Instructional Design Basics. Instructor Guide

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1 Instructor Guide

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3 Table of Contents...1 Instructional Design "The Basics"...1 Introduction...2 Objectives...3 What is Instructional Design?...4 History of Instructional Design...5 Instructional Design Models...7 Dick & Carey ID Model...8 Dick & Carey ID Model Phases...9 Phase 1: Needs Assessment...10 Phase 1: Writing Instructional Goals...12 Phase 2: Analyze the Instructional goals...13 Phase 2: Analyze Learners & Context...14 Phase 3: Write Performance Objectives...16 Phase 3: Develop Assessment Instruments...17 Bloom's Taxonomy...19 Phase 3: Develop Instructional Strategy...21 Student Motivation...22 Phase 3: Develop & Select Instruction...23 Phase 4: Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation...24 Phase 5: Revise Instruction...26 Phase 6: Conduct a Summative Evaluation...27 End of Session...28 Page i

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5 Instructional Design The Basics Page 1

6 Introduction Page 2

7 Objectives Page 3

8 What is Instructional Design? Why use the Instructional Design Process? This process provides a framework for thoroughly planning, developing, and adapting instruction, based on learner needs and content requirements. Although this process is essential in distance education, where the instructor and students may share limited common background and typically have minimal face-toface contact, it is also important in traditional classroom environments where new instructional technology is being used to teach. Page 4

9 History of Instructional Design Much of the foundation of the field of instructional design was laid in World War II, when the U.S. military faced the need to rapidly train large numbers of people to perform complex technical tasks, from fieldstripping a carbine to navigating across the ocean to building a bomber. Drawing on the research and theories of B.F. Skinner on stimulus-response learning, training programs focused on observable behaviors. Tasks were broken down into subtasks, and each subtask treated as a separate learning goal. Training was designed to reward correct performance and remediate incorrect performance. Mastery was assumed to be possible for every learner, given enough repetition and feedback. After the war, the success of the wartime training model was replicated in business and industrial training, and to a lesser extent in the primary and secondary classroom. In 1955 Benjamin Bloom published an influential taxonomy of what he termed the three domains of learning: Cognitive (what we know or think), Psychomotor (what we do, physically) and Affective (what we feel, or what attitudes we have). These taxonomies still influence the design of instruction. In the 1960s, psychologist Jean Piaget studied the cognitive development of children, identifying several discrete phases they go through as they grow. Very young children are only able to process concrete, operational information; they are incapable of thinking abstractly, reflecting on the past, or projecting into the future. Older children develop these abilities over time. Learning theories were influenced by the growth of digital computers in the 1960s and 1970s. Many models adopted an "information-processing" approach. In the 1980s and 1990s the growing influence of postmodernism in academic culture began to be felt in instructional design with the rise of constructivist theories. Some of the more radical theorists rejected any Page 5

10 notion that knowledge existed apart from an individual's experience, or that it could be transmitted from a "teacher" to a "student." Some hold that all knowledge is "socially constructed" and that there is no such thing as objective truth. Others merely allow that the learner is not a tabula rasa and comes to the lesson with a unique set of experiences, knowledge, skills, and attitudes; and that fact must influence the design of the lesson. (Wikipedia, 2006) Page 6

11 Instructional Design Models There are several different models of the instructional design available. The basic model is often referred to as the ADDIE model. The ADDIE model is a generic and simplified Instructional Systems Design (ISD) model. ADDIE is short for Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. For this session, we are going to be learning about the model created by Walter Dick and Lou Carey. Page 7

12 Dick & Carey ID Model Brief Definition: The Dick and Carey model prescribes a methodology for designing instruction based on a reductionism model of breaking instruction down into smaller components. Instruction is specifically targeted on the skills and knowledge to be taught and supplies the appropriate conditions for the learning of these outcomes. We are going to briefly discuss the steps in the Dick & Carey Model of Instructional Design. The model may look complicated but it is pretty straight forward. Page 8

13 Dick & Carey ID Model Phases This model can be broken down into 6 phases: 1= Design, 2=Analysis, 3= Development, 4= Formative Evaluation, 5=Revision and 6= Summative Evaluation. Page 9

14 Phase 1: Needs Assessment Needs Assessment: Needs Assessment is a study conducted to determine the exact nature of an instructional problem and how it can be resolved. Rossett (1987) developed a need assessment model that is widely used today. Rossett s model includes: actuals, optimals, feelings, causes and solutions. Actuals are the descriptions of the instructional problems in terms of the current situation. Optimals are the descriptions of the way the situation ought to be. The Gap or Need is the optimal minus the actual. If the Actuals and the Optimals are the same, there is no reason to create instruction. If the Actuals and the Optimals are the different, (which they often are) then you should take into consideration how people feels about it. Consider the Feelings of the people (students) about the problem. Discover the Cause(s) of the problem. Page 10

15 Devise Solutions to the problem based on the cause(s) and the feelings of the people involved. Page 11

16 Phase 1: Writing Instructional Goals Once you have identified the needs of the instruction. You should then create the Instructional Goals based on the outcomes of the needs assessment. A clear instruction goal should do the following: identify the learners list what the learners will be able to do describe the context for which the new skills will be applied describe the tools needed to complete the goal Example: With the car washing tools provided, the boy scouts will wash 50 cars at the fundraiser. Page 12

17 Phase 2: Analyze the Instructional goals Analyze the Instructional Goals: The major purpose of the instructional analysis is to identify all of the skills and knowledge that should be included in the instruction. This is also a step-by-step determination of what people are doing when they perform the goal and what entry behaviors are needed. You should write out the skill steps of each goal in a flowchart to give them a sense of order. Always begin each skill in your flowchart with a verb. Page 13

18 Phase 2: Analyze Learners & Context The first task in this phase is to identify the general characteristics of the learners. These characteristics may include descriptions such as reading levels, attention span, previous experience, motivation levels and attitudes. The second task is to describe the environment or context where the learning will take place. The last task is to describe the learning context. Critical issues in the learning context include: time, resources, facilities, constraints...etc. Continuing the Boy Scout Example: General Characteristics: The Boy Scouts are ages and are highly motivated with good attitudes. None of the scouts have had any previous experience washing cars in the past. Description of the Environment: The Boy Scouts will wash the cars on a Saturday afternoon in the Wal-Mart parking lot. Learning Context: Page 14

19 They can wash the cars for 3 hours. Rags, soap and buckets will be provided but there are only two water hoses available for use. Page 15

20 Phase 3: Write Performance Objectives The best known component of Instructional Design is the performance or behavioral objective. A performance objective is a detailed description of what the learners will be able to do when they complete the unit of instruction. One or more objectives should be written for each of the skills identified in the procedure flowchart. Your test items will be based off of these objectives later on in the instructional design process. How to Write Performance Objectives... A good objective has four components: 1. An Audience: (who will be performing the skill) 2. The Behavior: (the skill that is to be completed) 3. The Conditions: (the environment in which the skill will be performed) 4. The Degree: (the criteria that will be used to evaluate the learner's performance) Example: Given a tire brush, soap water and a water hose, the Boy Scouts will be able to clean each car tire for 1 minute. Page 16

21 Phase 3: Develop Assessment Instruments You should write one or more test questions based off each performance objective. Example Objective: Given a tire brush, soap water and a water hose, the Boy Scouts will be able to clean each car tire for 1 minute per tire. Possible Test Item: Which of the following tools is used in cleaning a tire? 1. A screwdriver 2. A rope 3. A wench 4. A tire brush The most important factor in test construction is that the questions on the test directly correspond to the performance objectives. This way you will insure your test questions are valid, that is it measures what you want it to measure. your learners on material that was not covered in the instruction. Page 17

22 Phase 3: Develop Assessment Instruments Blooms Taxonomy: In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. (Bloom B.S.,1976) Page 18

23 Bloom s Taxonomy More verb examples that represent intellectual activity on each level are listed below. Knowledge: arrange, define, duplicate, label, list, memorize, name, order, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce state. Understanding: classify, describe, discuss, explain, express, identify, indicate, locate, recognize, report, restate, review, select, translate, Application: apply, choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, practice, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write. Analysis: analyze, appraise, calculate, categorize, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test. Synthesis: arrange, assemble, collect, compose, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, manage, organize, plan, prepare, propose, set up, write. Evaluation: appraise, argue, assess, attach, choose compare, defend estimate, judge, predict, rate, core, select, support, value, evaluate. When test questions are written at a higher level of cognition (thinking) the more difficult the test will be. Page 19

24 Page 20

25 Phase 3: Develop Instructional Strategy The term Instructional Strategy is used to cover the various aspects of sequencing the information, student motivation and deciding how to deliver the instruction. Sequencing & Chunking: You should decide on the sequence of instructional activities you wish to deliver. When deciding the sequence of the instruction you should separate the material into chunks that relate to each other. A general rule on chunk sizes is the chunks should be about 5 to 7 items per chunk. At this point, you should also decide on what medium or delivery system the instruction will use. Face-to-face, online instruction and computer based instruction are all examples of an instructional medium. Page 21

26 Student Motivation John Keller's ARCS Model of Motivation describes four categories of motivational strategies: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction. You should keep these strategies in mind when developing your instructional strategy. Attention: The first and single most important aspect of the ARCS model is gaining and keeping the learner's attention, which coincides with the first step in Gagne's model. Keller's strategies for attention include sensory stimuli (as discussed previously), inquiry arousal (thought provoking questions), and variability (variance in exercises and use of media). Relevance: Attention and motivation will not be maintained, however, unless the learner believes the training is relevant. Put simply, the training program should answer the critical question, "What's in it for me?" Confidence: The confidence aspect of the ARCS model is required so that students feel that they should put a good faith effort into the program. If they think they are incapable of achieving the objectives or that it will take too much time or effort, their motivation will decrease. Satisfaction: Finally, learners must obtain some type of satisfaction or reward from the learning experience. This can be in the form of entertainment or a sense of achievement. A self-assessment game, for example, might end with an animation sequence acknowledging the player's high score. A passing grade on a post-test might be rewarded with a completion certificate. Page 22

27 Phase 3: Develop & Select Instruction The first step in development of instructional material is to review & research each performance objective for pre-existing materials. Next, determine whether new materials are needed; if so, consider the best medium for the new lesson. Then write the new materials based on the instructional strategy for the new materials. Review each completed lesson for clarity and flow. Make a rough draft of a completed unit for evaluation. (Evaluation will be discussed in the next section.) Develop an Instructor's guide after the evaluation so it may include useful points discovered in the evaluation. Page 23

28 Phase 4: Design & Conduct Formative Evaluation Formative Evaluation: Formative Evaluation is the process that instructors use to gather and use data for making their lessons more efficient and effective. These evaluations should be conducted on new and existing materials that are selected based on the instructional strategy. There are three basic phases of formative evaluations and you should test the instruction in all of the phases. One-on-one (individual learners) Small group (8-20 learners) Field Trial (the number isn't important but should include relevant experience learners) One-on-one phase: The purpose of the first phase of formative evaluation is to identify and remove the obvious errors in the instruction, and to obtain initial performance indications and reactions to content by learners. Small group phase: There are two primary purposes for the small-group evaluation. The first is to determine the effectiveness of the changes made following the one-on-one evaluation and to identify any remaining learning problems that learners may have. Field Trial Phase: Page 24

29 In the final phase of formative evaluation the instructor attempts to use a learning context that closely resembles the environment intended for the ultimate use of the instructional materials and to evaluate if the changes made to the material after the small group phase were effective. Page 25

30 Phase 5: Revise Instruction Revise Instruction: There are two basic types of revisions you should consider with your materials. The first is changes that are made to the content or substance of the materials to make them more accurate or more effective as a learning tool. The second are changes related to the procedures employed in using your materials. You should keep both types in mind when you are revising your material. Page 26

31 Phase 6: Conduct a Summative Evaluation Summative Evaluation is the process of collecting data and information in order to make decisions about the acquisition or continued use of some instruction. While formative evaluation uses data collected to revise the instruction, summative evaluation is asking if the instruction solved the performance problems stated in the instructional goal. Summative Evaluation has two main phases: Expert Judgment (used to verify that the new vs. old instruction meets the schools needs) Field Trial (used to document the new instruction's effectiveness on a target group of learners) Page 27

32 End of Session References: Bloom, B.S. (1976) Human characteristics and school learning. New York: McGrawHill, Dick, Walter & Carey, Lou (1990) Systematic design of instruction, 4th edition. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, Keller, J.M. (1983). "Motivational design of instruction. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status." Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Mager, F.R. (1975) Preparing instructional objectives. Palo Alto, CA: Fearon Publishing Rossett, A. (1987). Training needs Assessment. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications. Page 28

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