Why are some drugs only available on prescription? Depressants. Pain killers. Stimulants. Performance enhancers. Hallucinogens

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1 Explain the terms Addiction Tolerance How are drugs classified? Class A = Class C= In tobacco smoke what do the following cause? Explain the effect of a depressant on the synapse CO Withdrawal symptoms How does smoking affect the birth weight of a baby? Name 2 beneficial drugs and give their uses? Nicotine Tars Particulates Rehabilitation How does smoke effect ciliated epithelial cells in your trachea, bronchi and bronchioles? Why are some drugs only available on prescription? How do we measure the strength of alcohol in a drink? Explain the effect of a stimulant on the synapse Describe two ways the liver can be damaged by alcohol What are the long term effects of alcohol on your body? Why is there a legal limit of alcohol for drivers and pilots? What are the short term effects of alcohol on your body? What are the general effects of and give an example of each type of drug Depressants Pain killers Stimulants Performance enhancers Hallucinogens

2 What are alleles? How many pairs of chromosomes in body cells? How many chromosomes in gametes??explain why? Some characteristics are inherited, some are determined by the environment, some are determined by both. Match these up? Eye colour Body mass Some disorders are inherited eg red/green colour blindness, sicklecell anaemia, cystic fibrosis. Is this due to a recessive or dominant faulty allele? What is a gene? Intelligence scars Be able to construct a punnett square cross using letters to represent alleles Explain the causes of genetic variation, to include Mutations Gamete formation Define the following Homozygous Heterozygous Fertilisation How is sex determined by sex chromosomes? What do we mean by a dominant allele? Dominant What do we mean by a recessive allele? recessive

3 What factors in the environment do plants respond to? Why does growth of a plant shoot towards light increase survival? Describe an experiment to show that shoots grow towards light? Why do roots grow downwards? Geotropism? B1 Plant Hormones Phototropism? Explain how auxin brings about shoot curvature in terms of cell elongation? Name the common plant hormone How do we use hormones in agriculture to effect plant growth? Describe the action of plant hormones in control of dormancy? Describe the action of plant hormones in selective weed killers Describe the action of plant hormones in rooting powder Describe the action of plant hormones in fruit ripening?

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5 Health& Fitness what is the difference? Which ways can we measure fitness? How does smoking increase the risk of heart disease? How does CO reduce the carrying capacity of RBC? Why do narrow arteries increase risk of a heart attack? Agility How does diet increase the risk of heart disease? (cholesterol and salt) How do we measure BP? (diastolic/systolic data) How does a thrombosis increase risk of a heart attack? What factors decrease BP? Consequences of high blood pressure? Consequences of low blood pressure? Why is blood under high pressure in arteries? Can you calculate the EAR or BMI? (Look up the formula) What factors increase BP? How are fats and carbohydrates stored? Structure of carbohydrates/proteins/fats? What nutrients do you need for a balanced diet? Proteins are not stored Explain how a balanced diet will vary depending on your age/gender/religion/activity/personal choice/medical issues? Describe the difference between first and second class proteins? What problems are linked to obesity?

6 What is a parasite? What is the host? Relate your answer to malaria? How does knowledge of the life cycle of a disease help people to control the disease? (relate to malaria) Describe changes in diet and lifestyle to reduce the risk of cancer Describe how new treatments are tested using animals, human tissue and computer models Explain the difference between active and passive immunity What is the difference between a benign and malignant tumour? What objections might people have to the above? Why do we need specific antibodies to a pathogen? Explain each of the following in relation to disease Antibiotics Antivirals Toxins produced by pathogens How are lasers used? How do pathogens cause the symptoms of disease? What are blind and doubleblind trials? Describe how your body fights infection? What is MRSA? How do we prevent the increase of MRSA? Describe and explain the process of immunisation? How does the human body protect itself against pathogens (blood, skin, mucus and HCl ) What are the risks and benefits of immunisation?

7 Diagram to explain what happens at a synapse Draw and label the main parts of a neurone Draw a reflex arc and describe the passage of a simple reflex Where is insulin made and how does it help us to control blood sugar levels Diagram to show correction of short sight? Diagram to show correction of long sight? Explain the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Describe the pathway of light to the retina? Explain how we see near and long distance (accomodation) Define homeostasis How do we avoid hypothermia? What is negative feedback? When is binocular vision useful? Which animals rely on this? What do red/green colour blind people lack in their retina? Describe the function of the following in the eye How do we avoid overheating? Which part of the brain monitors body temperature? Cornea Iris Lens When is monocular vision useful? Which animals rely on this? Retina Optic nerve

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