EPISTEMOLOGY: Foundationalism

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "EPISTEMOLOGY: Foundationalism"

Transcription

1 Gábor Forgács, Tihamér Margitay, Zsolt Ziegler Dept. of Philosophy and the History of Science 1111 Budapest, Egry J. st. 1. E EPISTEMOLOGY: Foundationalism

2 Subject Matter We have good reasons to accept some beliefs (which are justified, but there are not justified ones). It is justified that: Hemoglobin in the blood is what transports oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body (i.e. the tissues) where it releases the oxygen for cell use. Because: I believe (i.) oxygen is crucial for cells (ii.) Humans have lungs, cells (iii.) Microscopes represt the world as it is... It is not justified that: There are extraterrestrial intelligent beings, and they have already visited the Earth. Because: I do not believe that (i.) intergalactic starships can be built (ii.) I believe nothing can go faster than the speed of the light, etc...

3 Subject Matter Questions: Should all beliefs be supported by other beliefs? Are there beliefs which cannot be doubted? Is there an absolute certain ground of our knowledge? Are some beliefs rightly believed apart from receiving support from other beliefs? What is the nature of the proper support between beliefs? Take just about every belief you have- you only believe it because it RESTS on other beliefs. It relies on them. For example: I believe that it is light outside.

4 The Foundation of Justified Beliefs But Dady... Our beliefs, in turn seem to rest on other beliefs: why? but why? I believe it is light outside... but why?... (i.) because I believe I can see light with my eyes (ii.) because I believe that my eyes are working.. (iii.) because I believe that I am healthy. (iv.)...and so on, and so on (v.) Infinitely(?)

5 How do you know? There are conditions in which we accept a statement without further justification. (a) Budapest is the capital of Hungary. (b) The water freezes at the temperature of 0 degrees centigrade. We don't doubt them. In some cases we do require a justification. When we ask: How do you know that?, we ask for a justification. A) Debates in everyday life; How do you know that the Bayern will win the Chapions Legue? B) On the court the prosecutor wants to prove that the defendant is guilt. C) Scientific theories require justification. (There are different methods and requirements of justification.) But there might be situations in which even the statement 'Budapest is the capital of Hungary' requires for a justification. (A foreign turist confuses Bucharest with Budapest.)

6 The Foundation of Justified Beliefs It seems that beliefs seem to rely on other beliefs, which then rest on other beliefs, as if they were in a chain. The question is: Are there any beliefs on which all other beliefs rest? Are there any beliefs which do NOT rely on any other belief? In other words, are there any FOUNDATIONAL beliefs? Imagine the Foundations of a building

7 Your Turn! (1) Make groups according to your research fields! (2) Think on a statement that plays a serious role in your research field! (3) Form that statement! (4) Try to gather as much presumption/beliefs required for your statement as it is possible! (not all of them) (5) Name these presumptions/beliefs (or a few of them)! (6) Finally, tell us how could we justify them!

8 Fundationalism FOUNDATIONALISTS think that there are fundational beliefs attempt to find such beliefs. believe there must be. Why? Because of the REGRESS argument: If every belief rests on another one, and that rests on another one, and so on and so on, then there is a REGRESS that goes on forever Which doesn t make sense. It just doesn t seem logical. There wouldn t be a foundation for knowledge, or a reason to believe anything. Therefore, there must be a FOUNDATION for our beliefs, in order for us to believe anything at all.

9 Inferential and Non-Inferential Beliefs For a foundationalist there are two kinds of beliefs: Inferential and Non-Inferential 1. Inferential beliefs. These are statements of belief that rest on other statements of belief I believe that it is light outside. Hemoglobin in the blood is what transports oxygen from the lungs or gills to the rest of the body (i.e. the tissues) where it releases the oxygen for cell use. 2. Non-Inferential beliefs Beliefs that DO NOT rest on ANY other belief. They stand alone These are basic beliefs. They are immediatly justified beliefs Their justification is a non-infential justification. These basic beliefs are usually considered incorrigible, infallible, certain. The basic beliefs support the other beliefs. Non-basic beliefs are justified if they can be inferred from basic beliefs. They are at the foundations of belief.

10 Skeptic Position: The Regress Argument P1: If there is a justification of our beliefs, then it leads to the infinite or ends at an unjustified belief or runs in a circle or there are self-justified beliefs. P2: The infinite reasoning cannot be a proper justification of our beliefs. P3: The circular reasoning cannot be a proper justification of our beliefs. P4: Appealing to unjustified belief cannot be proper justification. P5: There are no self-justified beliefs. C: None of our beliefs are justified.

11 Our Plan for Today P1: If there is a justification of our beliefs, then it leads to the infinite or ends at an unjustified belief or runs in a circle or there are self-justified beliefs. P2: The infinite reasoning cannot be a proper justification of our beliefs. P3: The circular reasoning cannot be a proper justification of our beliefs. P4: Appealing to unjustified belief cannot be proper justification. P5: There are no self-justified beliefs. C: None of our beliefs are justified.

12 Vicious Circle If there is a circle, is it indeed vicious? - Denial of P3 A F B E C D (A B) & (B C) & (C D) & (D E) & ( E F) & (F A) A A

13 Vicious Circle If there is a circle, is it indeed vicious? - Denilal of P3 A F B Perfectly valid inference:0 = 0 E C But not informative D (A B) & (B C) & (C D) & (D E) & ( E F) & (F A) A A

14 Vicious Network i. What if the inference structure is incredibly complex? ii. Is it a vicious network? / Is it uninformative?

15 Vicious Network What if the inference structure is incredibly complex? / Is it a vicious network? / Is it uninformative? Connectivism in the Philosophy of Mind?

16 Your Turn i. Form two groups: (a) and (b) ii.a Find counterarguments for inferential justification of beliefs ii.b Find arguments for inferential justification of beliefs

17 Non-Inferential Justification (P5)

18 Non-Inferential Justification What are these basic beliefs? How can the basic beliefs provide appropriate support in favour of other, non-basic beliefs? Foundationalism comes from Empricists. It is a very natural assumption: Body! I see it! Its my arm! Some empiricists believed that Foundational beliefs could be found in the beliefs that someone has about their experiences, their senses.

19 Non-Inferential Justification Basic beliefs cannot be justified by inference, its justification is dependent on the justification of other beliefs from which the reasoning proceeds. Basically, they claim that what we believe about our perceptions, must be Foundational. We cannot be mistaken about them. Ordinary perceptual beliefs can be fallible.

20 Non-Inferential Justification - Ordinary perceptual beliefs can be fallible. - Perceptual errors: 1. If I see a red shirt in green light I may think it is black. 2. I see an orange in front of me. Now, I could very well be mistaken that it is an orange. Nonetheless, I cannot be mistaken that I what I see before me, I THINK is an organge. IT SEEMS to be an orange. It is that I cannot be mistaken about. I see an orange-colour, roughly spherical object with a certain texture, height, shininess, etc. It might be an illusion, a mirage, a fake or a hologram but I am sure it seems as it is.

21 Non-Inferential Justification: It seems to me Remember: Phenomenology it seems to me cannot be questioned even if my perception is challenged Theories of perception I looked at wall, it seems to white. I cannot be mistaken about: it does seem to white. - Our beliefs about our present sensory states are INFALLIBLE they cannot be proved wrong. - Empiricists often see our SENSORY beliefs as FOUNDATIONAL, because we don t need to base them on any other belief.

22 Classical Foundationalism 1. Our basic beliefs are beliefs about our sensory experience. How do you know...? type-questions lead us to beliefs of immediate experience Because I see /hear... it! 1.1. The basic beliefs are about my present state sensory experience. 2. These beliefs are considered infallible. 3. Other beliefs can be derived from the basic beliefs about sensory experiences. - Any beliefs NOT about our present sensory states, ultimately rely on beliefs about those states. - Example: I believe that Budapest exists. I believe this because I believe in maps, travel shows and my own memory. Ultimately, I believe it because I can see a world in front of my eyes which roughly corresponds to the kind of world in which Budapest exists.

23 Classical Foundationalism Deductive valid inference I. P1: Now '0' seems to me a circle. P2: If something seems to me circle, it is a circle. C: '0' is circle.

24 Classical Foundationalism: Make it stronger! Incorrigible beliefs i. Incorrigibility: A proposition P is incorrigible for a person S if and only if (1) it is necessarily true that if S believes P then P is true, and (2) it is necessarily true that if S believes ~P then P is false. 1. IC N(Pb Pt) 2. ~IC N(~Pb Pf) ii. Believing P should guarantee that P is true, and believing ~P should guarantee that P is false. iii. This is attempt to define incorrigibility for propositions: No one could be in a position to correct an incorrigible belief. iv. Beliefs about the external world are corrigible, but according to classical foundationalism appearance beliefs are incorrigible (cannot be doubted).

25 Classical Foundationalism Deductive valid inference II. P1: Now '0' seems to me a circle. P2: If something seems to me circle, it is a circle. P3: If anything seem to me as such and such, it is incorrigibly such and such C: '0' is incorrigibly a circle. C2: No one could be in a position to correct me it is not circle.

26 Problems with The Definition of Incorrigibility 1. IC N(Pb Pt) - 2. ~IC N(~Pb Pf) But, there are beliefs which are certain (in a sense) and no one could be in a position to correct them which are not self-justifying. 1'. M[IC & ( Pt ~Pb )] - When I believe in complex and true mathematical theorem, I cannot be wrong, but it doesn't mean that I have a justification. I.e. Fermat theorem / Goldbach conjencture - Mathematical theorems remain true (in some sense) even if one disbelieves them.

27 Problems II. o None of the definitions of 'infallibility', 'incorrigibilty' are proper coherent definitions of 'being justified'. o But, let us 'p' - I'm awake o This is proposition 'p' about my own mental state, and if I'm really awake I believe that I'm awake. But is possible that I'm mistaken Illucid dreams o Being self-presenting doesn't mean that the belief is justified. I belive that p, when p is true. But it doesn't mean that p is (self-)justified. I may believe p when p is false

28 Classical Foundationalism Deductive valid inference I. P1: Now '0' seems to me a circle. Fallible P2: If something seems to me circle, it is a circle. C: '0' is circle. Being self-presenting doesn't mean that the belief is justified

29 Problems III. Suppose that we have infallible beliefs 1. How can we infer to non-basic beliefs? 2. What is relation between the basic and non-basic beliefs? These appearences (or 'appearance beliefs') are subjective. They are about my own present experiences, but not about the external world. How can they establish beliefs about the external world?

30 Problems III. Deductive valid inference I. P1: Now '0' seems to me a circle. (assuming infallible) P2: If something seems to me circle, it is a circle. fallible C: '0' is circle. Valid, even if P1 turns us to be true, C might be false, since P2 is false. There are possible cases when I have misperception. (not illusion or hallucination If one may misperceive something, then she mistakenly infer from the (mis)perception to its real features. Are some bell ringing????!barkely!???

31 Problems III. - Misperception - Imagine walking into a room and smelling your favorite perfume or aftershave. When you compliment the wearer, they correct you, and you say to yourself, Ah yes, that s right. So my words, my description can be wrong, but not my phenomenal experience. Is it about just words? J.L. Austin argued that there COULD be times when we are mistaken about the phenomenal character we experience. NOT JUST the words we use, but our actual perception. Maybe we didn t pay close enough attention to what we were seeing, or hadn t been trained to notice it.

32 Problems III. - Misperception What colours are these? RED Blue Yellow The non-basic beliefs are fallible, even if we assume the basic beliefs are infallible. Because we don't have conclusive reasons to conclude to non-basic beliefs. Non-basic beliefs can be only probably true, even if the basic beliefs are infallible.

33 Weaker Formulations of Foundationalism William Alston argues for a different version of foundationalism. New distinction between epistemic beliefs and non-epistemic beliefs. (A.) Epistemic beliefs are beliefs whose content contains an epistemic concept such as knowledge or justification. (B.) Non-epistemic belief does not contain an epistemic concept. I.e: The belief that there is a red circle before me is not an epistemic belief because does not contain any epistemic concepts. I.e: The belief that I am justified in believing that there is a red, circle before me is an epistemic belief.

34 Weaker Formulations of Foundationalism An argument against (classical) foundationalism might require that To be justified in believing that p one must justifiedly believe that 'I am justified in believing that p'. Alston: P1. I can justifiedly believe that p (non-e), unless I'm justified in I'm justifiedly belief that p. (E) P2. Foundationalism doesn't require that: being justified and the ability of making a justification are the same. - S can be justified in believing that she has hands without being in a position to exhibit her justification. - S is justified in believing that she has existed for more than five minutes but she cannot demonstrate her justification.

35 Weaker Formulations of Foundationalism P3. - Immediately justified beliefs may be fallible, revisable, and dubitable. For having justified beliefs does not require to know beliefs are justified S s belief that she has hands is might be false and revised in light of future evidence. Perhaps she has been fitted with a prosthetic device that looks and functions just like a normal hand. But when she looks and appears to see a hand, she is fully justified in believing that she has hands. (Would Grice deny it? Causal Theory of Perception)

36 Externalist Account of Foundationalism * Being justified depends on factors which are external compared to my mind. * It is possible that we have evolved in such a way that when prompted with certain sensory input we immediately and unreflectively reach conclusions about external objects. * If nature has been co-operative enough to insure the evolution of cognitive agents to have mostly true beliefs then we can draw in arriving at inferentially justified conclusions Internalist: Externalists are simply re-defining epistemic justification with evolutionary reliabilism. But, we want to provide a kind of assurance of truth / Necessary and satisfactory condition of knowledge

Descartes rationalism

Descartes rationalism Michael Lacewing Descartes rationalism Descartes Meditations provide an extended study in establishing knowledge through rational intuition and deduction. We focus in this handout on three central claims:

More information

General Philosophy. Dr Peter Millican, Hertford College. Lecture 3: Induction

General Philosophy. Dr Peter Millican, Hertford College. Lecture 3: Induction General Philosophy Dr Peter Millican, Hertford College Lecture 3: Induction Hume s s Fork 2 Enquiry IV starts with a vital distinction between types of proposition: Relations of ideas can be known a priori

More information

Topic 1 Introduction to epistemology

Topic 1 Introduction to epistemology Topic 1 Introduction to epistemology Welcome to Philosophy AS: Homework Please read the introduction and access the Prezi (link on the next page) and then read through the booklet trying the different

More information

Phil 420: Metaphysics Spring 2008. [Handout 4] Hilary Putnam: Why There Isn t A Ready-Made World

Phil 420: Metaphysics Spring 2008. [Handout 4] Hilary Putnam: Why There Isn t A Ready-Made World 1 Putnam s Main Theses: 1. There is no ready-made world. Phil 420: Metaphysics Spring 2008 [Handout 4] Hilary Putnam: Why There Isn t A Ready-Made World * [A ready-made world]: The world itself has to

More information

THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT

THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT Michael Lacewing Descartes arguments for distinguishing mind and body THE KNOWLEDGE ARGUMENT In Meditation II, having argued that he knows he thinks, Descartes then asks what kind of thing he is. Discussions

More information

PHLA The Problem of Induction

PHLA The Problem of Induction Knowledge versus mere justified belief Knowledge implies truth Justified belief does not imply truth Knowledge implies the impossibility of error Justified belief does not imply impossibility of error

More information

Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error

Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error Descartes Fourth Meditation On human error Descartes begins the fourth Meditation with a review of what he has learned so far. He began his search for certainty by questioning the veracity of his own senses.

More information

Test 1: Inference. Directions

Test 1: Inference. Directions Test 1: Inference An inference is a conclusion a person can draw from certain observed or supposed facts. For example, if the lights are on in a house and voices can be heard coming from the house, a person

More information

PHILOSOPHY SENIOR SEMINAR THE PHILOSOPHY OF PERCEPTION ESSAY TOPICS AND INSTRUCTIONS INSTRUCTIONS

PHILOSOPHY SENIOR SEMINAR THE PHILOSOPHY OF PERCEPTION ESSAY TOPICS AND INSTRUCTIONS INSTRUCTIONS PHILOSOPHY 4830 - SENIOR SEMINAR THE PHILOSOPHY OF PERCEPTION ESSAY TOPICS AND INSTRUCTIONS INSTRUCTIONS 1. As is indicated in the syllabus, the written work for the course will take the form of two essays,

More information

Skepticism about the external world & the problem of other minds

Skepticism about the external world & the problem of other minds Skepticism about the external world & the problem of other minds So far in this course we have, broadly speaking, discussed two different sorts of issues: issues connected with the nature of persons (a

More information

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind

1/10. Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind 1/10 Descartes 2: The Cogito and the Mind Recap: last week we undertook to follow Descartes path of radical doubt in order to attempt to discover what, if anything, can be known for certain. This path

More information

CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE. Mark Montgomery

CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE. Mark Montgomery CROSS EXAMINATION OF AN EXPERT WITNESS IN A CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE CASE Mark Montgomery Post Office Box 161 Durham, NC 27702 (919) 680-6249 mark.montgomery@mindspring.com Opinion Testimony by a Pediatrician/Nurse/Counselor/Social

More information

REASONS FOR HOLDING THIS VIEW

REASONS FOR HOLDING THIS VIEW Michael Lacewing Substance dualism A substance is traditionally understood as an entity, a thing, that does not depend on another entity in order to exist. Substance dualism holds that there are two fundamentally

More information

Descartes Meditations II & III. Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy Benjamin Visscher Hole IV

Descartes Meditations II & III. Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy Benjamin Visscher Hole IV Descartes Meditations II & III Phil 100, Intro to Philosophy Benjamin Visscher Hole IV SUMMARY OF MEDITATION ONE 1. Knowledge is either a priori or it is a posteriori. 2. If it is a posteriori, we do not

More information

Last time we had arrived at the following provisional interpretation of Aquinas second way:

Last time we had arrived at the following provisional interpretation of Aquinas second way: Aquinas Third Way Last time we had arrived at the following provisional interpretation of Aquinas second way: 1. 2. 3. 4. At least one thing has an efficient cause. Every causal chain must either be circular,

More information

EXTERNALIST RESPONSES TO SKEPTICISM. Michael Bergmann

EXTERNALIST RESPONSES TO SKEPTICISM. Michael Bergmann EXTERNALIST RESPONSES TO SKEPTICISM Michael Bergmann [pre-print; published in Oxford Handbook to Skepticism, ed. John Greco (Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 504-38.] I. Introduction The goal of this

More information

Is There Non-Inferential Justification? James Pryor Princeton University <jimpryor@princeton.edu> Draft 9 10/13/03. Justification

Is There Non-Inferential Justification? James Pryor Princeton University <jimpryor@princeton.edu> Draft 9 10/13/03. Justification Is There Non-Inferential Justification? James Pryor Princeton University Draft 9 10/13/03 I Justification I want to talk about a certain epistemic quality that I call justification,

More information

Introduction to Philosophy, Fall 2015 Test 2 Answers

Introduction to Philosophy, Fall 2015 Test 2 Answers 1. Descartes, Locke and Berkeley all believe that Introduction to Philosophy, Fall 2015 Test 2 Answers a. nothing exists except minds and the ideas in them. b. we can t ever be justified in believing in

More information

NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS

NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITIONS Michael Lacewing Personal identity: Physical and psychological continuity theories A FIRST DISTINCTION In order to understand what is at issue in personal identity, it is important to distinguish between

More information

Introduction to Metaphysics

Introduction to Metaphysics 1 Reading Questions Metaphysics The Philosophy of Religion Arguments for God s Existence Arguments against God s Existence In Case of a Tie Summary Reading Questions Introduction to Metaphysics 1. What

More information

Philosophical argument

Philosophical argument Michael Lacewing Philosophical argument At the heart of philosophy is philosophical argument. Arguments are different from assertions. Assertions are simply stated; arguments always involve giving reasons.

More information

Review. Bayesianism and Reliability. Today s Class

Review. Bayesianism and Reliability. Today s Class Review Bayesianism and Reliability Models and Simulations in Philosophy April 14th, 2014 Last Class: Difference between individual and social epistemology Why simulations are particularly useful for social

More information

When Betting Odds and Credences Come Apart: More Worries for Dutch Book Arguments

When Betting Odds and Credences Come Apart: More Worries for Dutch Book Arguments When Betting Odds and Credences Come Apart: More Worries for Dutch Book Arguments Darren BRADLEY and Hannes LEITGEB If an agent believes that the probability of E being true is 1/2, should she accept a

More information

Reply to French and Genone Symposium on Naïve Realism and Illusion The Brains Blog, January 2016. Boyd Millar millar.boyd@gmail.

Reply to French and Genone Symposium on Naïve Realism and Illusion The Brains Blog, January 2016. Boyd Millar millar.boyd@gmail. Reply to French and Genone Symposium on Naïve Realism and Illusion The Brains Blog, January 2016 Boyd Millar millar.boyd@gmail.com 1. Acknowledgements I would like to thank the managing editor of The Brains

More information

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS HOUSTON DIVISION

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS HOUSTON DIVISION UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS HOUSTON DIVISION UNITED STATES OF AMERICA v. CRIMINAL ACTION H-00-0000 DEFENDANT(S) JURY INSTRUCTIONS I. General A. Introduction Members of the Jury:

More information

Chapter 5: Fallacies. 23 February 2015

Chapter 5: Fallacies. 23 February 2015 Chapter 5: Fallacies 23 February 2015 Plan for today Talk a bit more about arguments notice that the function of arguments explains why there are lots of bad arguments Turn to the concept of fallacy and

More information

Science and Scientific Reasoning. Critical Thinking

Science and Scientific Reasoning. Critical Thinking Science and Scientific Reasoning Critical Thinking Some Common Myths About Science Science: What it is and what it is not Science and Technology Science is not the same as technology The goal of science

More information

Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal UK Edition

Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal UK Edition Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal UK Edition Goodwin Watson Edwin Glaser Practice Test Published by Pearson Assessment, 80 Strand, London, WC2R 0RL. Copyright 2002, 1993, 1990, 1980, 1964 by The

More information

1/9. Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas

1/9. Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas 1/9 Locke 1: Critique of Innate Ideas This week we are going to begin looking at a new area by turning our attention to the work of John Locke, who is probably the most famous English philosopher of all

More information

Descartes. Philosophy and Good Sense

Descartes. Philosophy and Good Sense Perspectives in Philosophy Rene Descartes Descartes Philosophy is the search for certainty the search to know, for yourself, what is really true and really false to know which beliefs are reliable. However,

More information

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt

Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA. Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes Meditations Module 3 AQA Meditation I Things which can be called into Doubt Descartes rejects all his beliefs about the external world because they are doubtful and he wants to find a foundation

More information

Descartes Handout #2. Meditation II and III

Descartes Handout #2. Meditation II and III Descartes Handout #2 Meditation II and III I. Meditation II: The Cogito and Certainty A. I think, therefore I am cogito ergo sum In Meditation II Descartes proposes a truth that cannot be undermined by

More information

Locke. Reading Questions Introduction to Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Summary of Locke. Reading Questions

Locke. Reading Questions Introduction to Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Summary of Locke. Reading Questions Locke Reading Questions Introduction to Locke An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Summary of Locke Reading Questions. Was Locke a foundationalist? 2. What is empiricism? Was Locke an empiricist? 3.

More information

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010

Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy. Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010 Philosophy 203 History of Modern Western Philosophy Russell Marcus Hamilton College Spring 2010 Class 2 - Meditation One Marcus, Modern Philosophy, Spring 2010, Slide 1 Five dogmas undermined by the new

More information

Epistemic Probability 1

Epistemic Probability 1 Epistemic Probability 1 In this paper I want to explore both the conceptual and epistemic place of epistemic probability within a foundationalist theory of justification. After arguing that one should

More information

Why isn't true belief sufficient for knowledge? Thomas Harris

Why isn't true belief sufficient for knowledge? Thomas Harris 1 Why isn't true belief sufficient for knowledge? Thomas Harris A DIALOGUE Teacher: The first thing is to better understand the terms 'knowledge' and 'belief'. Every day we say that we know things: 'I

More information

Read this syllabus very carefully. If there are any reasons why you cannot comply with what I am requiring, then talk with me about this at once.

Read this syllabus very carefully. If there are any reasons why you cannot comply with what I am requiring, then talk with me about this at once. LOGIC AND CRITICAL THINKING PHIL 2020 Maymester Term, 2010 Daily, 9:30-12:15 Peabody Hall, room 105 Text: LOGIC AND RATIONAL THOUGHT by Frank R. Harrison, III Professor: Frank R. Harrison, III Office:

More information

Lecture 7.1 Descartes Meditation 2, 3.

Lecture 7.1 Descartes Meditation 2, 3. TOPIC: Lecture 7.1 Descartes Meditation 2, 3. Descartes Rationalism; Wax argument; Argument for the Existence of God. KEY TERMS/ GOALS: Rationalism and Empiricism Cogito ergo sum. Wax argument. Argument

More information

Perception and Mind-Dependence Lecture 4

Perception and Mind-Dependence Lecture 4 Perception and Mind-Dependence Lecture 4 1 Last Week The Argument from Illusion relies on the Phenomenal Principle. The Phenomenal Principle is motivated by its ability to explain the sensuous character

More information

DIVINE CONTINGENCY Einar Duenger Bohn IFIKK, University of Oslo

DIVINE CONTINGENCY Einar Duenger Bohn IFIKK, University of Oslo DIVINE CONTINGENCY Einar Duenger Bohn IFIKK, University of Oslo Brian Leftow s God and Necessity is interesting, full of details, bold and ambitious. Roughly, the main question at hand is: assuming there

More information

Why Are Computers So Dumb? Philosophy of AI. Are They Right? What Makes us Human? Strong and Weak AI. Weak AI and the Turing Test

Why Are Computers So Dumb? Philosophy of AI. Are They Right? What Makes us Human? Strong and Weak AI. Weak AI and the Turing Test Why Are Computers So Dumb? Philosophy of AI Will Machines Ever be Intelligent? AI has made some pretty small strides! A huge number crunching computer beat Kasparov at chess (once) but it still wouldn

More information

Welcome to Modernity!

Welcome to Modernity! Welcome to Modernity! René Descartes (1596-1650) [pronounced: day-cart] Le Monde (1633, not publ.) Discourse on Method (1637) Meditations on First Philosophy (1641) Principles of Philosophy (1644) Passions

More information

Subject area: Ethics. Injustice causes revolt. Discuss.

Subject area: Ethics. Injustice causes revolt. Discuss. Subject area: Ethics Title: Injustice causes revolt. Discuss. 1 Injustice causes revolt. Discuss. When we explain phenomena we rely on the assertion of facts. The sun rises because the earth turns on its

More information

Plato gives another argument for this claiming, relating to the nature of knowledge, which we will return to in the next section.

Plato gives another argument for this claiming, relating to the nature of knowledge, which we will return to in the next section. Michael Lacewing Plato s theor y of Forms FROM SENSE EXPERIENCE TO THE FORMS In Book V (476f.) of The Republic, Plato argues that all objects we experience through our senses are particular things. We

More information

Internal Critique: A Logic is not a Theory of Reasoning and a Theory of Reasoning is not a Logic

Internal Critique: A Logic is not a Theory of Reasoning and a Theory of Reasoning is not a Logic Internal Critique: A Logic is not a Theory of Reasoning and a Theory of Reasoning is not a Logic Gilbert Harman Princeton University In order to understand the relations between reasoning and logic, it

More information

#HUMN-104 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY

#HUMN-104 INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY Coffeyville Community College #HUMN-104 COURSE SYLLABUS FOR INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY Mike Arpin Instructor COURSE NUMBER: HUMN-104 COURSE TITLE: Introduction to Philosophy CREDIT HOURS: 3 INSTRUCTOR:

More information

Is this statement: (a) true; (b) false; (c) incoherent? What can we learn from a consideration of the statement?

Is this statement: (a) true; (b) false; (c) incoherent? What can we learn from a consideration of the statement? PHILOSOPHY@BHASVIC 1 MOVING ON TO A-LEVEL PHILOSOPHY AT BHASVIC Doing philosophy is not merely giving your opinion or dismissing the opinions of others. We all hold a variety of opinions on a variety of

More information

Critical Study David Benatar. Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006)

Critical Study David Benatar. Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) NOÛS 43:4 (2009) 776 785 Critical Study David Benatar. Better Never To Have Been: The Harm of Coming into Existence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006) ELIZABETH HARMAN Princeton University In this

More information

Critical Analysis So what does that REALLY mean?

Critical Analysis So what does that REALLY mean? Critical Analysis So what does that REALLY mean? 1 The words critically analyse can cause panic in students when they first turn over their examination paper or are handed their assignment questions. Why?

More information

CHAPTER 7 ARGUMENTS WITH DEFIITIONAL AND MISSING PREMISES

CHAPTER 7 ARGUMENTS WITH DEFIITIONAL AND MISSING PREMISES CHAPTER 7 ARGUMENTS WITH DEFIITIONAL AND MISSING PREMISES What You ll Learn in this Chapter In Chapters -5, we developed a skill set that s sufficient for the recognition, analysis, evaluation and construction

More information

Critical analysis. Be more critical! More analysis needed! That s what my tutors say about my essays. I m not really sure what they mean.

Critical analysis. Be more critical! More analysis needed! That s what my tutors say about my essays. I m not really sure what they mean. Critical analysis Be more critical! More analysis needed! That s what my tutors say about my essays. I m not really sure what they mean. I thought I had written a really good assignment this time. I did

More information

How do we know that Christianity is true? How do we show that Christianity is true?

How do we know that Christianity is true? How do we show that Christianity is true? How do we know that Christianity is true? How do we show that Christianity is true? I know that Christianity is true because of the testimony of the Holy Spirit. My relationship with God isn t dependent

More information

Argument Mapping 2: Claims and Reasons

Argument Mapping 2: Claims and Reasons #2 Claims and Reasons 1 Argument Mapping 2: Claims and Reasons We ll start with the very basics here, so be patient. It becomes far more challenging when we apply these basic rules to real arguments, as

More information

The John Locke Lectures 2009. Being Realistic about Reasons. T. M. Scanlon. Lecture 3: Motivation and the Appeal of Expressivism

The John Locke Lectures 2009. Being Realistic about Reasons. T. M. Scanlon. Lecture 3: Motivation and the Appeal of Expressivism The John Locke Lectures 2009 Being Realistic about Reasons T. M. Scanlon Lecture 3: Motivation and the Appeal of Expressivism The cognitivist view I have been defending has two important features in common

More information

The Phenomenology of Cognition Or What Is It Like to Think That P?

The Phenomenology of Cognition Or What Is It Like to Think That P? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research Vol. LXIX, No. 1, July 2004 The Phenomenology of Cognition Or What Is It Like to Think That P? DAVID PITT California State University, Los Angeles A number of philosophers

More information

Perception and Memory. Critical Thinking

Perception and Memory. Critical Thinking Perception and Memory Critical Thinking Sources of Belief Other people (parents, friends, media, teachers, experts, authority) Reasoning Observation (perception and memory) Perception How reliable is perception?

More information

Lecture 3. Mathematical Induction

Lecture 3. Mathematical Induction Lecture 3 Mathematical Induction Induction is a fundamental reasoning process in which general conclusion is based on particular cases It contrasts with deduction, the reasoning process in which conclusion

More information

player 4 green ballroom? candlestick player 1

player 4 green ballroom? candlestick player 1 Chapter 1 Cluedo Imagine a country mansion with a couple of partying guests. Suddenly the host is discovered, lying in the basement, and murdered. The guests decide to find out among themselves who committed

More information

Working to standard: a code of conduct for support workers in health care. 1.1 Welcome to this code of conduct for support workers in health care.

Working to standard: a code of conduct for support workers in health care. 1.1 Welcome to this code of conduct for support workers in health care. Code of conduct for Healthcare Support Workers Working to standard: a code of conduct for support workers in health care 1. Introduction 1.1 Welcome to this code of conduct for support workers in health

More information

Roderick Firth Harvard University

Roderick Firth Harvard University EPISTEMIC MERIT, INTRINSIC AND INSTRUMENTAL* Roderick Firth Harvard University Philosophers today are deeply divided by issues of a kind that can be described as "metaepistemological" -- issues concerning

More information

101 Ways to Build Self-Esteem in Your Child

101 Ways to Build Self-Esteem in Your Child 1 101 Ways to Build Self-Esteem in Your Child Introduction What could you give your child that would be more valuable than a strong sense of themselves and their value in the world? If we feel good about

More information

Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations

Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations Sorensen on Unknowable Obligations Theodore Sider Utilitas 7 (1995): 273 9 1. Access principles Vagueness in the phrase can know aside, the principle of Access An act is obligatory only if its agent can

More information

Information Sheet Updated March 2007

Information Sheet Updated March 2007 Duty of Care and Negligence Villamanta Disability Rights Legal Service Inc. Information Sheet Updated March 2007 What is Negligence? Negligence is when someone who owes you a duty of care, has failed to

More information

Tool 3 - Thought Challenging

Tool 3 - Thought Challenging Tool 3 - Thought Challenging Learning how to manage negative thoughts can also help to manage your anxiety and low mood. When people are feeling low or anxious, their thoughts can often be extreme or unrealistic.

More information

Pascal is here expressing a kind of skepticism about the ability of human reason to deliver an answer to this question.

Pascal is here expressing a kind of skepticism about the ability of human reason to deliver an answer to this question. Pascal s wager So far we have discussed a number of arguments for or against the existence of God. In the reading for today, Pascal asks not Does God exist? but Should we believe in God? What is distinctive

More information

PERCEPTUAL EXPERIENCE AND PERCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE. Johannes Roessler

PERCEPTUAL EXPERIENCE AND PERCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE. Johannes Roessler 1 PERCEPTUAL EXPERIENCE AND PERCEPTUAL KNOWLEDGE Johannes Roessler Commonsense epistemology regards perceptual experience as a distinctive source of knowledge of the world around us, unavailable in blindsight.

More information

CHAPTER 3. Methods of Proofs. 1. Logical Arguments and Formal Proofs

CHAPTER 3. Methods of Proofs. 1. Logical Arguments and Formal Proofs CHAPTER 3 Methods of Proofs 1. Logical Arguments and Formal Proofs 1.1. Basic Terminology. An axiom is a statement that is given to be true. A rule of inference is a logical rule that is used to deduce

More information

Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God S. Clarke

Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God S. Clarke Cosmological Arguments for the Existence of God S. Clarke [Modified Fall 2009] 1. Large class of arguments. Sometimes they get very complex, as in Clarke s argument, but the basic idea is simple. Lets

More information

Ad hominem: An argument directed at an opponent in a disagreement, not at the topic under discussion.

Ad hominem: An argument directed at an opponent in a disagreement, not at the topic under discussion. Glossary of Key Terms Ad hominem: An argument directed at an opponent in a disagreement, not at the topic under discussion. Agent: One who acts and is held responsible for those actions. Analytic judgment:

More information

Chapter 4. Descartes, Third Meditation. 4.1 Homework

Chapter 4. Descartes, Third Meditation. 4.1 Homework Chapter 4 Descartes, Third Meditation 4.1 Homework Readings : - Descartes, Meditation III - Objections and Replies: a) Third O and R: CSM II, 132; 127-8. b) Fifth O and R: CSM II, 195-97, 251. c) First

More information

A Short Course in Logic Zeno s Paradox

A Short Course in Logic Zeno s Paradox 1 Grappling with Good Arguments A Short Course in Logic Zeno s Paradox We ve seen that if we decide that an argument is good then we should be inclined to believe that the ultimate conclusion is true.

More information

I use several different introductions when it comes to calling purchased leads or leads that I have generated on my own through different ads.

I use several different introductions when it comes to calling purchased leads or leads that I have generated on my own through different ads. COLD MARKET LEAD SCRIPTS COLD LEAD BUSINESS SCRIPT I use several different introductions when it comes to calling purchased leads or leads that I have generated on my own through different ads. You will

More information

Chapter 1. What is Biology? Worksheets. (Opening image copyright by Kirsty Pargeter, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.

Chapter 1. What is Biology? Worksheets. (Opening image copyright by Kirsty Pargeter, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com. Chapter 1 What is Biology? Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Kirsty Pargeter, 2010. Used under license from Shutterstock.com.) Lesson 1.1: Science and the Natural World Lesson 1.2: Biology: The Study

More information

Arnauld vs. Descartes Theory of Dualism. vs.

Arnauld vs. Descartes Theory of Dualism. vs. Arnauld vs. Descartes Theory of Dualism vs. Dualism Descartes Theory is called Dualism Believes Mind and Body are distinct substances Bodies: mechanical, physical objects Minds: for thinking, non-physical

More information

Students in their first advanced mathematics classes are often surprised

Students in their first advanced mathematics classes are often surprised CHAPTER 8 Proofs Involving Sets Students in their first advanced mathematics classes are often surprised by the extensive role that sets play and by the fact that most of the proofs they encounter are

More information

Inductive Reasoning Page 1 of 7. Inductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning Page 1 of 7. Inductive Reasoning Inductive Reasoning Page 1 of 7 Inductive Reasoning We learned that valid deductive thinking begins with at least one universal premise and leads to a conclusion that is believed to be contained in the

More information

Am I An Atheist Or An Agnostic?

Am I An Atheist Or An Agnostic? Am I An Atheist Or An Agnostic? A Plea For Tolerance In The Face Of New Dogmas by Bertrand Russell (1947) I speak as one who was intended by my father to be brought up as a Rationalist. He was quite as

More information

WHAT IS THE SWAMPING PROBLEM?

WHAT IS THE SWAMPING PROBLEM? 1 WHAT IS THE SWAMPING PROBLEM? Duncan Pritchard University of Edinburgh ABSTRACT. It is argued that the swamping problem is best understood in terms of an inconsistent triad of claims: (i) a general thesis

More information

Springer http://www.jstor.org/stable/4321775.

Springer http://www.jstor.org/stable/4321775. Springer http://www.jstor.org/stable/4321775. Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at. http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp

More information

One natural response would be to cite evidence of past mornings, and give something like the following argument:

One natural response would be to cite evidence of past mornings, and give something like the following argument: Hume on induction Suppose you were asked to give your reasons for believing that the sun will come up tomorrow, in the form of an argument for the claim that the sun will come up tomorrow. One natural

More information

What We Can Learn From The Skeptical Puzzle. Tim Black

What We Can Learn From The Skeptical Puzzle. Tim Black What We Can Learn From The Skeptical Puzzle Tim Black In Iris: European Journal of Philosophy and Public Debate 1 (2009): 439-447 (This version might be different in certain respects from the published

More information

Husserl Ideas : General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology (1913)

Husserl Ideas : General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology (1913) Husserl Ideas : General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology (1913) Husserl, Edmund. Ideas : General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology, Translated by W. R. Boyce Gibson. London, New York: Collier,Macmillan,

More information

What would the robots play?

What would the robots play? Interview with J. Kevin O Regan Avant. The Journal of the Philosophical-Interdisciplinary Vanguard Volume II, Number 2/2011 www.avant.edu.pl ISSN: 2082-6710 What would the robots play? Interviev with J.

More information

Evidential Arguments from Evil

Evidential Arguments from Evil 24.00: Problems of Philosophy Prof. Sally Haslanger September 26, 200 I. Reasons: Inductive and Deductive Evidential Arguments from Evil We ve been considering whether it is rational to believe that an

More information

A Short Course in Logic Example 8

A Short Course in Logic Example 8 A Short ourse in Logic xample 8 I) Recognizing Arguments III) valuating Arguments II) Analyzing Arguments valuating Arguments with More than one Line of Reasoning valuating If then Premises Independent

More information

A: I thought you hated business. What changed your mind? A: MBA's are a dime a dozen these days. Are you sure that is the best route to take?

A: I thought you hated business. What changed your mind? A: MBA's are a dime a dozen these days. Are you sure that is the best route to take? Dialog: LESSON 120 - MBA A: What are you doing tomorrow? B: I'm starting my MBA. A: I thought you hated business. What changed your mind? B: I do hate it, but I need to start making more money. A: MBA's

More information

A. Arguments are made up of statements, which can be either true or false. Which of the following are statements?

A. Arguments are made up of statements, which can be either true or false. Which of the following are statements? Critical Thinking University of St Andrews March 2007 Bullet point material is not on the students copies. Feel free to use the material as you see fit, depending on timing, ability, enthusiasm etc. Good

More information

Supporting Victims through the criminal justice system. the urge to place them at the heart of the criminal justice system.

Supporting Victims through the criminal justice system. the urge to place them at the heart of the criminal justice system. Supporting Victims through the criminal justice system There is some talk of giving victims a voice, indeed this seems to have replaced the urge to place them at the heart of the criminal justice system.

More information

Writing Political Theory Papers

Writing Political Theory Papers Writing Political Theory Papers Political theory is a little bit different than political science. Here are some important differences. 1) It s more like philosophy than social science: it is more concerned

More information

Is there a problem about nonconceptual content?

Is there a problem about nonconceptual content? Is there a problem about nonconceptual content? Jeff Speaks (forthcoming in the Philosophical Review) 1 Two understandings of nonconceptual content.................. 1 2 The case for nonconceptual content..........................

More information

WHAT S WRONG WITH MOORE S ARGUMENT? James Pryor* Princeton University

WHAT S WRONG WITH MOORE S ARGUMENT? James Pryor* Princeton University Philosophical Issues, 14, Epistemology, 2004 WHAT S WRONG WITH MOORE S ARGUMENT? James Pryor* Princeton University 1 Some Diagnoses Moore looked at his hands and argued: (1) Here are two hands. (2) If

More information

Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley. By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy

Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley. By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy Reality in the Eyes of Descartes and Berkeley By: Nada Shokry 5/21/2013 AUC - Philosophy Shokry, 2 One person's craziness is another person's reality. Tim Burton This quote best describes what one finds

More information

DEDUCTIVE & INDUCTIVE REASONING

DEDUCTIVE & INDUCTIVE REASONING DEDUCTIVE & INDUCTIVE REASONING Expectations 1. Take notes on inductive and deductive reasoning. 2. This is an information based presentation -- I simply want you to be able to apply this information to

More information

Variables and Hypotheses

Variables and Hypotheses Variables and Hypotheses When asked what part of marketing research presents them with the most difficulty, marketing students often reply that the statistics do. Ask this same question of professional

More information

The Slate Is Not Empty: Descartes and Locke on Innate Ideas

The Slate Is Not Empty: Descartes and Locke on Innate Ideas The Slate Is Not Empty: Descartes and Locke on Innate Ideas René Descartes and John Locke, two of the principal philosophers who shaped modern philosophy, disagree on several topics; one of them concerns

More information

The power of money management

The power of money management The power of money management One trader lost ($3000) during the course of a year trading one contract of system A. Another trader makes $25,000 trading the same system that year. One trader makes $24,000

More information

Module 3: Functional Requirements

Module 3: Functional Requirements smart BA Distance Learning Programme Module 3: Functional Requirements Hello and welcome to the smart BA distance learning programme Module 3 in this module you are going to analyse the requirements of

More information

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF HAWAII. J. MICHAEL SEABRIGHT United States District Judge

IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF HAWAII. J. MICHAEL SEABRIGHT United States District Judge IN THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF HAWAII August 8, 2011 J. MICHAEL SEABRIGHT United States District Judge GENERAL FEDERAL JURY INSTRUCTIONS IN CIVIL CASES INDEX 1 DUTY OF JUDGE 2

More information

Please see current textbook prices at www.rcgc.bncollege.com

Please see current textbook prices at www.rcgc.bncollege.com PSY101: GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY SYLLABUS LECTURE HOURS/CREDITS: 3/3 CATALOG DESCRIPTION Prerequisite: RDG099 Introduction to College Reading III This is an introduction to the study of behavior. The scientific

More information

How should we think about the testimony of others? Is it reducible to other kinds of evidence?

How should we think about the testimony of others? Is it reducible to other kinds of evidence? Subject: Title: Word count: Epistemology How should we think about the testimony of others? Is it reducible to other kinds of evidence? 2,707 1 How should we think about the testimony of others? Is it

More information