaq seq 1eql rualqord tlspq lsoru aql sdeqra; s{ilelqotd 1oyld 'froaql lsrlsssl) aql FutpSu paspr uaaq e^bq gql surslrllfr rrlbru aql to xls ls lool il,am.) ro/r^ ol appru aq l,upr /troaql lprlssbl) aql suollrerllp sno!^qo sll to aqgds q l?ql 1aa; fueru pue 'urslrllpr asualul ol papalqns ueaq seg froaql aql taaaaroq 'sreaf luarar ui 'uogerap1suor snolras se/uasap op ol sasluord froaql lerlsselj aql s" qrnul sp op tier lptll froa{l,fuv suouu{ag uo4 pe4ey eql 'T'T 'Jaraod fropueldxa s,froaqg prissbi) aql sagprn lpq^^ s! uoppuruualap atuararar to lunorru sll 'ldaruor E Jo a)uarajar aql saunurapp letn arnpn4s puoglultap aql,o suual u! paulpldxa ilp eje uo os pus 'uoprzposaler 'uolltsmbre ldaruo) 'suollel$our raqlo s,froaq; prlssplj atfi {lfa saqsaru 1; fplp rvrotl sl lunorre sltn Jo padde aql 'saporua arnpruls sll lern suollrpuor a{l f;sqes lutll s8urql asoql 1sn[ sluasardar ldaruor? 'sl lpr{i 'uollnuap sll f;spes lprll s8m4 asog ol srarar ldaruol e 'r(loaql p)lss"l) aql ol SurprorrV rr'sldaruor to salpadord Flluara;ar a{l 'tllp a[qgedtuor slptrery pup aruarnu'i VI

13 Concepts and Cognitive Science 15 concepts than the concept under analysis. Are the concepts snnercrn, AFFIRMATIoN, NEGArroN, or STANDTNG FoR really any closer to the sensory level than the concept ue.16 Even putting aside the empiricist shictures, however, there are few, if any, examples of deftnitions that are uncontroversial. Some of the most intensively sfudied concepts are those connected to the cenhal topics of philosophy. Following Plato, many philosophers have hied to provide definitions for concepts like xr'rowrndce, IUs rrcq coodness, rrurh, and BEAUTv. Though much of interest has come from these attempts, no convincing deftnitions have resulted. One of the more promising candidates has been the traditional account of KNot^rL- EDGE as IUsrrFrED rrr,re BEUEF. But even this account is now widely thought to be inadequate, in particular, because of Gettier examples (named after Edmund Gettier who ftrst put forward an example of this kind in his 1963 paper "Is ustified True Belief Knowledge?"). Here is a sample Gettier case (Dancy 1985, p. 25): Henry is watching the television on a fune afternoon. It is Wimbledon men's finals duy, and the television shows McEnroe beating Connors; the score is two sets to none and match point to McEnroe in the third. McEnroe wins the point. Henry believes justifiably that I I have just seen McEnroe win this year's Wimbledon ftnal. and reasonably infers that 2 McEnroe is this year's Wimbledon champion. Actually, however, the carireras at Wimbledon have ceased to function, and the television is showing a recordi.g of last year's matc}. But while it does so McEnroe is in the process of repeating last yeay's slaughter. So Henry's belief Z is true, and surely he is iustifred in believing 2. But we would hardly allow that Henry knows 2. Notice that the signiftcance of the example is that each condition in the proposed analysis of rnowr..edge is satisfted yet, intuitively, we all know that this isn't a case of knowledgu. Philosophers concemed with the nature of xr.rowrocn have responded in a variety of ways, usually by supplementing the analysis with further conditions (see D"ncy 1985 for discussion). One thing is clear, though: Despite a tremendous amount of activity over a long period of time no uncontroversial deftnition of KNowLEDGT has emerged. Nor is the situation conftned to concepts of independent philosophical interest. Ordinary concepts have resisted attempts at deftnition as well. Wittgenstein (1953/ 1955). famously argues that the concept came cannot be defrned. His argument consists of a series of plausible stabs at deftnition, followed by clear counterexamples (see the excerpt reprinted as chapter 6 in this volume). For instance, he considers and rejects the proposal that a game must be an activity that involves competition (counterexample a card game such as patience or solitaire), or that a game must involve winning or losing (counterexample throwing a ball against a wall and catching it). 16. Arelated point is that many concepts seem to involve functional elements that can't be eliminated (e.g., it may be essential to chairs that they are designed or used to be sat upon). These predude a deftnition in purely sensory terms. Cf. Clark (1973), quoted above, and Miller and Iohnson-Laird (1976).

14 .arpu sasud rpzrrralqord 'rmao saq?lsruslru qrns lptn luaga aql oi 'Ppo A aql lnoq? Moll)l aftr pq,l tl$etu,{payrad l,usaop lprll Japour aapp or pszl1',eapl,, u" ol Pxzllnelat s! uohlrrqap aql lz$ lnq uollruqap? serl uo.erlrvx lsql sulelr4bur aq 'ragu[ 'r(um lerfl saeuc ffiqt pear ruu s.fqlo q8*$ trt{l IB4ssBI) aql q saldruuxaralunor apilfuor q[ aql pu? uorrtdvs ryql suhslsq lsnf ueql Parcgdruo.r aroul sl uojlpod sgo:p1 tsrlt pps Hnoqs ap1 {[aurnpn sgl ul 8I raldapl 1f,6D to)f I PIIB (U86I) arout111g aas 'SI 'Iguorn 4$rsuas e o1 Eqmo a{ lou fetu ssauppo aql 1nq qsru$q?d qg s$lud_opsuqaqlml luql 8uy(es T"q PPo tultbaluor s! araql rpaelra3.uoprj ipuurterd,*r$ raqlur '4rlwd p Su.nreatu aql ruo{ $uaf salduexaralunot qq ro arrot aql pql reap pu si!,repcpred q 'froaql FcFsep aql ol ac1trsn[ op lou feu uolssnrslp s,rcpo{ 'r.rpt ag ol 'Lr 'arnlrruls PuoHlultaP ) JPI sldaeuor rno asnef,aq al?flruot ol prerl aru suorllt4tap letfl aq ol atuor seq aruaps aaprusor to qrnru ul uolrrdsns aql 'SaHIrrrIJJIP qf,ns to lpsar P sv srlsrea/l rot tlllm pa^[ s?q aq ruoq/6 raqred trual-8uol B tnyt ueru palrjettrun ue si laosruj uosulqou q Folarppq p ado4 aql sl 'palsaluoj uaaq _seq (r.rvrt omruvhtnn : xoiiildys) uo111u1 -trp p qrrm ld"euor e to aldurexa agutusgpured aql uaaa 'saldurexalalunot ol aununul luaas Ja1au suonpgap pasodor; :sangoprc s,olpld ul pafe4rod sb 'srolnr_olra$l,salerro5 ol pareadde jleq feul ll sp arups aql qrnur q uolrenlgs a{l lng 'Pasoddns seq auortue usql rapreq qrnu s! uoglultap E 8qzlpads ;o paford aql leql q aug 'suo!l$ -gap alqlsneld Jo )pq aql rot suospar to raqumu l(ue aq PFot ara{l 'asrnor 19 pu' suoplugap pasodord ro uorssarord ssalptrnoq e pnf-ruat, ", i[:"llt:::ilti; b.rg1""; "q1 -airq f"- auo Ptre 'q8noua PBq seq_ropod 1u1od sfil lv qsruqlqud tq to dn -aq1-sugutsd l,ust aq?e$ Ip roj trnq?qud _qtvn rfruqlryd th Jo 4t aql ralor ol s! uo!ilalq,fueur.ud sh'luled aql q qsruqlupd sq sdp opsrrepq?u{ uaq ^'salou ropod sv 'srualqord sil lnoqlpt l,uq uolltugep sfil uala laa 'JNIvd I{lrM,(, uiu\oj or $ iijrwjsm SlHr Nt NOrJJ\rsIr.II ruvhlrud sx qnv JNrvd r{ilm I do ldvduns il{r srllaoj ITIVNoLT -NirlNr X onv rnaev rw $ X # fpo pup JI,f, amuva;6 :uolflugap 8uy'ro11ot a111 lttl 8m4 -auos le a^lrrs a/vr lunorre olu! uolpugqp srutr Surxet 'Sq[ar ag lulud pu uqrar aql uo arnlejd aql luled sbaa op 9l papualu! qfetpd n,{ lpqryl 'uorrualu! s,olasue frldiia[ Wpn ag ol srueas rualqord a{i 'lufd $Fa Sqpar nt Sqtnlor fgeuohuaili rlni qbtroql uala 'arul q IHI '8u1gae aql uo arnqr;d e Sqluled sern aq pdeq3 "q aqls$ aql,o -8q1pe aql Sqlqed l,use^ ola8uelaqtgl1 'srles_topod sy 'q8noua l,usl ol ruaas sffl ua a pa 'lulud,nl- aru;rns aql sre^oe fgeuollualq lua8e aql leql Paau am.uaql palupd l,ualuq nof '1qred Wp,r saoqs r'rau rnof raloj ltqaraql Pu? 'lupd to p>1rnq p ralo :ppl tua8e tre 'nolt 1 'raqla lro/fr l,usaop uohlugap sfil lng 'rnlvd Hilrn,1 do idvdllfis itr{t suil o) X ot{v JI\n9v tw st X tl fpo PUP il L 4ttwa X_:sPJoll Jaqp.r1.1.rJBe a{l to suopre atfl to lpsar s sp os saop lupd u! paraloe sp8 leql arefln: arn pup parrlorrq aq o1 spaiu rya8e ub lall sg 8u1s_sp aq ol _suaas luqu 'psodord piippo iql lb af,uelsq u? q aser aql plt-srolppads ag lulpd l,usaop uojsoldxa aql io,fuop"l nqr-dnnnrvd Jo aruplsul rru sb lunoj l,usaop sfll 'lupd ui sjolepads aruos sralor plre sapoldxa /ftopq lured B JI ''Luva'ldaeuoe a{l rapun tqpl 8ug;auos rot uoprpuor luapgjns B apl^ord o1 s1je, ll lsql sl {ro^ l,usaop uoqpqap sfil uosear auo l?rn sarisre ropod '(916l ra[[lhl uo pasbg) luva HrIM I sril of, X :q sraplsuor aq uoq$ltap 1s4t aql,'lrr.red,, trnou aql ol Supuodsarror 'rhrvd trdaruor aq1 's8utp rag! Suoruri,rpn uala pauljap aq lourrpj {rxrva lpql /vtotls ol salq eq s? 'thyruejp_ alfb q aldurexa slopod',,'l.i["d,, qjaa a Hlstruq at1tr ol SupuodsarJor 'q$trva trdaruor aql rot spsodord prarras sraplsuor (rgor) ropod,{rra[ 'llrlds aures aql qrntu ui sqosrery pue aruarns-i gi

15 Concepts and Cognitive Science!7 The Problem of Psychological Reality A related difficulty for the Classical Theory is that, even in cases where sample deftnitions of concepts are granted for the pu{pose of argument, defrnitional strucfure seems psychologically irrelevant. The problem is that definitional structure fails to turn up in a variety of experimental contexts where one would expect it to. In particular, the relative psychological complexity of lexical concepts doesn't seem to depend on their relative deftnitional complexity.le Consider the following example of an experiment by Walter Kintsch, which has been used to try to locate the effects of concepfual complexity in lexical concepts (reported in Kintsch!974, pp It is based on a phoneme-monitoring task originally developed by D. f. Foss, where subjects are given two concurrent tasks. They are asked to listen to a sentence for comprehension and at the same time for the occurrence of a given phoneme. When they hear the phoneme, they are to indicate its occurrence as quickly as they can, perhaps by pressing a button. To ensure that they continue to perform both tasks and that they don't just listen for the phoneme, subjects are asked to repeat the sentence or to produce a new sentence that is related to the given sentence in some sensible way. In Foss's original study, the critical phoneme occurred either directly after a high-frequency word or directly after a low-frequency word. He found that reaction time for identifying the phoneme corelated with the frequency of the preceding word. Phoneme detection was quicker after high-frequency words, slower after lowfrequency words (Foss 1969). The natural and by now standard explanation is that a greater processing load is introduced by low-frequency words, slowing subjects' response to the critical phoneme. Kintsc} adopted this method but changed the manipulated variable from word frequency to definitional complexity. He compared subjects' reaction times for identifying the same phoneme in the same position in pairs of sentences that were alike apart from this difference In one sentence the phoneme occured after a word that, under typical deftnitional accounts, is more complex than the corresponding word in the other sentence. The stimuli were controlled for frequency, and Kintsch used a variety of nouns and verbs, including the mainstay of definitional accounts, the causatives. For example, consider the following pair of sentences: (1) The doctor was conoinced cnly by his visitor's pallor. (2) The story was belieoed gnly by the most gullible listeners.2r This ftrst test word ("convince") is, by hypothesis, more complex than the second ('telieve"), since on most accounts the ffrst is analyzed in terms of the second. That is, "convince" is thought to mean cause to belieoe, so that cohmnce would have BEuEVE as a constituent. Kintsch found that in pairs of sentences like these the speed at which the critical phoneme is recognized is unaffected by which of the two test words precedes it. So 19. The reason the focus has been on lexical concepts is that there is little doubt that the psyehological complexity associated with a phrase exceeds the psychological complexity associated with one of its constituents. In other words, the psychological reality of deftnitions at the level of phnases isn t in dispute. 20. For related experiments and disctrssion, see I.A Fodor et al. (I9S0 [chapter 21 in this volumed, and I. D. Fodor et al (1975). 21. Italics indicate the words whose relative complexity is to be tested; underlines indicate the phoneme to be detected.

16 lsrn SuppHl ui pagpsnl aq o1 ';daruor p{l Surnlonur qq8noql rot Yolle gttrsnt;o uoplpuor e saplaord gdaruoe e lo qsltpue ro uohlugap aql lpql eapl s,duure3 Pulqaq s1 ure ord srql '8u1ueaur qr apnord aruaq pue pagua aq PFolta luarualels B tlrltl/vl repun suonlpuor a{l armas ol alqe aq ppoqs srsfpue elprn8u[ FoFd e 'uaq1 'lta1n sfll uo.gopd p u/r^oml arotaraql pue a8bnsuel p to suopualuor_aql /tq Paxg_are letll saiaololnsl arp saqnqr[fue lpql uribir ol spm uohnlos,sls!^lllsod aq1 'punor8 aql ]t_o pb oi uersord aloqan Jq1 rc; rapro ul pue p;8u1ueau aq ol rapro ul snlqs rluratrslda ppads e papaau u(aql 'uopenrasqo qtnorql alqegga^ sa^psuaql lou are sahlrll lltp* lnoqg spp, ajuls 'suonlpuor a_lqe^rasqo podar flparp lptll aso{l PUP a)ua -pid*" tuory paaoruar are feg saserqd ro suolssardxa asog uaa^tpq asppq P sp IJP ol aran sapnjy(lsus lpql q '/qljllr(pup uodn puadap ol Pasoddns se,rn 'utnl ur 'uoper -glran.uollerglral to suoprpuor sll tlll/vt pag$uapl_a_q ol ss/vl luauapjs P_ ro tulueaur aq1 araqnn,alqugpaa ara^^ lerll sauo aql ag ol pasoddns ara^ suohlsodgrd lryeurueaul,flqsnox.sauo (FrSuprau ro) aupua8 pu? suolllsodord-opnasd ssa18ulueau uaa/vrl -aq uorpullslp sil ul fqdosop{d sll to raluar fraa aql ;e fi1rufpue lnd Peq lpitlm,uriprglsod prpol ;o luarussassp pageap pup tplr e salnlnsuof, PtrP.;uaunSre ;o saul pralas sa^lo q anbgue s,aupq 'gl.otlug6t'9/6119g6l auln$ 'dsa aas) {ro/t{ palqar pue [aurnlo^ srql ul g raldeqrl,,urspfldurg ;o suulsog omj,, u! uollou aql,o inblip snorust qaup$ 'O 'n'm ol [1a8re1 8uy*o q /qlrnr(f* lnoq" ursppdals 'froaql IBrlssBI) ou q ara{l lgpnrtsup lnoqllm 'sapppfleup papodrnd Jo uolpailor P ol Punoq flqur -lqxau! si ldaeuor B ;o srsl(pue drana aruls B se froaql aql uohsanb olq sller "1oqan 1g rageu 'froaql lprfsplf, aql roj uollu^llour paplos! up asuageqr_fpraq ltsaop l!?q8p sl ruspplrc sfil tl 'asmor JO 'r(ue l,ualp arag 'pe! u1 'asneraq Surureldxa armbar l,uop sallnqfpue lpql Surn8re l(q uojleljloru sfn lrurapun ol slule lxs!]lllrl luasard a{i 'saruarajul r1y(pue flplradsa?uaruouaqd epueuas snofpn qeldxa o1 l$11qe qi kq dlged- pale^lloru sl {roaq1 [BrrssEI) aql l"tll uaas aa,am 'slfaru froleueldxa sl! uo ltpnrg Esar froaql prlssq) agl rot uaprnq aql 'arnlrruls IPUoHlt4raP rot aruap -1na prpoloqrfsd ou pup ratto uo saldurexa rvral qltm fi11t11fr1utv Io walqo4 aw 'sralrpnb raqlo urort aslrp lprll slqnop aql ol sppp 11 'froaql IPrlssPI)_ aql lsup8e plod anlsnap B suparu ou fq sl sfil auqm 'froaql IsrIssEIJ aql,o poddns u! atuap -na Jo )pq aql arorsrapun op il ati sraqlo PUP ltpnts _s,tpsluj) 'ttlts 'allqns aroru a{ ol spq arqrruls pnldaruor to uogespsalul lbilaulradxa aql sa oqs_arqf,nqs ttll pnlaaeuor to lapou a^nprualle ub to /q$qbilb^b aql 'salpnls Sulssarord q tpsll lsajluplr ol papadxa aq l,uppo/n $galdwor lsuon1ugap uag 'lapolrrl lenuarajul aql,o sau{ aq1 Suolu poolsrapun ara/n arnpruls pnldaruo_r 'Pualsu!?l '(PPoru luatr -ulpluo) aql "z!a) asoddnsard suollesnsa^q Fluau.uadxa asaql letll alnljrult Pt l -dar-uojp iapo* aql uopu?g? ppof, slslroaql IprlssBIJ 1lam sp alq"llsl? s1 asuodsar,o pupl luaratjlp raqlpr e 'f18u11saralul 'llun Sulssaeord e s? uohf,ury daql leql os 'ajuplsq ro;,,?a{unq+, aq ry81ur suonlugap urssarord patje ol suollggap,o arnllej aql rot paratto aq ppor suonpupldxa raqlo 1etll alqssod s,11 teprqred ui 'aq o1 lqtno froaql l?rlssq) aql to srapuatap papro^ rvrotl 'ranarnoq 'snopqo pu s,ll 'paga a^pq ol araql qou ar,faql l"tll s1 Supsaeord pagp l,uop suonrugap uosuar aql :par ^ue flprrsoloqefsd l,uare suolllugap 1eql s! llet slt! ro, uo11",re1dxa lprnlsu aql 'puol Sulssarord ralears flanqelar E arnpojlul l,uop xaldruor arour are plpard slunorrp puoplugap leq (sldaeuor Surpuodsarror PUE) spro/vr aql s;p8re61 pu? aruarne1 gi

17 Concepts and Cognitive Science 19 spiders are artluopods one need only verify that spiders are animals, have jointed legs, segmented bodies, and so on. The theory that analytic statements are tautologies also helped the positivists in addressing a long-standing difficulty for empiricism, namely, how to account for the fact that people are capable of a priori knowledg" of factual matters even though, according to empiricism, all knowledge is rooted in experience. Mathematics and logic in particular, have always been sfumbling blocjcs for empiricism. The positivists' solution was to claim that logical and mathematical statements are analytic. Since they also held that analyticities are tautologie+ they were able to claim that we can know a priori the truths of logic and mathematics because, in doing so, we don't really obtain knowledge of the rvorld (see, e.g., Ayer ; Hahn ). As is clear from this brief account of the role of analyticity in logical positivism, the positivists' program was driven by epistemological considerations. The problem was, assuming broadly empiricist principles, how to explain our a priori knowledg" and how to account for our ability to know and speak of scientific truths that aren't directly observable. Considering the vast range of scientiftc claims-that atoms are composed of protons, neuhons, and elechons, that the universe originated from a cosmic explosion 10 to 2O billion years "Eo, that all animals on Earth descended from a common ancestor, etc.-it is clear that the positivists' program had huly enonnous scope and ambition. Quine's attack on the notion of analyticity has several components. Perhaps the most influential strand in Quine's critique is his observation, following Pierre Duhem, that confirmation is inherently holistic, that, as he puts it, individual statements are never conftrmed in isolation. As a consequence, one can't say in advance of empirical inquiry what would conftrm a particularstatement. This is partly because cotrfitm"- tion involves global properties, such as considerations of simplicity, conseryatism, overall coherence, and so on. But it's also because conftrmation takes place against the background of auxiliary hypotheses, and that, given the available evidencg one isn't forced to accept, or reiect, a partictrlar statement or theory so long as one is willing to make appropriate adjustments to the auxiliaries. On Quine's reading of science, no statement has an isolatable set of conftrmation conditions that can be established a priori, and, in principle there is no guarantee that any statement is immune to revision. Some examples may help to darifu these points and ground the discussion. Consider the case of Newton's theory of gravitatioo which was confirmed by a variety of disparate and (on a priori grounds) unexpected sources of evidence, suclr as obseryations of the moons of upiter, the phases of Venus, and the ocean tides. Similarly, part of the conftrmation of Darwin's theory of evolution is owing to the development of plate tectonics, which allows for past geographical continuities between regions which today are separated by oceans. This sarne case illustrates the dependency of conftrmation on auxiliary hypotheses. Without plate tectonics, Darwin's theory would face inexplicable data. A more striking case of dependency on auxiliary hypotheses comes from an early iugument against the Copernican system that cited the absence of annual parallax of the fixed stars. Notice that for the argument to worh one has to assume that the stars are relatively close to the Earth. Change the assumption and there is no incompatibility between the Earth's movement and the failure to observe parallax. There are also more mundane cases where auxiliary hypotheses account for recdcitrant data for instance, when college sfudents attempt

18 Qret) opgnbegg Ve (966I) prmurol aas lloutdvs'1dar -uor IEE lssup rgetuslpered,,n uala ;o sagradord Sulugap aql 1noqp uaryfltu aq ol lno uml iltlrrl arlr l?tn quarun8re rcd16tot) asrng aas u.npear-.re1algnb'ppj u'are nroperaplsuoj asa{l luql quaurnsre tod 'ZZ, -ret$ $ apnlllle slrfl letn realr fpreq s,ll 1aA 'alpry sl suoplugap rot tule aql letll smor,ls-luaru.rradxa lq8noql lptllsblrls, B Jo suolllpuod rapun rtpo Jl-luauralels fraaa fpeau,o flqlqesllar ppualod aql lptll si lq8noql aqj. 'snlels tfual -sgda rpql ;o ssalpresar 'uuo; ltrns u1 sasdletrp puoqpgap ;o prgdols aq o1 sraqdo -sogqd /tu?ru pal sptl lq8noql to uoprarlp sffi 'ssa1 ro aroiai 'fupnns ol dn ppq ilf,qphqbue papodrnd ou sdeqrad uaql 'suollrauuor pnldaruoj asaql Jo uolpafar aq1 rot lvrolp sparudolaaap letparoaql il 'f1n1trfpue to uogou aql PuaraP ol q{ PFo^ otlm aso$ otr Sulqrnlsp aq l(eu (" ' rvrsr^r Morrit t ) cloo Jo (" ' ldtir/jsicl rsrruohs + ) lnn JnervuJs aryl saldtuexa ol suogeraplsuoj s,aup$ to uolsualxa s,ureulnd 'nns 'atuaps ;o yed Jaqlo fue q stulep s? uojlstrf,rguojslp to sa$ruq -1ssod aures aql ol uado are prre sptrnor8 Foualsod e uo paqs[qslsa aq ol are sahlrll -rtp* papodrn; 'alsq ol ll {ool slsllrlrsod aql lptll aeuerryuels pe;8o1oruap1da aql to auou sprl lprll auo lsnf s,ll luoqrullslp ]Haqlu[s-rqdleue alqeual dpea;rad u aq pp feu arag 'sr(bs aum$ lerll Ip rot 'q lpql '(766t tppliroh q.goi l(uolqrr) sryo^ uralsfs pnldatuof, upurnq aql pw a8er,8*l lprnlbu lpql l(e ^ aql Sulqlr]saP ui uonou Iryasn pup alqpl^ B aq ol anulluor 1q8;u euop twuaau to an74a u! eut ss PoolsraPun z(ldrugs,lpnr$u\y' 'uaprnq froluueldxa sfil ol Pan aq l,upaau d1pliltp re to uopou aril 1ng 'leg slpt urersord lqnqpod aql os 'sluaurdolaaap F"n"toag arnlry rrort papalord aro;a.raql pue lrolrd E arul ag ol u/r^otdl are p{l sluaualep aq l,wf, araql uatn 'uorsrlar ol armunul q luarual?ls ou l"ql il8lr sl aq il puv'uonptgfa to suoplp -uor alqeelosl 'egpads asaql qsrrqqsa l,uut auo uag 'epsqoq q uoll?uf,rguoj l?tn il8p s1 aqn[ ti 'sapoaql rgpuaps to sluaualqs aql rot uollergfa^ Jo suolllpuor alqslelosl 'egpads r{sllqelsa upr lerll pup lsal pefldrua urort papfsul ars letfl lrolrd p u ^otnl aq uer lprll sluerualpls ar? ara$ lpql eapl aql pupse 'reidilrpd ul trersord pepolouaplda,sls!^nlsod aql u1 sfeld,lpnltpue pg alor aql lb paparlp [p8re1 s! anbgpe s,aup[ 'aldrujs os l,usl ansq aql 'talarnog 'sarjnbar froagl IeJlssPI) aql 1eql dban aql q alqpusap aq l,uplnor qdaeuoe lpql uearu sql leql pue uolpuhslp rlpqqufs-rrtrfpue alqpual ou q arag lprll Sqrnnoqs q papaarrns sptl aufo letll Plotl sraqdoso[qd aruos lqdaruo] to froaql [ErlssBIJ aql uo reaq sfn Ip saop /vtoh ", sldaeuor r"llprrt Suoure sappgfleus Jo saset ;saq aql ati pdlool a^pq iltfr asp^raqlo pqrl Surxearq fqaraql 'sleur.rup l,uare slsj tetll ro ^aol -pr( l,uarp suoual ro plo8 lpq! 'alretrsu1 ro; 'raaojslp plnoj ar* letll pat St an,{a{i 'sapalorslp f,gtl$aps alqlssod la {lpearq aqt a1eqsnill truql saldurexa 8qu. eur ltq suoperaplsuor asa{l papualxa a^bq sraqlo pus usulnd 'arour s,lpql\a 'Vg0l u?ulnd aas) eslg q ll l?ql aas /vrou rrer a ^ lnq?alqnop aq uer lbtll Strypautos aq ol lno sunl fpo lou ll 'droaql IeJISoptusoJ frerodualuof, pue saljpluoas aapetualp to lxaluor ag q 1aA 'aq ppoe due se ajtdas sb pauaas a Bq lfetu sjniod omr r.iittt,uits idrwjsro J.s{ruoHs il{r pub irnn Jr{onru,Is uaa/qaq uojpauuoj aql 'ueapipna l,usl asja^ -!un rno lpql uarrre lrarror l,usl lbtll uonlugap e-slqod o/vtl uaa/vqaq artrblslp lsa -lrorls aql sp au11 lqsle4s p to uolljugap aql s! a)uaps to fropq aql urort s/r^erp lsql aldurexa rlsselr V 'sluaurdopaap lerllaroa{l papadxaun,o lxaluor aql q uopubqb ol lpuollpr s,ll l?rll auo ag ol 1no trrnl t(etu uolpa[ar uort aununul aq otr sruadde pq1 aldpqrd e 'pazlseqdrua *{ rueulnd,fusllh se,(lf ld 'spajta aruarajualu! to raqunu rtue to asn"jaq lpsar Euorvr aql 1e allrrs o1 fpo luaulradxa prlsfqd e aleendar o1 slp8re4 pue atuarnrl OZ

19 Concepts and Cognitive Science 2l ranted. Its appeal may stem from payrng too much attention to a limited range of examples. It may be that the cases Putnam and others have discussed are simply misleading; perhaps the concepts for the kinds in science are special. This would still leave us with thousands of other concepts. Consider, for example, the concept KILL. What surrounding facts could force one to revise the belief that killings result in death? Take someone who is honest and sincerely claims that although he killed his father, his father isn't dead or dying. No matter what the surrounding facts, isn't the plausible thing to say that the person is using the words "kill" and "dead" with anomalous meanings? At any rate, one doesn't want to preiudge cases like this on the grounds that other cases allow for r visions without changes in meaning. In the ftrst instance, Quine's critique of analyticity turns out to be a critique of the role of the Classical Theory in theories of justification, at least of the sort that the positivists imagined. To the extent that his arguments are relevant to the more genlrd issue of analyticity, thafs because the potential revisability of a statement shows that it isn't analytic; and many philosophers hold that this potential spans the entire language. Whether they are right, however, is an empirical question. So the issue of what analyticities there are turns on a variety of unresolved empirical matters. The Problem of lgnorance and Enor In the t97ils Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam both advanced important arguments against desniptioist views of the meaning of proper names and nafural kind terms (Kripke 19721T980; Putnam t97o [chapter 7 in this volumel, 1975).23 (Roughly, a descriptivist view is one according to which, in order to be linguistically competent with a term, one must know a description that counts as the *"*ing of tl" i"rtr, and picks out its referent.) ff correct, these arguments would apparently undermine the Classical Theory, which is, in effect, descriptivism applied to concepts.2a lgipke and Putnam also sketched the outlines of an alternative positive account of the meaning of such terms, which, Iike their critical discussions, has been extremely influential in philosophy. Iftipke and Putnam offer at least three different types of arguments that are relevant to the evaluation of the Classical Theory. The frst is an argument from error. It seems that we can possess a concept in spite of being mistaken about the properties that we take its instances to have. Consider, for example, the concept of a disease, like *,reu-pox. People used to believe that diseases like smallpox were the effects of evil spirits or divine retribution. If any physical account was offered, it was that these diseases were the result of "bad blood." Today, however, we believe that such people were totally mistaken about the nature of smallpox and other diseases. Sayrng this, however, presupposes that their concept, smalrpox, was about the same disease that our concept is about. They were mistaken because the disease that their concept referred to-smallpox-is very different in nature than they had supposed. Presumably, then, their most fundamental beliefs about smallpox couldn't have been part of a definition of the concept. For if they had been, then these people wouldn't have been wrong about smallpox; rather they would have been thinking and speukit g 23. For arguments that similar considerations apply to an even wider range of term+ again, see Burge (te7el. 24. Again, we will move freely from daims about language to daims about thought, in this case adapting Kripk& and Putnam's disorssions of natural kind terms to the corresponding concepts. For an interesting discussion of how these arguments relate to the psychology of concepts, see Rey (19S3 [chapter 12 in this volume}.

20 rlaql salnlgsuor rpp{rvr Inos 1epalerutu! up a Bq ssupq uerunq leql ajra[aq aldoad aruos 'ztlasuauul frbrr supumq ;o u18uo pus alnlsu aql uo s/urala _spldoad 'suaddeq ll sv 'enrirs r{vnnh ldacuoo aql raplsuo) Jrydlaq aq {81ur aldruexa raqlouv 'uoqputtlljalap ajua -ratar al?rpaw lou op suoqulrap leelssele 'prauas u1 sldaeuor pupl lurquu rot 'letll s1s-a88ns sfli 'paulurralap q ll otl ^ to lunorrp raqlo aruos Paau a/n 'suolllqtap /tq palppau lou sr sldaruoj raqlo asa{l to ajuaratar aql_il puv 'lou op sraqlo fuew le_tll ffn fli sruaas ll 'uolsualxa parror s aufrualap ol uaddeq qrf{rvt suollrugap Palua:ardar,tipiualu! a^sq spupl prnlpu ro; strdaeuot rno to aruos il ua^g 'aq fl81tu arrt Suorm Morl ro?noqs Suorrvt aq lq8pu arvr strdaeuoj tltfrr^,,1 ou)l l,uop arn fe{l s1 tarramoq lugod prauas aql '({rpl pfot ldaruor aql Jo saruelsul ;etll aut8etul ralau aslmraqlo plnom a^ lprn iagradord uogsanb o1 qdrualle faql asneraq flaspard; uoquupeurl to {rlarls e jlpb arpbar sauqauos safols asar{i 'Nohtil't Jo '$rl 'oroc a1p qdar -uor d:uqpro qll/n pelprlossp arp leql sagradord alqelfsseun lsotu aql ua^a lnoqe Suouvr aq lqsfu alvr tr{orl to salrols fq papedruojre uaryo are seapl asag to suolssm -sl6.rorra u1 flmolras spm 'xodlpus ati 'puq e,o arnleu aql to SqpuulsraPun rno lpr{l ro 'sn ol luaratjp alfb readde tqspu 'saruplsllndrlt raqlo tpun?pb lpql ralor -spl rr?r am ';noqe {ufll arvn ssuql aql lnoqp spet au luelrodul tueal uet a^ letil ^ uopln1ul aql q {rom s,upulnd PuB s,a1dp; Puqaq suollellloru Eupgp aql to auo 'letll IIE rot PpB ilhs sj se8 -p-s?-plo8 1af 'alqs snoases B ul salpadord pnldarrad )Hslralrsreqt raqlo PtrE rolor sl! asol saop ll sb 'plot $1r'r arusfunillr lsrlpqlodr(u e augsuul ol Paau uala l,uop arvt paapul 'rolor snolnard sll 1rq fldrqs plno/vl 1r lasrnor ;o 'p1o8 aq ilhs PInoM,n1s aql pp8,o-sahradord raqlo snolrel aqferu pup:rolor aql rall? PFo/r^ ll araqdsourtru a{l qsnorql asryjlp ol ara se8 anau atuos ^ 1 sdeqra; 'pp8 Wrn alplf,osse flpnsn arn fe{l sapradord raqlo ro rolor f,llspappretlr_ sll a^pq lou Pporvt plo8 qrlqm Japun sajuelsurrujp au.r8urur llarn /Qpa;rad uer arvr 'alduexa a{l a8ueqe o1 'snq1 'spej Ieporu aql ol argsn[ op ol Uet 'slq8n urrro rp{l /tq' 'qrlq^^ sauo are ldaruor P {llnn alslf,ossu flpeupro aldoad 1eql suo!ilpuor a{l rot saleplpuee lsaq aql l:tll sl tala -rr or{,uralqord n 11 'sa)uelsurnrrlt lunpuuou 'alqlssod snolrel u! ol fldde Ppo/vt ll lprlrr^ osf lnq pupls fgenlre s8u1ql ss ol salldde trdaruor aql leqfn lsnl lou saufrualap 11 ldaeubr e jd uollp4ldde aql rot suoqlpuor ilalrgrns pus rtressarau uo11gu _sapnord -gap paluasardar fprualu! * il 'luarun8re ppour B sj luaurnsrb;o_ad$ P4tn aql 'a Bq +I8gr sasptuou,1cbi PuP lq8gr sassr IBar 1eqi sagradord-saltrradord rgeruoldurfs /lprau $pn Ual aq o1 d1aryl are arvt 'asnpr PtrP arnl?u [Bar q! se xodlprus to sanradord lpltruj q?ns luasardar otr Surnst,(g '8uo1aq op lerli s8uql Supnpxa fq pus 'uolsualxa a{l ur 8uo1aq lou op leyi s8u1q1 8ur -pnpui ltq qldq 'ldjruoe aql roj uo_lsuelxa Suoraa aql aururapp ol flat.,l are ldaruor aql qlp salpposse fgenpe uosrad u lptll suoqlpuot aql 'uo!l?)!ld{u q1 rot suohip -uor 1ualrllJns ro freisarau Sqluasardar 1noql1lr{ ldaruoe p ssassod ol alqlssod s,lr lpql asoddns ol suosear Sqlpduor luasard rorra pup ajtrsrou8l urort sluerun8ry 'r$oq s,lsotl aql uo surspresro asaql,o patta lesnpt aql,o lpsar aql_are ase_aslp aql to stuoldtufs aw 1eql pue lsorl " Jo,Foq aql aplsul sraqumu 1ea u1 dldppu l_ptll surspre8ro IIBurs to uolssfrsusrl aql ltg pasner s1 xo{prus leq'aldruexalot:xodpuls Jo senn -dord Frlru:, Jo raqumu E lnoqe luerou8l aram ped aql q aldoad leql PPP ry8lru a/\^,aldurzxa aurbs aql qlyyr Eu.rnqluoJ 'ejupjoust ruory luaun8re up,l(pureu taqloue s1 parun8re p ad$ srul ol palelar [pso13 'luau[le alqgssod raqlo atuos lnoqe qp8rery PUP etuarm'i zz

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ).

1.- L a m e j o r o p c ió n e s c l o na r e l d i s co ( s e e x p li c a r á d es p u é s ). PROCEDIMIENTO DE RECUPERACION Y COPIAS DE SEGURIDAD DEL CORTAFUEGOS LINUX P ar a p od e r re c u p e ra r nu e s t r o c o rt a f u e go s an t e un d es a s t r e ( r ot u r a d e l di s c o o d e l a

More information

B y R us se ll E ri c Wr ig ht, DV M. M as te r of S ci en ce I n V et er in ar y Me di ca l Sc ie nc es. A pp ro ve d:

B y R us se ll E ri c Wr ig ht, DV M. M as te r of S ci en ce I n V et er in ar y Me di ca l Sc ie nc es. A pp ro ve d: E ff ec ts o f El ec tr ic al ly -S ti mu la te d Si lv er -C oa te d Im pl an ts a nd B ac te ri al C on ta mi na ti on i n a Ca ni ne R ad iu s Fr ac tu re G ap M od el B y R us se ll E ri c Wr ig ht,

More information

Frege s theory of sense

Frege s theory of sense Frege s theory of sense Jeff Speaks August 25, 2011 1. Three arguments that there must be more to meaning than reference... 1 1.1. Frege s puzzle about identity sentences 1.2. Understanding and knowledge

More information

1. Oblast rozvoj spolků a SU UK 1.1. Zvyšování kvalifikace Školení Zapojení do projektů Poradenství 1.2. Financování 1.2.1.

1. Oblast rozvoj spolků a SU UK 1.1. Zvyšování kvalifikace Školení Zapojení do projektů Poradenství 1.2. Financování 1.2.1. 1. O b l a s t r o z v o j s p o l k a S U U K 1. 1. Z v y š o v á n í k v a l i f i k a c e Š k o l e n í o S t u d e n t s k á u n i e U n i v e r z i t y K a r l o v y ( d á l e j e n S U U K ) z í

More information

C o a t i a n P u b l i c D e b tm a n a g e m e n t a n d C h a l l e n g e s o f M a k e t D e v e l o p m e n t Z a g e bo 8 t h A p i l 2 0 1 1 h t t pdd w w wp i j fp h D p u b l i c2 d e b td S t

More information

Rhetoric of the lmage

Rhetoric of the lmage B Rhetoric of the lmage ROLAND BARTHES ccording to an ancient etymology, Ihe word image should be linked to the root imitari. Thus we find ourselves immediately at the heart of the most important problem

More information

1/9. Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas

1/9. Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas 1/9 Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas This week we are going to begin looking at a new area by turning our attention to the work of John Locke, who is probably the most famous English philosopher of all

More information

',ffi.. The Cause of Moon Phases

',ffi.. The Cause of Moon Phases The Cause of Moon Phases 79 Figure 1 shows Earth, the Sun, and five different possible positions for the Moon during one full orbit (dotted line). lt is important to recall that one-half of the Moon's

More information

THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT

THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT Michael Lacewing Descartes arguments for distinguishing mind and body THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT In Meditation II, having argued that he knows he thinks, Descartes then asks what kind of thing he is. Discussions

More information

Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature

Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature Campus Sustainability Assessment and Related Literature An Annotated Bibliography and Resource Guide Andrew Nixon February 2002 Campus Sustainability Assessment Review Project Telephone: (616) 387-5626

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers Key Questions & Exercises Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Answers 1. The atomic weight of carbon is 12.0107 u, so a mole of carbon has a mass of 12.0107 g. Why doesn t a mole of

More information

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010 Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010 Class 2 - Meditation One Marcus, Modern Philosophy, Spring 2010, Slide 1 Five dogmas undermined by the new

More information

FedEx Ground Rates. Effective January 7, 2013

FedEx Ground Rates. Effective January 7, 2013 FedEx Ground Rates Effective January 7, 2013 Introduction FedEx Ground shipping services provide you with dependable, cost-effective, day-definite delivery for packages that don t require the speed of

More information

General Philosophy. Dr Peter Millican, Hertford College. Lecture 3: Induction

General Philosophy. Dr Peter Millican, Hertford College. Lecture 3: Induction General Philosophy Dr Peter Millican, Hertford College Lecture 3: Induction Hume s s Fork 2 Enquiry IV starts with a vital distinction between types of proposition: Relations of ideas can be known a priori

More information

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry

Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Chem 115 POGIL Worksheet - Week 4 Moles & Stoichiometry Why? Chemists are concerned with mass relationships in chemical reactions, usually run on a macroscopic scale (grams, kilograms, etc.). To deal with

More information

Last time we had arrived at the following provisional interpretation of Aquinas second way:

Last time we had arrived at the following provisional interpretation of Aquinas second way: Aquinas Third Way Last time we had arrived at the following provisional interpretation of Aquinas second way: 1. 2. 3. 4. At least one thing has an efficient cause. Every causal chain must either be circular,

More information

Does rationality consist in responding correctly to reasons? John Broome Journal of Moral Philosophy, 4 (2007), pp. 349 74.

Does rationality consist in responding correctly to reasons? John Broome Journal of Moral Philosophy, 4 (2007), pp. 349 74. Does rationality consist in responding correctly to reasons? John Broome Journal of Moral Philosophy, 4 (2007), pp. 349 74. 1. Rationality and responding to reasons Some philosophers think that rationality

More information

Lecture Notes, October 30. 0. Introduction to the philosophy of mind

Lecture Notes, October 30. 0. Introduction to the philosophy of mind Philosophy 110W - 3: Introduction to Philosophy, Hamilton College, Fall 2007 Russell Marcus, Instructor email: rmarcus1@hamilton.edu website: http://thatmarcusfamily.org/philosophy/intro_f07/course_home.htm

More information

Concept Formation. Robert Goldstone. Thomas T. Hills. Samuel B. Day. Indiana University. Department of Psychology. Indiana University

Concept Formation. Robert Goldstone. Thomas T. Hills. Samuel B. Day. Indiana University. Department of Psychology. Indiana University 1 Concept Formation Robert L. Goldstone Thomas T. Hills Samuel B. Day Indiana University Correspondence Address: Robert Goldstone Department of Psychology Indiana University Bloomington, IN. 47408 Other

More information

SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E-

SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E- SCO TT G LEA SO N D EM O Z G EB R E- EG Z IA B H ER e d it o r s N ) LICA TIO N S A N D M ETH O D S t DVD N CLUDED C o n t e n Ls Pr e fa c e x v G l o b a l N a v i g a t i o n Sa t e llit e S y s t e

More information

How does the problem of relativity relate to Thomas Kuhn s concept of paradigm?

How does the problem of relativity relate to Thomas Kuhn s concept of paradigm? How does the problem of relativity relate to Thomas Kuhn s concept of paradigm? Eli Bjørhusdal After having published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1962, Kuhn was much criticised for the use

More information

d e f i n i c j i p o s t a w y, z w i z a n e j e s t t o m. i n. z t y m, i p o jі c i e t o

d e f i n i c j i p o s t a w y, z w i z a n e j e s t t o m. i n. z t y m, i p o jі c i e t o P o s t a w y s p o і e c z e t s t w a w o b e c o s у b n i e p e і n o s p r a w n y c h z e s z c z e g у l n y m u w z g lb d n i e n i e m o s у b z z e s p o і e m D o w n a T h e a t t i t uodf

More information

Philosophical argument

Philosophical argument Michael Lacewing Philosophical argument At the heart of philosophy is philosophical argument. Arguments are different from assertions. Assertions are simply stated; arguments always involve giving reasons.

More information

Subject area: Ethics. Injustice causes revolt. Discuss.

Subject area: Ethics. Injustice causes revolt. Discuss. Subject area: Ethics Title: Injustice causes revolt. Discuss. 1 Injustice causes revolt. Discuss. When we explain phenomena we rely on the assertion of facts. The sun rises because the earth turns on its

More information

AUS-e-TUTE. Periodic Table Lessons and Activities. ausetute.com.au. Definition of Terms used in this publication: Crossword: Drill: Exam:

AUS-e-TUTE. Periodic Table Lessons and Activities. ausetute.com.au. Definition of Terms used in this publication: Crossword: Drill: Exam: 2012 AUS-e-TUTE Periodic Table Lessons and Activities Definition of Terms used in this publication: requires students to find and enter information, Interactive Learning Activity: then guides them through

More information

SEPTEMBER Unit 1 Page Learning Goals 1 Short a 2 b 3-5 blends 6-7 c as in cat 8-11 t 12-13 p

SEPTEMBER Unit 1 Page Learning Goals 1 Short a 2 b 3-5 blends 6-7 c as in cat 8-11 t 12-13 p The McRuffy Kindergarten Reading/Phonics year- long program is divided into 4 units and 180 pages of reading/phonics instruction. Pages and learning goals covered are noted below: SEPTEMBER Unit 1 1 Short

More information

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F.

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr Ho Bi Ce u Ac I Fl Fr Mo i Md Co P Pa Tc Uut Rh K N Dy Cl N Am b At Md H Y Bh Cm H Bi s Mo Uus Lu P F Cu Ar Ag Mg K Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of cience ducation

More information

Linguistics, Psychology, and the Ontology of Language. Noam Chomsky s well-known claim that linguistics is a branch of cognitive

Linguistics, Psychology, and the Ontology of Language. Noam Chomsky s well-known claim that linguistics is a branch of cognitive Linguistics, Psychology, and the Ontology of Language Noam Chomsky s well-known claim that linguistics is a branch of cognitive psychology (Chomsky 1972, 1) has generated a great deal of dissent not from

More information

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change

CLASS TEST GRADE 11. PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change CLASS TEST GRADE PHYSICAL SCIENCES: CHEMISTRY Test 6: Chemical change MARKS: 45 TIME: hour INSTRUCTIONS AND INFORMATION. Answer ALL the questions. 2. You may use non-programmable calculators. 3. You may

More information

«С e n tra l- A s ia n E le c tric - P o w e r C o rp o ra tio n», JS C

«С e n tra l- A s ia n E le c tric - P o w e r C o rp o ra tio n», JS C J o in t - s t o c k c o m p C E N T R A L - A S IA N E L E C T R IC P O W a n y E R C O R P O R A T IO N I n t e r n a l A u d i t P O L IC Y o f J o in t - S t o c k C o m p a n y C E N T R A L - A S

More information

Topic 3 Periodic Trends

Topic 3 Periodic Trends Topic 3 Periodic Trends Chapter 06 Trends on the Periodic Table Chapter 07 Relationships between the elements CHEM 10 T03D01 How are elements arranged Prior to 1735, only 12 elements were known to man

More information

Phil 420: Metaphysics Spring 2008. [Handout 4] Hilary Putnam: Why There Isn t A Ready-Made World

Phil 420: Metaphysics Spring 2008. [Handout 4] Hilary Putnam: Why There Isn t A Ready-Made World 1 Putnam s Main Theses: 1. There is no ready-made world. Phil 420: Metaphysics Spring 2008 [Handout 4] Hilary Putnam: Why There Isn t A Ready-Made World * [A ready-made world]: The world itself has to

More information

Introduction to Metaphysics

Introduction to Metaphysics 1 Reading Questions Metaphysics The Philosophy of Religion Arguments for God s Existence Arguments against God s Existence In Case of a Tie Summary Reading Questions Introduction to Metaphysics 1. What

More information

Quine on truth by convention

Quine on truth by convention Quine on truth by convention March 8, 2005 1 Linguistic explanations of necessity and the a priori.............. 1 2 Relative and absolute truth by definition.................... 2 3 Is logic true by convention?...........................

More information

Sounds Like Like. Peter Lasersohn. University of Rochester. Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between

Sounds Like Like. Peter Lasersohn. University of Rochester. Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between Sounds Like Like Peter Lasersohn University of Rochester Abstract: It is argued that the verb sound is ambiguous between one reading where it denotes a two-place relation between individuals and properties,

More information

Is there a problem about nonconceptual content?

Is there a problem about nonconceptual content? Is there a problem about nonconceptual content? Jeff Speaks (forthcoming in the Philosophical Review) 1 Two understandings of nonconceptual content.................. 1 2 The case for nonconceptual content..........................

More information

Scope and Sequence - Synthetic Phonics Schedule

Scope and Sequence - Synthetic Phonics Schedule Correspondences () Kindy/Prep/Pre-Primary Kindy/Prep/Pre-Primary Term 1 Basic Code Power 1 Getting to Grips with Handwriting s m c t g p a o I, the, was, to, are, she Reading and beginning to spell Vocabulary

More information

Descartes rationalism

Descartes rationalism Michael Lacewing Descartes rationalism Descartes Meditations provide an extended study in establishing knowledge through rational intuition and deduction. We focus in this handout on three central claims:

More information

ON EXTERNAL OBJECTS By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781)

ON EXTERNAL OBJECTS By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781) ON EXTERNAL OBJECTS By Immanuel Kant From Critique of Pure Reason (1781) General Observations on The Transcendental Aesthetic To avoid all misapprehension, it is necessary to explain, as clearly as possible,

More information

P R I M A R Y A N D S E C O N D A R Y Q U A L I T I E S

P R I M A R Y A N D S E C O N D A R Y Q U A L I T I E S P R I M A R Y A N D S E C O N D A R Y Q U A L I T I E S W E E K 1 1. Overview Week 1: Introduction to the Primary/Secondary Quality Distinction. Week 2: Dispositionalist Views of Colour Week 3: Colour

More information

The Periodic Table, Electron Configuration & Chemical Bonding. Lecture 7

The Periodic Table, Electron Configuration & Chemical Bonding. Lecture 7 The Periodic Table, Electron Configuration & Chemical Bonding Lecture 7 Electrons We will start to look at the periodic table by focusing on the information it gives about each element s electrons. How

More information

P R E F E I T U R A M U N I C I P A L D E J A R D I M

P R E F E I T U R A M U N I C I P A L D E J A R D I M D E P A R T A M E N T O D E C O M P R A S E L I C I T A O A U T O R I Z A O P A R A R E A L I Z A O D E C E R T A M E L I C I T A T с R I O M O D A L I D A D E P R E G O P R E S E N C I A L N 034/ 2 0

More information

COMPARATIVES WITHOUT DEGREES: A NEW APPROACH. FRIEDERIKE MOLTMANN IHPST, Paris fmoltmann@univ-paris1.fr

COMPARATIVES WITHOUT DEGREES: A NEW APPROACH. FRIEDERIKE MOLTMANN IHPST, Paris fmoltmann@univ-paris1.fr COMPARATIVES WITHOUT DEGREES: A NEW APPROACH FRIEDERIKE MOLTMANN IHPST, Paris fmoltmann@univ-paris1.fr It has become common to analyse comparatives by using degrees, so that John is happier than Mary would

More information

The Meta-Problem of Change

The Meta-Problem of Change NOÛS 43:2 (2009) 286 314 The Meta-Problem of Change THOMAS HOFWEBER University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 1. Introduction One of the central problems in metaphysics over the last so many centuries

More information

Montessori Academy of Owasso

Montessori Academy of Owasso Montessori Academy of Owasso 5 & 6 Year-Old Curriculum Academic Area: Language Arts Category: Reading: Literature Subcategory: Key Ideas and Details Element 1:With prompting and support, ask and answer

More information

CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011

CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 CHEM 10113, Quiz 7 December 7, 2011 Name (please print) All equations must be balanced and show phases for full credit. Significant figures count, show charges as appropriate, and please box your answers!

More information

Things That Might Not Have Been Michael Nelson University of California at Riverside mnelson@ucr.edu

Things That Might Not Have Been Michael Nelson University of California at Riverside mnelson@ucr.edu Things That Might Not Have Been Michael Nelson University of California at Riverside mnelson@ucr.edu Quantified Modal Logic (QML), to echo Arthur Prior, is haunted by the myth of necessary existence. Features

More information

A Parents Guide to Understanding. Reading

A Parents Guide to Understanding. Reading A Parents Guide to Understanding Reading Dear Parents, After teaching first grade for many years, I was always faced with the same questions at the beginning of the year: What is Pathways to Reading? How

More information

How is phonics taught in our school? Wednesday 23 rd September 2015

How is phonics taught in our school? Wednesday 23 rd September 2015 Phonics? How is phonics taught in our school? Wednesday 23 rd September 2015 What is phonics? What is phonics? Phonics is a way of teaching children to read quickly and skilfully. They are taught how to:

More information

A Puzzle about Ontology

A Puzzle about Ontology NO ^US 39:2 (2005) 256 283 A Puzzle about Ontology THOMAS HOFWEBER University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 1 Ontology Ontology is the philosophical discipline that tries to find out what there is:

More information

Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University. A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15

Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University. A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 Harvard College Program in General Education Faculty of Arts and Sciences Harvard University A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 A Guide to Writing in Ethical Reasoning 15 Professor Jay M. Harris

More information

Argument Mapping 2: Claims and Reasons

Argument Mapping 2: Claims and Reasons #2 Claims and Reasons 1 Argument Mapping 2: Claims and Reasons We ll start with the very basics here, so be patient. It becomes far more challenging when we apply these basic rules to real arguments, as

More information

Second Grade Phonics Scope and Sequence With Concepts of Print and Phonemic Awareness

Second Grade Phonics Scope and Sequence With Concepts of Print and Phonemic Awareness Second Grade Phonics Scope and Sequence With Concepts of Print and Phonemic Awareness Revised 8/22/13 CCSS CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RF.2.3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding

More information

CODES FOR PHARMACY ONLINE CLAIMS PROCESSING

CODES FOR PHARMACY ONLINE CLAIMS PROCESSING S FOR PHARMACY ONLINE CLAIMS PROCESSING The following is a list of error and warning codes that may appear when processing claims on the online system. The error codes are bolded. CODE AA AB AI AR CB CD

More information

On Categorization. Importance of Categorization #1. INF5020 Philosophy of Information L5, slide set #2

On Categorization. Importance of Categorization #1. INF5020 Philosophy of Information L5, slide set #2 On Categorization INF5020 Philosophy of Information L5, slide set #2 Prepared by: Erek Göktürk, Fall 2004 Edited by: M. Naci Akkøk, Fall 2004 From George Lakoff, Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What

More information

H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew. S te p h a n M a rt in. S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct

H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew. S te p h a n M a rt in. S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct H ig h L e v e l O v e r v iew S te p h a n M a rt in S e n io r S y s te m A rc h i te ct OPEN XCHANGE Architecture Overview A ge nda D es ig n G o als A rc h i te ct u re O ve rv i ew S c a l a b ili

More information

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION (SHORT FORM) # of electrons in the subshell. valence electrons Valence electrons have the largest value for "n"!

ELECTRON CONFIGURATION (SHORT FORM) # of electrons in the subshell. valence electrons Valence electrons have the largest value for n! 179 ELECTRON CONFIGURATION (SHORT FORM) - We can represent the electron configuration without drawing a diagram or writing down pages of quantum numbers every time. We write the "electron configuration".

More information

All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units!

All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units! CHEM 10113, Quiz 2 September 7, 2011 Name (please print) All answers must use the correct number of significant figures, and must show units! IA Periodic Table of the Elements VIIIA (1) (18) 1 2 1 H IIA

More information

Grice: Meaning. In cases of natural meaning, x means that p entails that p; in cases of meaning NN, there is no such entailment.

Grice: Meaning. In cases of natural meaning, x means that p entails that p; in cases of meaning NN, there is no such entailment. INTENTION BASED SEMANTICS Grice: Meaning Grice is proposing an intention based semantics i.e., a semantical theory according to which the meaning of an utterance is explicated in terms of the psychological

More information

Decision of Technical Board of Appeal 3.5.1 dated 21 April 2004 T 258/03-3.5.1

Decision of Technical Board of Appeal 3.5.1 dated 21 April 2004 T 258/03-3.5.1 ET0258.03-042040020 1 Decision of Technical Board of Appeal 3.5.1 dated 21 April 2004 T 258/03-3.5.1 (Language of the proceedings) Composition of the Board: Chairman: Members: S. V. Steinbrener R. S. Wibergh

More information

1/8. Descartes 4: The Fifth Meditation

1/8. Descartes 4: The Fifth Meditation 1/8 Descartes 4: The Fifth Meditation Recap: last time we found that Descartes in the 3 rd Meditation set out to provide some grounds for thinking that God exists, grounds that would answer the charge

More information

Mathematical Induction

Mathematical Induction Mathematical Induction In logic, we often want to prove that every member of an infinite set has some feature. E.g., we would like to show: N 1 : is a number 1 : has the feature Φ ( x)(n 1 x! 1 x) How

More information

Put the human back in Human Resources.

Put the human back in Human Resources. Put the human back in Human Resources A Co m p l et e Hu m a n Ca p i t a l Ma n a g em en t So l u t i o n t h a t em p o w er s HR p r o f essi o n a l s t o m eet t h ei r co r p o r a t e o b j ect

More information

This is because the quality of extension is part of the essence of material objects.

This is because the quality of extension is part of the essence of material objects. UNIT 1: RATIONALISM HANDOUT 5: DESCARTES MEDITATIONS, MEDITATION FIVE 1: CONCEPTS AND ESSENCES In the Second Meditation Descartes found that what we know most clearly and distinctly about material objects

More information

Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics).

Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics). Thermodynamics explores the connection between energy and the EXTENT of a reaction but does not give information about reaction rates (Kinetics). Rates of chemical reactions are controlled by activation

More information

m Future of learning Zehn J a hr e N et A c a d ei n E r f o l g s p r o g r a m Cisco E x p o 2 0 0 7 2 6. J u n i 2 0 0 7, M e sse W ie n C. D or n in g e r, b m u k k 1/ 12 P r e n t t z d e r p u t

More information

Philosophy of Language

Philosophy of Language Philosophy of Language Phil 234, Winter 2013 Bates College Professor William Seeley (315 Hedge) Office Hours: T/Th 11-Noon Course Description: It has been argued that language is what sets us as human

More information

1. Probabilities lie between 0 and 1 inclusive. 2. Certainty implies unity probability. 3. Probabilities of exclusive events add. 4. Bayes s rule.

1. Probabilities lie between 0 and 1 inclusive. 2. Certainty implies unity probability. 3. Probabilities of exclusive events add. 4. Bayes s rule. Probabilities as betting odds and the Dutch book Carlton M. Caves 2000 June 24 Substantially modified 2001 September 6 Minor modifications 2001 November 30 Material on the lottery-ticket approach added

More information

Plato gives another argument for this claiming, relating to the nature of knowledge, which we will return to in the next section.

Plato gives another argument for this claiming, relating to the nature of knowledge, which we will return to in the next section. Michael Lacewing Plato s theor y of Forms FROM SENSE EXPERIENCE TO THE FORMS In Book V (476f.) of The Republic, Plato argues that all objects we experience through our senses are particular things. We

More information

Frederikshavn kommunale skolevæsen

Frederikshavn kommunale skolevæsen Frederikshavn kommunale skolevæsen Skoleåret 1969-70 V e d K: Hillers-Andersen k. s k o l e d i r e k t ø r o g Aage Christensen f u l d m æ g t i g ( Fr e d e rik sh av n E k sp r e s- T ry k k e rie

More information

Copthill School. Information for Parents on Read Write Inc.

Copthill School. Information for Parents on Read Write Inc. Copthill School Information for Parents on Read Write Inc. What is the purpose of this handout? To inform parents of how reading is taught at Copthill To supply parents with clear information on the RWI

More information

W h a t is m e tro e th e rn e t

W h a t is m e tro e th e rn e t 110 tv c h a n n e ls to 10 0 0 0 0 u s e rs U lf V in n e ra s C is c o S y s te m s 2 0 0 2, C is c o S y s te m s, In c. A ll rig h ts re s e rv e d. 1 W h a t is m e tro e th e rn e t O b je c tiv

More information

UPDATES OF LOGIC PROGRAMS

UPDATES OF LOGIC PROGRAMS Computing and Informatics, Vol. 20, 2001,????, V 2006-Nov-6 UPDATES OF LOGIC PROGRAMS Ján Šefránek Department of Applied Informatics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University,

More information

Introduction to quantitative research

Introduction to quantitative research 8725 AR.qxd 25/08/2010 16:36 Page 1 1 Introduction to quantitative research 1.1. What is quantitative research? Research methods in education (and the other social sciences) are often divided into two

More information

Noam Chomsky: Aspects of the Theory of Syntax notes

Noam Chomsky: Aspects of the Theory of Syntax notes Noam Chomsky: Aspects of the Theory of Syntax notes Julia Krysztofiak May 16, 2006 1 Methodological preliminaries 1.1 Generative grammars as theories of linguistic competence The study is concerned with

More information

The psychological theory of persons

The psychological theory of persons The psychological theory of persons Last week were discussing dualist views of persons, according to which human beings are immaterial things distinct from their bodies. We closed by discussing some problems

More information

BARRY LOEWER LEIBNIZ AND THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT* (Received 2 February, 1977)

BARRY LOEWER LEIBNIZ AND THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT* (Received 2 February, 1977) BARRY LOEWER LEIBNIZ AND THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT* (Received 2 February, 1977) I In his comments on Descartes' Principles, Leibniz formulates an ontological argument which he attributes to Anselm and Descartes

More information

Blocks on the periodic table. Atomic weight: This is either a decimal number or a number in parenthesis.

Blocks on the periodic table. Atomic weight: This is either a decimal number or a number in parenthesis. 68 Blocks on the periodic table 11 Sodium 22.99 Atomic number: This is always a whole number. The periodic table is arranged by atomic number! Element symbol: A one or two letter abbreviation for the name

More information

Hume on identity over time and persons

Hume on identity over time and persons Hume on identity over time and persons phil 20208 Jeff Speaks October 3, 2006 1 Why we have no idea of the self........................... 1 2 Change and identity................................. 2 3 Hume

More information

L a h ip e r t e n s ió n a r t e r ia l s e d e f in e c o m o u n n iv e l d e p r e s ió n a r t e r ia l s is t ó lic a ( P A S ) m a y o r o

L a h ip e r t e n s ió n a r t e r ia l s e d e f in e c o m o u n n iv e l d e p r e s ió n a r t e r ia l s is t ó lic a ( P A S ) m a y o r o V e r s i ó n P á g i n a 1 G U I A D E M A N E J O D E H I P E R T E N S I O N E S C E N C I A L 1. D E F I N I C I O N. L a h ip e r t e n s ió n a r t e r ia l s e d e f in e c o m o u n n iv e l d

More information

The Nature of Chemistry

The Nature of Chemistry CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Chemistry Objectives You will be able to do the following. 1. Describe how science in general is done. 2. Given a description of a property of a substance, identify the property

More information

Statistical Foundations: Measurement Scales. Psychology 790 Lecture #1 8/24/2006

Statistical Foundations: Measurement Scales. Psychology 790 Lecture #1 8/24/2006 Statistical Foundations: Measurement Scales Psychology 790 Lecture #1 8/24/2006 Today s Lecture Measurement What is always assumed. What we can say when we assign numbers to phenomena. Implications for

More information

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes rejects all his beliefs about the external world because they are doubtful and he wants to find a foundation

More information

Critical Analysis So what does that REALLY mean?

Critical Analysis So what does that REALLY mean? Critical Analysis So what does that REALLY mean? 1 The words critically analyse can cause panic in students when they first turn over their examination paper or are handed their assignment questions. Why?

More information

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1 Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida The critical reader of a research report expects the writer to

More information

ST ANSELM S VERSION OF THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT Anselm s argument relies on conceivability :

ST ANSELM S VERSION OF THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT Anselm s argument relies on conceivability : Michael Lacewing The ontological argument St Anselm and Descartes both famously presented an ontological argument for the existence of God. (The word ontological comes from ontology, the study of (-ology)

More information

#HUMN-104 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY

#HUMN-104 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY Coffeyville Community College #HUMN-104 COURSE SYLLABUS FOR INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY Mike Arpin Instructor COURSE NUMBER: HUMN-104 COURSE TITLE: Introduction to Philosophy CREDIT HOURS: 3 INSTRUCTOR:

More information

ACE-1/onearm #show service-policy client-vips

ACE-1/onearm #show service-policy client-vips M A C E E x a m Basic Load Balancing Using O ne A r m M ode w it h S ou r ce N A T on t h e C isco A p p licat ion C ont r ol E ngine Goal Configure b a s ic l oa d b a l a nc ing (L a y er 3 ) w h ere

More information

Intervention Strategies for Struggling Readers

Intervention Strategies for Struggling Readers PROGRAM OVERVIEW Intervention Appropriate K 6 Intervention Strategies for Struggling Readers M BA SE G IL LI NG M ORT N- HA O D PRO G RA What is Recipe for Reading? Recipe for Reading is a research-based,

More information

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law

The Periodic Table and Periodic Law The Periodic Table and Periodic Law Section 6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table In your textbook, reads about the history of the periodic table s development. Use each of the terms below just

More information

Honours programme in Philosophy

Honours programme in Philosophy Honours programme in Philosophy Honours Programme in Philosophy The Honours Programme in Philosophy offers students a broad and in-depth introduction to the main areas of Western philosophy and the philosophy

More information

You will by now not be surprised that a version of the teleological argument can be found in the writings of Thomas Aquinas.

You will by now not be surprised that a version of the teleological argument can be found in the writings of Thomas Aquinas. The design argument The different versions of the cosmological argument we discussed over the last few weeks were arguments for the existence of God based on extremely abstract and general features of

More information

ARE THERE IRREDUCIBLY NORMATIVE PROPERTIES?

ARE THERE IRREDUCIBLY NORMATIVE PROPERTIES? ARE THERE IRREDUCIBLY NORMATIVE PROPERTIES? Bart Streumer b.streumer@rug.nl Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86 (2008): 537-561 Published version available here: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00048400802215349

More information

Using Predictive Modeling to Reduce Claims Losses in Auto Physical Damage

Using Predictive Modeling to Reduce Claims Losses in Auto Physical Damage Using Predictive Modeling to Reduce Claims Losses in Auto Physical Damage CAS Loss Reserve Seminar 23 Session 3 Private Passenger Automobile Insurance Frank Cacchione Carlos Ariza September 8, 23 Today

More information

Ch 8 Atomic Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity

Ch 8 Atomic Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity Ch 8 Atomic Electron Configuration and Chemical Periodicity Pauli Exclusion principle No two electrons in an atom have the same set of quantum numbers. If two electrons occupy the same orbital, they must

More information

Letters and Sounds Progression of Skills

Letters and Sounds Progression of Skills Reckleford School Phonics Teaching The Nursery, Reception, Year One and Two classes follow Letters and Sounds phonics programme. The suggested progression of skills is listed below. We also subscribe to

More information

Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley. By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy

Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley. By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy Shokry, 2 One person's craziness is another person's reality. Tim Burton This quote best describes what one finds

More information

EM EA. D is trib u te d D e n ia l O f S e rv ic e

EM EA. D is trib u te d D e n ia l O f S e rv ic e EM EA S e c u rity D e p lo y m e n t F o ru m D e n ia l o f S e rv ic e U p d a te P e te r P ro v a rt C o n s u ltin g S E p p ro v a rt@ c is c o.c o m 1 A g e n d a T h re a t U p d a te IO S Es

More information

Skepticism about the external world & the problem of other minds

Skepticism about the external world & the problem of other minds Skepticism about the external world & the problem of other minds So far in this course we have, broadly speaking, discussed two different sorts of issues: issues connected with the nature of persons (a

More information

CONCEPTUAL CONTINGENCY AND ABSTRACT EXISTENCE

CONCEPTUAL CONTINGENCY AND ABSTRACT EXISTENCE 87 CONCEPTUAL CONTINGENCY AND ABSTRACT EXISTENCE BY MARK COLYVAN Mathematical statements such as There are infinitely many prime numbers and 2 ℵ 0 > ℵ 0 are usually thought to be necessarily true. Not

More information