1 1 NEVADA GRADE 8 SCIENCE Benchmarks and Item Specifications May 2008 C 1 PHYSICAL SCIENCE Standard Matter Matter has various states with unique properties that can be used as basis for organization. The relationship between the properties of matter and its structure is an essential component of study in the physical sciences. The understanding of matter and its properties leads to practical applications, such as the capability to liberate elements from ore, create new drugs, manipulate the structure of genes, and synthesize polymers. Identify substances as solids, liquids and gases. Students know particles are arranged Describe the different states of matter using the Describe the arrangement and motion P.8.A.1 differently in solids, liquids, and gases of terms shape and volume. of particles in a solid, liquid and a the same substance. E/S Given a diagram, recognize the arrangement of gas. particles in solids, liquids and gases. Describe the different states of matter as having more or less molecular kinetic energy. Interpret a phase change diagram. P.8.A.2 P.8.A.3 Students know elements can be arranged in the periodic table which shows repeating patterns that group elements with similar properties. E/S Students know methods for separating mixtures based on the properties of the components. E/S Understand that some elements can have similar properties (e.g., magnetism, conductivity, density, and solubility) based on their position in the periodic table. Predict properties of different elements based on their arrangements in groups and periods on the periodic table. Understand the terms solvent, solute, and solution. Identify properties of matter including: magnetism, density, conductivity, solubility. Identify properties of matter that can be used to separate mixtures (e.g., filtering, chromatography, settling, chemical reaction, and evaporation). Recognize common characteristics used to arrange elements on the periodic table. Place elements in their group when provided with their characteristic properties (metallic and highly reactive, group 1 or 2, gaseous and non-reactive, group 8 - Noble gases). Provided a contextual situation, identify solvent, solute, and solution. Identify appropriate methods to separate solutions and mixtures. Design a procedure to separate a given mixture or solution.
2 2 P.8.A.4 P.8.A.5 Students know atoms often combine to form molecules, and that compounds form when two or more different kinds of atoms chemically bond. E/S Students know mass is conserved in physical and chemical changes. E/S Understand physical and chemical properties. Understand physical and chemical changes and identify evidence of chemical changes (e.g., releasing heat, absorbing heat, and producing gas). Given a chemical formula, identify the number and type of atoms in molecule. Understand that chemical reactions can result in a ph change (acids, bases, and neutralizations). Identify that the total mass remains the same in a chemical change (i.e., the number and type of atoms in the reactants equals the number and type of atoms in the products). Know matter is conserved in a physical change. Differentiate between molecules and compounds when provided chemical formulas. Provided the results from a litmus paper test (or cabbage water), classify the substances as acids or bases. Two colorless liquids are mixed and form a precipitate. Explain and justify whether this is a chemical or physical change. Provided a physical change (such as ice melting), recognize that mass is conserved. Distinguish between chemical and physical changes when given examples. P.8.A.6 P.8.A.7 Students know matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms. E/S Students know the characteristics of electrons, protons, and neutrons. E/S Identify that atoms are the smallest units of elements. Know the structure of the atom. Know the electrical charges of electrons, protons, and neutrons. Know the relative size of electrons, protons, and neutrons compared to the overall atom. DOK3 Design an experiment that demonstrates that mass is conserved in a chemical change. Define the characteristics of elements and atoms. DOK2 Explain the relationship between atoms, elements, and compounds. Define the properties of electrons, protons, and neutrons.
3 3 P.8.A.8 Students know substances containing only one kind of atom are elements which cannot be broken into smaller pieces by normal laboratory processes. E/S Identify that elements contain only one type of atom Compare and contrast the characteristics of electrons, protons and neutrons. Define the characteristics of elements and atoms. DOK2 Explain the relationship between atoms, elements and compounds. Standard Force and Motion The laws of motion are used to describe the effects of forces on the movement of objects. Know how motion is defined, described, and measured. Explain how balanced and unbalanced forces are related to the motion of an object. Students know the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on an object's motion. Explain the relationship between acceleration, force, and mass. P.8.B.1 E/S Given a scenario, predict outcomes based on application of Newton s 3 laws of motion. Explain how the amount of friction between objects can be changed. Explain how an increase or decrease in friction can be beneficial. Create and/or interpret motion graphs. to a sudden stop.) Understand the relationship between electric currents and magnetic forces. Given a force diagram, determine whether the forces are balanced or unbalanced. Compare the motion of an object in different frictional environments. Given a scenario, explain how Newton s 3 Laws of motion apply. (Car and unbuckled passenger come Define generator, motor, current, and electric currents. P.8.B.2 Students know electric currents can produce magnetic forces and magnets can cause electric currents. E/S Compare and contrast electric motors and generators. Design an experiment to demonstrate that electric currents produce magnetic forces (electromagnet or galvanometer).
4 4 P.8.B.3 Students know every object exerts gravitational force on every other object, and the magnitude of this force depends on the mass of the objects and their distance from one another. I/S Understand the relationship between mass and weight. Explain the relationship between gravity and the motion of falling objects. Identify and describe qualitatively the relationship between gravitational force, mass, and distance (Universal Law of Gravitation). Differentiate between mass and weight. Explain what happens to the gravitational forces between two objects as they move further away from each other. DOK3 Interpret a graph representing the distance between two objects and the gravitational force between them. Cite evidence justifying the relationship between gravity and weight. Standard Energy The total energy of the universe is constant. All events involve the transfer of energy in one form or another. In all energy transfers, the overall effect is that energy is spread out uniformly. P.8.C.1 P.8.C.2 Students know visible light is a narrow band within the electromagnetic spectrum. I/S Students know vibrations (e.g., sounds, earthquakes) move at different speeds in different materials, have different wavelengths, and set up wave-like disturbances that spread away from the source uniformly. E/S Know visible light is a small segment of the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Recognize and identify the properties of light (e.g., color, brightness, wavelength, frequency, reflection, refraction, and diffraction). Understand the relationship between the electromagnetic radiation emitted by and object and the object s temperature. Understand that sound is produced and carried by molecules. Identify and describe characteristics of waves: wavelength, frequency, amplitude, and speed. Recognize that waves transfer energy differently in different materials. Identify the causes and effects of the Doppler Effect. Understand the relationship between velocity, wavelength, and frequency. Understand the difference between transverse waves and longitudinal waves. Locate the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Identify the relative temperature of an object based on the color of light it emits. Identify the parts of a wave when provided its characteristics. Compare and contrast transverse and longitudinal waves. Cite evidence of how the properties of waves can be used to identify the location of an earthquake.
5 5 P.8.C.3 Students know physical, chemical, and nuclear changes involve a transfer of energy. E/S Recognize that in physical, chemical, and nuclear changes, energy is transformed. Identify energy transformations that occur in a physical change of location, a chemical reaction, and in a nuclear reaction. Provided a diagram, the students can classify the energy transformations as either chemical or physical. P.8.C.4 Students know energy cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical or physical reaction, but only changed from one form to another. E/S Identify and describe differences between kinetic and potential energy. Describe common energy transformations (e.g., chemical to motion, radiant to chemical, electrical to thermal, electrical to radiant). Design an experiment that would demonstrate both chemical and physical transfer of energy. Identify potential and kinetic energy within a system. Provided a diagram of a car rolling down a hill, account for the energy within the system. P.8.C.5 Students know heat energy flows from warmer materials or regions to cooler ones through conduction, convection, and radiation. E/S Explain convection, conduction, and radiation using terms of heat transfer. Given a scenario involving heat transfer, recognize convection, conduction, and radiation. Compare different materials and their ability to transfer heat. Understand the properties of conductors and insulators. Interpret a motion graph of a roller coaster, citing evidence to account for all energy transformations within the system. Identify the heat flow given a diagram of hot and cold objects. Compare the ability of common materials (metal, plastic, wood) to transfer heat. Design an experiment to maximize the heat transfer into or out of a system.
6 6 P.8.C.6 Students know electrical circuits provide a means of transferring electrical energy to produce heat, light, sound, and chemical changes. I/S Recognize and diagram parallel and series circuits. Identify the different parts of parallel and series circuits. Describe the function of each part of the circuit. Understand the function of conductors, resistors, and insulators in circuits. Describe the path an electric current takes in parallel and series circuits. Recognize that electricity is the transfer of energy through moving electrical charges (in both current and static electricity). Know like charges repel and opposite charges attract (flow of electricity). Know some mediums allow electricity to pass through them more readily than others. Know electrical energy can be transformed into other types of energy (e.g., magnetic, heat, light, sound, and mechanical) and those other types can be transformed back into electrical energy. Recognize complete circuits in both parallel and series. Compare and contrast parallel and series circuits. Design and construct an apparatus that uses at least 3 energy transformations and lights a light bulb.
7 7 C 2 LIFE SCIENCE Standard Heredity Heredity is the genetic passing of a set of instructions from generation to generation. These instructions are encoded as DNA and may manifest themselves as characteristics. Some characteristics are inherited, and some result from interactions with the environment. Know reproduction of organisms includes cell division, transfer of genetic information, and Identify instances of the passage of Students know heredity is the passage of the probability of certain characteristics passed genetic information (flower color, genetic instructions from one generation to from one generation to the next. hitchhikers thumb, coat color, height). L.8.A.1 the next generation. E/S Differentiate between asexual and sexual reproduction at the cellular level. Compare and contrast sexual and L.8.A.2 L.8.A.3 L.8.A.4 Students know changes in genes of eggs and sperm can cause changes in inherited characteristics. E/S Students know organisms can be bred for specific characteristics. I/L Students know some characteristics of an organism are the result of a combination of interaction with the environment and Know about inheritance, nature of mutations (beneficial and/or harmful), and genetic variation. Recognize that in sexual reproduction, mutations only get passed to the next generation when they occur in sex cells. Distinguish between innate and learned behaviors. Describe physical traits that are inherited and asexual reproduction. Match the definition with the word for: mutation, inheritance, genetic variation, sex cell, genes, and genetic characteristics. Compare and contrast mutations that occur in somatic cells with those that occur in sex cells. While a woman is pregnant she is diagnosed with skin cancer. Explain why the baby will or will not be born with skin cancer. Provide examples of how humans have bred animals for their characteristics. Explain the cost and benefits of selective breeding. Recognize a behavior as innate or learned.
8 8 genetic information. E/S influenced by the environment. Explain how an animal s coat color can influence its survival in its environment. An artic hare is white in winter and brown in summer; cite evidence how this characteristic is advantageous or disadvantageous to the animal's survival. Standard Structure of Life All living things are composed of cells. Cells can range from very simple to very complex and have structures which perform functions for the organism. Cells and cell structures can be damaged or fail because of intrinsic failures or disease. L.8.B.1 L.8.B.2 L.8.B.3 Students know all organisms are composed of cells, which are the fundamental units of life. E/S Students know cells grow, divide, and take in nutrients which they use to provide energy for cell functions. E/S Students know some organisms are made of just one cell and that multicellular organisms can consist of thousands to millions of cells working together. E/S Know organisms are unicellular or multicellular. Recognize that cells are made of many specialized parts (i.e., nucleus, cell membrane, cell wall, chromosomes, chloroplast, vacuole, mitochondria). Understand the general process of cell division. Identify that the specialized parts of cells perform specific functions. Know the function of semi-permeable membranes. Understand the general processes of cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Describe the specialization of cells in multicellular organisms (e.g., skeletal muscle, nerve cells, epidermal cells, cardiac muscle). Identify cell parts when given their function. Compare and contrast unicellular organisms to multicellular organisms. Identify cell parts when provided their function. Compare and contrast cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Design and conduct an experiment to demonstrate the effect of a semipermeable membrane on cell. Identify organisms as being single cellular or multicellular. Compare and contrast unicellular organisms to multicellular organisms.
9 9 L.8.B.4 L.8.B.5 Students know cells combine to form tissues that combine to form organs and organ systems that are specialized to perform life functions. E/S Students know disease can result from defects in body systems or from damage caused by infection. E/S Know cells work together to form tissues, organs, and organ systems. Know the functions of organs and organ systems. (i.e., skeletal, muscular, digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous). Know there are different types of cells within tissues, organs, and organ systems in the same organism designed to take on specialized tasks. Understand the general ways that diseases are spread among organisms. Understand the general ways that disease affects individual organisms. Recognize that some diseases are caused by many different types of infections (e.g., virus influenza, AIDS; bacteria pneumonia, strep throat; protista malaria; fungus athletes foot). Identify that some diseases are infectious, others are inherited, and some result from a breakdown of body systems. Know defects in body systems can be related to congenital, autoimmune, or environmental conditions. Identify tissues, organs, and organ systems. Explain the interaction between two organ systems (circulatory and respiratory, nervous and muscular, muscular and skeletal). Recognize common ways to prevent the spread of diseases (washing hands, cleaning surfaces, covering mouth when coughing/sneezing). Compare and contrast disease causing agents (bacteria, viruses, cancer, protista and fungi). An emergent disease has been discovered in your town. Design and justify steps that can be taken to prevent the disease from becoming an epidemic. Standard Organisms and their Environment A variety of ecosystems and communities exist on Earth. Ecosystems are dynamic interactions of organisms and their environment. Ecosystems have distinct characteristics and components that allow certain organisms to thrive. Change in one or more components can affect the entire ecosystem. L.8.C.1 Students know how matter and energy are transferred through food webs in an ecosystem. E/S Diagram and label a food web. Given a scenario, identify the pathways of energy flow in the system. Know the Sun is the primary source of energy for most living organisms on Earth. Explain that matter and energy are transferred, transformed, and conserved within an ecosystem. Identify relationships within a food web. Identify how the number of top consumers is controlled by the amount of primary producers in an
10 10 L.8.C.2 Students know how to characterize organisms in any ecosystem by their functions. E/S Know that in a food web, the amount of energy available decreases from producer to primary consumer to secondary consumer due to energy used for cellular/life functions that is lost as heat. Identify producers, consumers, decomposers, and their functions in an ecosystem. Understand how different populations interact within an ecosystem. Understand different types of relationships (e.g., symbiotic, mutual, and parasitic/host) in an ecosystem. Understand the process of succession (e.g., producers enter ecosystem first, followed by consumers). ecosystem. Explain the potential impact on a food web when the number of organisms found in one or more populations has been severely altered. When provided a food web, identify an organism s function in the ecosystem (producer, consumer, or decomposer). Given two organisms in an ecosystem, describe their relationships as symbiotic, mutualistic, or parasitic. L.8.C.3 Students will evaluate how changes in environments can be beneficial or harmful. E/S Predict the beneficial and harmful results of a large change in an ecosystem. Understand that ecosystems include both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) elements. Given an example, predict the relationships between living and non-living factors and the types of organisms that can live there. Understand that changes in an ecosystem can be the result of human impact or natural causes/processes and can be beneficial and/or harmful. Cite evidence of succession in a given environment after catastrophic change (such as forest fire, hurricane damage, severe tornado damage). Identify living and nonliving components within an ecosystem. Provided a diagram of an ecosystem, explain the relationships between the biotic and abiotic components. Predict how changes in an ecosystem s biotic and/or abiotic factors can be beneficial or harmful to the organisms living in that ecosystem.
11 11 L.8.C.4 Students know inter-related factors affect the number and type of organisms an ecosystem can support. E/S Understand that inter-related factors include both living (biotic) and non-living (abiotic) elements. Predict and recognize the effect of a change in the inter-related factors in an ecosystem. Understand that populations of organisms have specific adaptations that help them survive in an ecosystem and explain why an organism could/could not survive in a particular environment (e.g., due to specific adaptations, carrying capacity, and available biotic and abiotic resources). Know living organisms compete for resources in an ecosystem and the amount of available resources limits the carrying capacity of an ecosystem. Identify limiting factors within an ecosystem. Explain how an organism s adaptations can help an organism survive in a given environment. An organism that is adapted to a specific environment is transplanted to another environment. Cite reasons why the organism may or may not be successful in the new environment based on its adaptations. Standard Diversity of Life Evidence suggests that living things change over periods of time. These changes can be attributed to genetic and/or environmental influences. This process of change over time is called biological evolution. The Diversity of Life on Earth is classified using objective characteristics. Scientific classification uses a hierarchy of groups and subgroups based on similarities that reflect evolutionary relationships. L.8.D.1 L.8.D.2 Students know species can be identified and classified based upon their characteristics. (8.8.6) E/S Students know fossils provide evidence of how life and environmental conditions have changed throughout geologic time. E/S Understand how to classify species based on certain characteristics (e.g., DNA, skeletal structure, body covering, petal arrangement, and deciduous/coniferous) and behaviors. Given a group of organisms and a key, classify organisms based on observable characteristics. Know fossils provide evidence of how environments and organisms have changed over time. Given examples, predict the relative age of rock layers based on the types of fossils that they contain. Know the conditions necessary for fossil formation. Group organisms based on common characteristic, both genetic and morphological. Classify organisms using a dichotomous key. Identify the types of rocks in which fossils can be found. Identify changes in an organism based on fossil evidence (horse, whales, sharks).
12 12 L.8.D.3 Students know an organism s behavior is based on both experience and on the species evolutionary history. E/S Know some mechanisms of biological evolution (e.g., natural selection, competition and survival, variation and adaptation, and genetic mutation). Know that differences among individuals within a species can yield advantages and/or disadvantages in survival and/or reproduction. Match the definition with the term (natural selection, variation and adaptation, competition and survival, and genetic mutation). Explain how variations within a species can be advantageous to a species' survival. Cite evidence of how variation or the lack of variation within a species can be harmful or beneficial to the survival of that species. C 3 EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE Standard Atmospheric Processes and the Water Cycle - Earth systems have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat. Driven by sunlight and Earth s internal heat, a variety of cycles connect and continually circulate energy and material through the components of the earth systems. Understand the relationship between the sun and Earth and how equinoxes, solstices, and seasons occur. Label the seasons on a diagram showing the Earth s tilt and Sun s Know Earth rotates on an axis, tilted at 23.5 o, as it orbits the sun (the tilt does not change orientation as Earth orbits the sun). location. E.8.A.1 Students know seasons are caused by Know Earth s axial tilt produces winter in In the Southern Hemisphere, during variations in the amounts of the Sun s northern hemisphere when it is summer in the what time of the year is the sun's energy reaching Earth s surface due to the southern hemisphere and vice versa. energy most concentrated? planet s axial tilt. E/S Know location and latitude affect the amount of the Sun's energy received. 1) Draw and label a diagram of the Earth s orbit indicating the tilt, seasons, equinox, and solstices. 2.) Relate seasons to the axial tilt to the amount of insulation received for both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere.
13 13 E.8.A.2 E.8.A.3 E.8.A.4 Students know how the processes involved in the water cycle affect climatic patterns. E/S Students know the properties that make water an essential component of the Earth system. E/S Students understand the composition of Earth s atmosphere, emphasizing the role of the atmosphere in Earth s weather and climate. I/S Understand the movement of water through the water cycle. Understand the difference between climate and weather. Understand the role of convection in the water cycle, weather, and climate (i.e., convection is the expansion and contraction of matter due to temperature). Describe water in the atmosphere as water vapor, clouds, ice crystals, and describe its role as a greenhouse gas. Understand that water exists in all three states of matter on Earth. Understand why ice floats on water and its impact on aquatic life. Describe water in the atmosphere as water vapor, clouds, and ice crystals, and describe its role as a greenhouse gas. Know clouds, precipitation, glaciers, and polar ice caps are all sources of fresh water. Understand how temperature and altitude change in the different layers of the atmosphere. Recognize that the Earth s atmosphere contains different gases and particulate matter, and is mostly nitrogen and oxygen. Understand the role of atmospheric gases related to the greenhouse effect. Label parts of the water cycle. Compare the differences between various processes found in the water cycle. Recognize that water can be found in all three phase in the atmosphere. Compare the amount fresh water available to humans to the total amount of fresh water found on Earth. Evaluate the potential effects of a specific environmental change on the water cycle (e.g., clear cutting of forests, global warming, volcanic activity). Identify the most common elements in the atmosphere. Identify which layer of the atmosphere weather predominately occurs. Compare the characteristics of the various layers of the atmosphere. Explain the influence of the greenhouse effect on Earth s weather and climate.
14 14 E.8.A.5 E.8.A.6 Students know the difference between local weather and regional climate. I/S Students know topography and patterns of global and local atmospheric movement influence local weather, which occurs primarily in the lower atmosphere. E/S Know how weather systems work and how there are daily variations. Compare regional climates and describe how climate regions are influenced. Recognize and use weather instruments to determine local weather. Understand the result of human impact on local weather and climate (heat island effect, deforestation, thermal inversion, and fires). Understand how topography affects local weather and seasons (e.g., rain shadow, global wind patterns, convection currents, lake effect, and global desert patterns). Recognize that most weather takes place in the part of the atmosphere closest to the Earth. Differentiate between weather and climate. Interpret a weather map (from a source such as USA Today, weather.com, or the local paper). Explain how the Farmer s Almanac makes weather predictions based on current local conditions and regional weather data. Label a diagram depicting rain shadow effect. Explain the relationship of local topography on local weather (rain shadow, lake effect, elevation, vegetation). Standard Solar System and Universe - The universe is a dynamic system of matter and energy. The universe is extremely large and massive with its components separated by vast distances. Tools of technology will continue to aid in the investigation of the components, origins, processes, and age of the universe. Earth is one part of our solar system, which is within the Milky Way Galaxy. The Sun is the energy producing star for our solar system. Most objects in our solar system are in predictable motion, resulting in phenomena such as day/night, year, and phases of the moon, tides, and eclipses. E.8.B.1 E.8.B.2 Students know the universe contains many billions of galaxies, and each galaxy contains many billions of stars. W/L Students know the solar system includes a great variety of planetary moons, asteroids, and comets. I/S Recognize the difference between moons, asteroids, and comets. Label galaxies based on their shape. Identify by name the galaxy in which the solar system is located. List the characteristic of moons, asteroids, and comets.
15 15 Compare the orbits of the asteroids and comets. E.8.B.3 E.8.B.4 E.8.B.5 Students know characteristics of the planets in our solar system. I/S Students know Earth is part of a solar system located within the Milky Way Galaxy. E/S Students know the Sun is many thousands of times closer to Earth than any other star, and billions of times closer than the far end of the Milky Way Galaxy. W/L Describe general planetary motions. Explain the relationship between moons and planets. Understand the characteristics of rocky (terrestrial) and gaseous planets. Identify the Earth as part of a solar system that is also part of a larger system that contains many thousands of star systems: the Milky Way Galaxy. Identify the characteristics of inner verses outer plants. Provided a picture of the surface of Mars, students identify evidence that liquid water may have once been present. Recognize evidence that our solar system is heliocentric. Identify by name the galaxy in which the solar system is located. Recognize common astronomical units of measure (millions of km, AUs, light year). E.8.B.6 E.8.B.7 Students know the Sun is a medium-sized star located in the Milky Way Galaxy, part of which can be seen as a glowing band of light spanning the clear night sky. W/S Students know regular and predictable motions of Earth around the Sun and the Moon around the Earth explain such phenomena as the day, the year, phases of the Moon, and eclipses. E/S Given examples, compare the mass, brightness, and color of the Sun to other stars. Given a model, locate the position of Earth, the Sun, and/or the Moon that would produce a specific phase of the Moon or type of eclipse, and determine the phase of the Moon or types of eclipse based on the position of Earth, the Sun, and the Moon. Understand that the Earth/Moon system rotates Identify the sun as the closest star to earth. Given the mass, brightness and color of a star, its location on the HR diagram can be identified. Know that the phases of the Moon are cyclical. Draw and label diagrams depicting both solar and lunar eclipses.
16 16 and revolves around the Sun and the Moon rotates and revolves around Earth in a predictable pattern. Understand that our solar system is heliocentric. Standard Earth s Composition and Structure - Earth is composed of materials that move through the biogeochemical cycles. Earth s features are shaped by ongoing and dynamic processes. These processes can be constructive or destructive and occur over geologic time scales. Understand why most fossils are found in sedimentary rock. In what type of rock are fossils Given examples, identify how fossils and found? sedimentary rocks provide evidence of Students know sedimentary rocks and changing environments. E.8.C.1 fossils provide evidence for changing Understand rocks are dated by several methods What would be the appropriate age environments and the constancy of geologic (e.g., the law of superposition, radiometric dating technique to date a bone processes. E/S dating, and index fossils). fragment found in a soil deposit? E.8.C.2 Students know rocks at Earth s surface weather, forming sediments that are buried, then compacted, heated, and often recrystallized into new rock. E/S Understand the rock cycle, identify each type of rock (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic) and identify the processes needed to create each type of rock. Recognize the processes of the rock cycle. Understand that matter is conserved in the rock cycle. Use relative dating techniques to date geologic events in a cross section diagram. Justify your answers with evidence. Label a diagram of the rock cycle. (could be a matching question). Compare the processes of any two of the parts of the rock cycle. E.8.C.3 Students know Earth is composed of a crust (both continental and oceanic); hot convecting mantle; and is dense, with a metallic core. E/S Given a model, identify the major structural elements of the Earth (i.e., continental and oceanic crusts, mantle, and metallic core). Relate the phase of the rock cycle to the local geology (or to a picture/diagram). Label a diagram of the major structural elements of the Earth (matching parts to a diagram).
17 17 E.8.C.4 E.8.C.5 Compare the major structural Students know the very slow movement of large crustal plates results in geological events. E/S Students know how geologic processes account for state and regional topography. E/S Know earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountain building are caused by heat from convection currents in the upper mantle powering the movement of plates in a continuous process. Identify geological events that result from movements of crustal plates. Relate geological processes to certain topographical features (e.g., basin and range, canyon, alluvial fans, and volcanoes). Recognize and compare geologic processes that shape Nevada s regions. elements based on their characteristics. Recognize convection as the driving force for crustal movement. Identify the effects of crustal movement (i.e. mountain building, faulting, earthquakes, ocean basins). Given a map of the ring of fire identify probable causes for the concentration of earthquake and volcanic activity. Identify the major geologic features of Nevada (basin and range, volcanoes, alluvial fans). Identify the tectonic processes that shape Nevada s topography. Describe and explain how regional geology in Nevada is a result of specific tectonic activity (basin and range, tension, Sierra Nevada s compression). E.8.C.6 Students know minerals have different properties and different distributions according to how they form. E/S Understand the properties of minerals (e.g., color, luster, hardness, reactivity, light transmission, and density). Understand how minerals form and where they are typically found. Compare and explain how geologic processes can account for variation in state and regional topography. Recognize basic characteristics of mineral identification (luster, hardness, color, smell, and streak). Recognize that minerals are not evenly distributed throughout the world.
18 18 E.8.C.7 Students know the characteristics, abundances, and location of renewable and nonrenewable resources found in Nevada. E/S Identify properties of renewable and nonrenewable resources. Identify the common renewable and nonrenewable resources found in Nevada (e.g., copper, oil, coal, geothermal, wind, and silver). Identify which resources are abundant and where they are found in Nevada. Given mineral samples, use the basic characteristics to accurately identify each (sulfur, rock salt, talc, magnetite). Recognize the differences of a renewable vs. nonrenewable resource. Recognize Nevada's specific renewable and nonrenewable resources. Recognize specific minerals found in abundance in Nevada. E.8.C.8 Students know soils have properties, such as color, texture, and water retention, and provide nutrients for life according to how they form. E/S Understand the relationship between particle size and soil composition and the ability of soil to retain water. Identify properties of soils such as color, texture, and water retention. Understand how soils form and the major components of soil. Interpret a graph of Nevada's specific renewable and nonrenewable resources (percentage by source, total comparison of renewable vs. nonrenewable). Label a soil profile. Provided two soil profiles, a comparison can be made as to their ability to retain water.
19 19 C 4 NATURE OF SCIENCE Standard Inquiry - Scientific Inquiry is the process by which humans systematically examine the natural world. Scientific inquiry is a human endeavor and involves observation, reasoning, insight, energy, skill, and creativity. Scientific inquiry is used to formulate and test explanations of nature through observation, experiments, and theoretical or mathematical models. Scientific explanations and evidence are constantly reviewed and examined by others. Questioning, response to criticism, and open communication are integral to the process of science. Properly label and construct a graph. N.8.A.1 N.8.A.2 Students know how to identify and critically evaluate information in data, tables, and graphs. E/S DOK 4 Students know how to critically evaluate information to distinguish between fact and opinion. E/S Make inferences using information from data tables, charts, and graphs. Identify meaningful data from an experiment and then organize the information into appropriate graphs, tables, or charts. Given a data set (table, graph or chart), make predictions based on information presented. Recognize the differences between precision, accuracy, and estimation. Make factual statements given an event, lab experiment, or observation, and then use those facts to make inferences and form conclusions. Organize and collect appropriate data while making observations. Interpolate and extrapolate for a given data set. Identify statements as fact or opinion. Make inferences based on student observations. DOK 4 Given an example, recognize that results can be explained in more than one way. Critically evaluate conclusions drawn from inferences against accepted scientific concepts. Construct hypotheses from a limited data set. N.8.A.3 Students know different explanations can be given for the same evidence. E/S Draw multiple explanations from a limited data set (extinction of dinosaurs, plate tectonics, origin of the universe).
20 20 N.8.A.4 N.8.A.5 Students know how to design and conduct a controlled experiment. E/S DOK 4 Students know how to use appropriate technology and laboratory procedures safely for observing, measuring, recording, and analyzing data. E/S Given a specific question, design a way to test the question using appropriate variables and controls, defend the use of the experimental design, and describe weaknesses or flaws in the test, experiment, or research design. Given an example, identify which variable(s) should be controlled in the experimental design. Explain how inquiry drives the procedures of science. Use appropriate vocabulary when designing and conducting a controlled experiment (e.g., qualitative and quantitative, observations, inference, benefit, consequence, inferring, predicting, data, problem, hypothesis, conclusion, controls, and variable). Understand how to report data and share findings. Know established scientific procedures for lab activities and research (e.g., equipment gets used appropriately after instruction, accurately represent data, know and follow safety rules, and use data to provide evidence for a conclusion). Given an example, identify correct practices for safely conducting an experiment. Use laboratory technology/equipment appropriately. Use appropriate SI units. Critically evaluate and defend different scientific explanations for the same phenomena. Match terms with definitions for control, variable, experimental design, dependent and independent, inference, observations, benefit, hypothesis. Explain the purpose of conducting controlled experiments. Design a controlled experiment to test a hypothesis. Identify appropriate scientific tools for a specific purpose. Utilize appropriate tools scientific task (proper lab equipment for the experiment at hand). For a given lab activity, students can list the appropriate science equipment, safety procedures, and organize the data to be collected.
21 21 N.8.A.6 Students know scientific inquiry includes evaluating results of scientific investigations, experiments, observations, theoretical and mathematical models, and explanations proposed by other scientists. E/S DOK 4 Know and practice scientific inquiry. Use reliable data collection, accurate graphing, experimental design, and experimental controls. Given multiple experiments addressing the same problem, compare, contrast, and analyze the meaning of all the results. Identify parts of an experimental design process (variables, control, and dependent variable). Make a simple graphical interpretation. Identify the benefits of conducting multiple experiments when testing variables. Explain why multiple experiments need to be conducted to obtain accurate AND reliable data. N.8.A.7 Students know there are multiple methods for organizing items and information. E/S Know how to use multiple methods such as data tables; choose appropriate graphs to represent data; and use technology to organize information. DOK 4 Science Fair type projects can be used to demonstrate the students' understanding of experimental design and the models. Proper formatting of both graphs and data tables. Identifying the best graph to use to display specific data (bar graph, histograms, line graph). Build a graph to accurately display a set of data provided. The graph must be the proper type of graph as well as be properly labeled, titled, and formatted.
22 22 Standard Science, Technology, and Society - Technology defines a society or era. It can shape the environment in which people live, and it has increasingly become a larger part of people s lives. While many of technology s effects on society are regarded as desirable, other effects are seen as less desirable. These concepts are shared across subject areas such as science, math, technology, social studies, and language arts. The development and use of technology affects society and the environment in which we live, and at the same time, society influences the development of technology and its impact on culture. N.8.B.1 N.8.B.2 Students understand that consequences of technologies can cause resource depletion and environmental degradation, but technology can also increase resource availability, mitigate environmental degradation, and make new resources economical. E/S DOK 4 Students know scientific knowledge is revised through a process of incorporating new evidence gained through on-going investigation and collaborative discussion. E/S Identify examples and explain costs and benefits of a given technological advance. Recognize and identify examples of the effect of technologies on use of resources. Describe the development of major technological advances and explain the changing balance of cost and benefits. Explain when and why society utilizes technology, even though it can have a negative impact. Describe that scientific knowledge is constantly changing as scientists continue to investigate and share new information. Identify potential costs and benefits for specific resources and technologies. Compare and contrast resources used to meet the same end goal (e.g., electricity production, transportation, or home heating). Cost and benefits analysis of resource use in the environment and on society (e.g., the use of corn-based methanol for auto fuels and its effect on the cost of food products). Identify examples of changes in knowledge resulting from new information. Questions might be to identify how/why theories have changed over time. Compare old and new theories with regards to how new knowledge has impacted man s understanding of the natural world. DOK 4 Argue that advancements in man s understanding are based on specific gains in knowledge in different theories (e.g., plate tectonics, heliocentric versus earth-centered solar system).
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