early careers A UCU GUIDE FOR NEW STAFF IN FURTHER AND HIGHER EDUCATION

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1 eary careers A UCU GUIDE FOR NEW STAFF IN FURTHER AND HIGHER EDUCATION

2 foreword the end of 2008 UCU carried out its first survey of members who are at the beginning At of their careers in post-schoo education. We asked you about the probems you had experienced starting work in the sector, what kind of support you thought woud be hepfu, and aso about your views of UCU. Your response was overwheming with the argest number of participants in any survey the union has carried out. The resuts eoquenty describe the experience of being a new member of staff in further and higher education, and wi inform the work UCU does to represent you and to hep meet your needs and aspirations in the future. One of the most frequent probems described was a ack of guidance and support for new staff a feeing of being eft to sink or swim sometimes without a proper induction programme or training. As one member described it: With no rea induction I have to chase around finding out information that, had it been made avaiabe to me, woud have saved me stress and extra workoad in an aready demanding career. This is a guide for staff who are new to, or are considering, a career in post-schoo education. It contains professiona guidance on finding the right job for you, what to expect when you start work, and tips on getting the most from your career. It aso gives practica advice on what to do if you have a probem at work, as we as signposting other sources of hep avaiabe and, importanty, showing how active membership of a trade union can improve the working ives of everyone. I hope you wi find this a usefu resource and one that you wi return to throughout the eary stages of your career. In addition to materia provided by experienced trade union and education professionas, I have incuded contributions and suggestions from the many members who kindy vounteered to act as a user group, so the guidance here is based on the rea experience of staff in further and higher education. However, in an ever-changing sector we wi be updating this guide from time to time and wecome your feedback and comments. If you have any suggestions to make pease contact me, Ed Baiey, at With our very best wishes for your future career in post-schoo education. Ed Baiey UCU Nationa Organiser thank you Many thanks to everyone invoved with this project. Invauabe contributions were made by members: David Meor, Sujitha Subramanian, Rache Bridson, Phiippa Veija, Edward Granter, Raj Dhimar, Asiya Siddiquee, Jimmy Donaghey, Rache Finn, Andrew McGettigan, Darren Paffey, Daithi Mac Sithigh, Jenny Swanston, Francesca Darington, Sarah Mohammad-Qureshi, Sarah Curran, and Ant Ince. Thanks aso to UCU staff: Dan Taubman, John Offord, Rob Copeand, Jane Thompson, Andrew Harden, Rache Curey, Matt Waddup, Jonathan White, Justine Stephens, Abbie Jenkinson and Jenny Shorter. Specia thanks go to Dr Margaret Gosing and Geoff Petty.

3 contents SECTION 1 STARTING YOUR CAREER 04 n Getting your first job in post-schoo education 05 n Contracts of empoyment 08 n The induction process 12 n Quaifications, professiona deveopment 13 and probation n Careers in research 18 SECTION 2 GETTING THE MOST FROM YOUR CAREER 20 n Cassroom management 21 n Lesson observation 30 n Mentoring 34 n Work/ife baance 36 n Safeguarding and security 38 SECTION 3 WHAT TO DO IF THINGS GO WRONG 42 n Workpace stress 43 n Discrimination at work 45 n Buying and harassment 46 n Temporary contracts 49 SECTION 4 OTHER THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW 50 n Appendix 1: Working in further education 51 n Appendix 2: Working in higher education 58 GLOSSARY OF ABBREVIATIONS 62 JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

4 starting your career n Getting your first job in post-schoo education n Contracts of empoyment n The induction process n Quaifications, professiona deveopment, probation n Careers in research

5 starting your career 05 Getting your first job in post-schoo education Finding the right job for you JOB ADVERTS Looking at job adverts is a quick and easy way to find out what jobs are avaiabe. Fu-time and part-time coege and university teaching posts are advertised in the Education Guardian (on Tuesdays), the Times Educationa Suppement further education pages, and the Times Higher Education Suppement (both on Fridays). Other broadsheet newspapers incuding The Times, The Independent, and The Daiy Teegraph pubish job vacancies in further and higher education institutions. It is aso worth checking oca and regiona press and the foowing speciaist jobs websites for further and higher education posts: and Remember, adverts are not designed to hep you understand what different kinds of jobs invove they are generay for peope who know the type of job they are after. Coege and university careers services have a weath of resources to support career research and panning, and you may aso find it hepfu to tak to a careers adviser before appying for particuar jobs. Coege and university careers services have a weath of resources to support career research and panning, and you may aso find it hepfu to tak to a careers adviser WEBSITES AND JOB BOARDS Most empoyers now advertise vacancies on their websites or through onine job boards. You can aso find further education (FE) and higher education (HE) job vacancies onine on specific education sector job boards, genera job boards that cover a empoyment sectors, or oca job boards that advertise jobs avaiabe in a particuar geographica area. For exampe the Times Higher Education website has a job board for positions in universities where you can browse by roe, ocation etc: DIRECT APPROACH You coud aso try approaching oca coeges, or adut education institutions that offer courses in your subject area/s athough you coud be offered casua or temporary teaching hours rather than a permanent position. AGENCIES A number of FE coeges in Engand aso empoy houry-paid teaching staff through empoyment agencies so you coud try registering with empoyment agencies that speciaise in the tertiary education sector. How to appy THE APPLICATION FORM If you are appying for an advertised post you wi be asked to compete an appication form giving fu detais of your education and any empoyment experience. REFEREES Most coeges and universities wi ask you to give the names of referees (usuay two) who can vouch for your experience and abiities remember to ask potentia referees for their permission before suppying their detais on an appication form. JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

6 06 starting your career Getting your first job in post-schoo education Interview panes wi be seeking out the most suitabe candidates for the vacancy rather than trying to trip you up so you just need to be cear and honest about what you can offer EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES MONITORING Most institutions wi require you to compete an equa opportunities form as part of their equa opportunities poicy. This enabes them to monitor their records to ensure fairness in the treatment of appicants, whatever their sex, ethnicity or physica abiity. JOB DESCRIPTIONS AND PERSON SPECIFICATIONS In many cases an appication form wi come with a job description, outining the components of the job on offer, and a person specification, detaiing the skis and experience being sought in the appicant. It is important to show in your appication how you match these requirements. Making the most of what you can bring to the job wi increase your ikeihood of being shortisted. Check if the appication form is avaiabe onine. This can often be quicker and you wi find it easier to make changes and correct any mistakes. If you do compete a paper form don't forget to keep copies of any appications that you send off. YOUR CV You might aso want to draw up your own CV (curricuum vitae) if you are appying for jobs on spec. This shoud outine your education and any work experience, and name peope who can be approached for references. Don't forget to cover any vountary, community or other experience that coud show you have the quaities and maturity to teach in a post-schoo setting. You shoud taior any covering etter to show why you are appying to the particuar institution and/or course. If you are appying for an advertised post you shoud compete any appication form specified rather than just send in your CV. For more advice on CVs see the Coege and University Support Network website at: There is aso a usefu exampe of an academic CV tempate at: Preparing for interviews, receiving feedback INTERVIEW PANELS Interviews can be nerve-wracking at any stage in your career. Interview panes wi be seeking out the most suitabe candidates for the vacancy rather than trying to trip you up so you just need to be cear and honest in outining your background, any work experience you have, and the quaities you can offer. PREPARATION You shoud go over what you wrote in your appication form and be prepared to answer further questions on your education, empoyment and/or vountary experience that show you can do the job as outined in the job description and person specification. Don't forget any transferabe skis experience you may have gained outside of an educationa setting but which is reevant to the post you are appying for. You shoud aso check out any information the institution may have sent you about the post so that you arrive at the interview we-informed. Look at the institution's website to find out more about your potentia workpace. EARLY CAREERS: A UCU GUIDE

7 starting your career 07 Getting your first job in post-schoo education If you know who is going to be on your interview pane it is often worth finding out a bit about them and perhaps reading any academic papers they may have written prior to the interview. Tips on making the most of body anguage and non-verba communication in interviews can be found at: FEEDBACK If you are not offered the post, and don't know why, you can usuay approach the institution's human resources or personne department for feedback about your performance at the interview. This may be hepfu for future appications and interviews. Checks and references Empoyers are aso now egay obiged to check that you are entited to work in the UK and wi ask you for documentation to prove this before issuing a contract THE JOB OFFER If you are successfu at interview you wi usuay be given a provisiona job offer subject to references being received and other checks carried out by the empoyer prior to you starting in post. REFERENCES A previous empoyer is not egay obiged to provide a reference but, if they do, they have a duty to make sure it s accurate and not miseading. If you receive an offer of a job subject to a satisfactory reference any contract wi not take effect unti this is received. DOCUMENTATION Empoyers are aso now egay obiged to check that you are entited to work in the UK and wi ask you for documentation to prove this before issuing a contract. This can incude passport, birth certificate or certificate of registration. CRB CHECKS In some cases an empoyer may need to carry out a Crimina Records Bureau (CRB) check, particuary if you are appying to work in education for the year-od age group or in prison education offender earning. For more detais visit the CRB website at: CERTIFICATES You may be asked to provide proof of your quaifications so make sure you keep a your certificates. JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

8 08 starting your career Contracts of empoyment Your contract is a very important document because it sets out the terms and conditions under which your work is to be done You shoud make sure that you understand your contract and ask for anything you re not sure about to be carified The importance of your contract Before you start your new job you wi be issued with a contract of empoyment which you wi be asked to sign and return, usuay to the human resources/ personne department of the coege of university where you wi be working. You shoud aso be given a copy which you shoud keep somewhere safe for future reference. Your contract is a very important document because it sets out the terms and conditions under which your work is to be done. It aso tes you what the empoyer expects of you and what you can expect of them. You shoud make sure that you understand your contract and ask for anything you re not sure about to be carified. Once a coege or university has offered you a job and you have accepted it, this constitutes a ega contract of empoyment, even if you have not yet had a copy of your contract in writing. The coege or university has to provide you with a written copy of the main terms and conditions of your empoyment no ater than two months after you ve started working, but ideay you shoud get this before you start. WHAT IS IN YOUR CONTRACT? Your contract wi contain a statement of your terms and conditions of empoyment and the foowing information: the names of the empoyer and the empoyee the date your empoyment began/begins the period for which it is expected to continue or the date when it wi end if the job is not permanent the scae or rate of pay, or an expanation of how your pay wi be cacuated how often you wi get paid ie whether monthy, weeky etc and on what date your hours of work your hoiday entitement incuding pubic hoidays and hoiday pay your job tite and/or a description of what work you be doing where you wi be based and the address of the empoyer detais of any work you wi be asked to do outside the UK incuding how you wi be paid detais of sick pay, pensions and what notice is required by either you or the empoyer to terminate the contract Your empoyer shoud never make changes to this contract except: where the contract aows for a change (for exampe it might state that your pace of work can vary) if both you and the empoyer agree to a change EARLY CAREERS: A UCU GUIDE

9 starting your career 09 Contracts of empoyment through coective bargaining ie if your trade union negotiates changes to staff contracts with the coege or university by ending your contract and offering you a new one. If your empoyer makes changes to your contract, or if there is anything you are not sure about, you can seek advice from a UCU representative in your coege or university. Types of contracts PERMANENT CONTRACTS Permanent contracts appy to staff engaged in continuous empoyment as opposed to those empoyed for a fixed period of time or on an houry basis. A permanent contract wi be open-ended and does not need to be renewed. Either the empoyer or the staff member can terminate the contract by giving notice in writing the period of notice required wi be contained within the contract itsef. FRACTIONAL OR PRO-RATA CONTRACTS Pay and conditions of service are expressed as a fraction of those received by a comparabe fu-time empoyee. So, for exampe, in a 0.5 contract the part-timer works exacty haf the number of hours of a fu-timer and receives haf of a entitements such as hoidays. Fractiona part-timers shoud therefore check that the terms and conditions in their contract of empoyment accuratey refect the fraction on which they are empoyed. Under the principe of equa pay for work of equa vaue the houry rate shoud be equivaent to what a comparabe fu-time member of staff is paid If you are in any doubt about how your houry rate of pay is worked out pease contact your branch for further advice CONTRACTS FOR HOURLY-PAID STAFF Contracts for houry-paid staff specify an houry rate of pay and may or may not specify a fixed number of hours to be worked. Such contracts are often categorised as part-time contracts, but houry-paid staff often work as many hours as fu-time staff. In many institutions, houry-paid staff are differentiated from other part-time (fractiona) and permanent staff by having different job descriptions, different hoiday entitements and different rates of pay. For teaching and ecturing staff houry rates of pay are often paid per contact hour but aso incude payment for a notiona amount of time for preparation, marking, giving student support etc. It is important to estabish with the empoyer: how the houry rate is cacuated what the houry rate represents. Under the principe of equa pay for work of equa vaue the houry rate shoud be equivaent to what a comparabe fu-time member of staff is paid. If you are in any doubt about how your houry rate of pay is worked out pease contact your branch for further advice. Houry-paid staff are sometimes denied empoyee status and the right to sick pay, occupationa pensions etc. Again, contact your branch for advice if you have concerns about this. JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

10 10 starting your career Contracts of empoyment Fixed-term contracts can be fu-time or part-time, and either houry-paid or saaried If your contract is for a fixed-term you need to be cear about the date on which it wi finish VARIABLE-HOURS CONTRACTS An increasing number of part-timers are empoyed on contracts which aow variation in hours worked over the term of the contract. The particuar terms and conditions of such contracts wi be determined at your coege or university. UCU beieves that fractiona/pro-rata contracts are the most appropriate form of contract for part-time staff, but where variabe hours contracts are used they shoud specify a reaistic minimum of contracted hours. ZERO-HOURS CONTRACTS Zero hours or as and when contracts offer no guarantee of work, but merey set out the conditions, such as the rate of pay, if work is offered and accepted. UCU has a poicy of opposing such contracts as they offer no security to the member of staff. Often when such contracts are used empoyers wi caim that staff are sef-empoyed and therefore do not have access to the majority of empoyment protection egisation (see beow). FIXED-TERM (TEMPORARY) CONTRACTS This means that, written into the contract, is a specified date on which it wi come to an end. It may aternativey specify that the contract wi come to an end when a particuar task is competed. Fixed-term contracts can be fu-time or part-time, and either houry-paid or saaried. If your contract is for a fixed-term you need to be cear about the date on which it wi finish. It may not be necessary for your empoyer to give you any additiona notice other than that in the contract itsef uness they wish to bring it to an end before the specified date. However, your empoyer is obiged to consut with you about the ending of your contract and to seek ways to avoid your dismissa for exampe by extending your contract or offering you aternative work. In some circumstances your empoyer is aso egay obiged to consut with UCU on ways to avoid your dismissa at the end of your fixed-term contract. If you are dismissed then you may be entited to a redundancy payment. If you have any concerns about unfair dismissa or redundancy rights in reation to your fixed-term contract you shoud contact your UCU branch for further advice. The Fixed-term Empoyees (Prevention of Less Favourabe Treatment) Reguations 2002 This egisation seeks to prevent fixed-term staff being treated ess favouraby than their permanent coeagues. It aso prevents the use of successive fixed-term contracts for periods of onger than four years, uness the empoyer can provide objective justification for their continued use. The most important issue for members who have competed four years of successive fixed-term contracts is what type of permanent contract they are transferred to. The reguations merey remove the end date from the current contract so other contract terms remain unchanged. Members who have competed four years on fixedterm contracts shoud contact their branch for advice. Pay and hoidays Most part-time staff now receive their pay by credit transfer directy to bank accounts. Usuay payments take the form of a fixed monthy sum spread over a year, or the ength of the contract if it is for a fixed-term. EARLY CAREERS: A UCU GUIDE

11 starting your career 11 Contracts of empoyment A workers are entited to hoiday with pay, and for part-time staff this shoud be on a pro-rata basis. Your contract shoud specify your hoiday entitement. Where hoiday pay is paid in an overa houry rate your pay sip shoud identify the amount you have been paid as hoiday pay. Right to caim unfair dismissa and/or redundancy payments When a contract, even a fixed-term contract, comes to an end, there wi have been a dismissa for the purposes of statutory empoyment aw. When an empoyer dismisses an empoyee it must be for a fair reason, which can incude redundancy. Many further education coeges and universities empoy staff on fixed-term contracts which finish at the end of the summer term. Often the coege or university does not know whether it wi be offering new contracts unti the autumn term when it is cear how many students have enroed on courses. Staff in this position can sometimes caim a statutory redundancy payment. The sums of money invoved are not huge and you must have been working at the coege or university for at east two years. If your fixed-term contract comes to an end and you are not sure whether it wi be renewed you shoud contact your oca UCU branch representative to see whether you are entited to a redundancy payment. A agency staff have the right to join UCU, to be represented and have their voice heard Members shoud, of course, contact their branch with any individua issues which they need representation or hep with Waiver causes Aways opposed by UCU, these causes were incuded in some fixed-term contracts to prevent members' access to unfair dismissa and redundancy provisions. These causes are now iega and unenforceabe. A fixed-term contracts renewed, extended or commencing after 1 October 2002 cannot contain redundancy waiver causes and are unenforceabe where they do. Waiver causes in respect of unfair dismissa have been unenforceabe since CONTRACTS FOR AGENCY STAFF Some part-time staff in further and higher education find work through empoyment agencies. Staff in this position may find that they are not cassified as empoyees of the coege or university, or of the agency. If you are not counted as an empoyee, then you wi not have rights to caim unfair dismissa or statutory redundancy payments. This paces staff in a much more vunerabe position when it comes to ong-term security of empoyment. If you obtain work through an agency you shoud receive: written detais of the terms and conditions of your empoyment information about the kind of work which you wi be suppied with detais of minimum rates of pay. A agency staff have the right to join UCU, to be represented and have their voice heard. Members shoud of course, contact their branch with any individua issues which they need representation or hep with. JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

12 12 starting your career The induction process Induction usuay incudes meeting key coeagues and can incude forma sessions which prioritise knowedge essentia for the job and identify training needs What is induction? Many institutions wi offer an induction programme to new staff and this is the best way to start a new job whatever the nature of your work. Induction is sometimes aso referred to as staff orientation. Athough, hopefuy, you wi aready understand what your job entais and what work you wi be doing (before your first day you shoud have received both a job description and a contract), it is sometimes not cear what the day-to-day reaity of working in a coege or university wi be ike unti you start doing it. An induction process is a period at the start of your empoyment when you are integrated into the post and given the information and training necessary to start doing your job. This makes new staff fee vaued and heps them understand what is expected of them and how they fit into the organisation. This usuay incudes meeting key coeagues and can incude forma sessions which prioritise knowedge essentia for the job and identify training needs. A good induction wi aso cover any reevant heath and safety information and the socia and cutura aspects of the institution. WHAT TO EXPECT FROM AN INDUCTION These are some other features of the induction process you shoud expect when starting a new job in further or higher education: New staff shoud receive an induction that takes account of their individua needs and is specific to their roe and department as we as genera to the institution. This incudes part-time and houry-paid staff. Induction shoud be made avaiabe soon after your appointment and shoud be faciitated by time off from timetabed/teaching duties (paid, in the case of part-time staff). Coeges and universities shoud consut with staff and their recognised trade unions over appropriate and usefu forms of support for new staff, incuding mentoring, peer support, handbooks and emai or phone-based hep for areas such as IT. Induction sessions for new staff shoud incude opportunities for input from the recognised trade unions. New staff shoud be given reduced workoads that take into account their eve of experience, the extent to which course and curricua are new to them, and their need to participate in training and deveopment. It s reasonabe to expect to be supported into a new roe and not just dropped in at the deep end. You shoud speak to your ine-manager and/or trade union representative if you have any probems during the induction period or if anything is uncear. EARLY CAREERS: A UCU GUIDE

13 starting your career 13 Quaifications, professiona deveopment and probation Initia training and further education teaching quaifications Since September 2007 a newy appointed FE ecturers, whether fu- or part-time, have to gain a forma FE teaching quaification. For a ecturer this is a Dipoma in Teaching in Lifeong Learning (DTLLS). There is aso a Certificate in Teaching in the Lifeong Learning Sector (CTLLS). This is a eve 3 or 4 quaification. It is for staff who are not undertaking the fu range of tasks and roes expected of a teacher/ecturer. A fu- and part-time FE ecturers aso have to undertake a 30- hour induction course, Preparing to Teach in Lifeong Learning (PTLLS). For those taking DTLLS or the CTLLS this preparatory course wi be part of their dipoma or certificate. Since September 2007 a newy appointed FE ecturers, whether fu- or part-time, have to gain a forma FE teaching quaification Most FE ecturers take their FE teaching quaification as an in-service programme once they obtain a further education teaching post. Lecturers who are teaching Skis for Life programmes Literacy, Numeracy and ESOL have to gain a speciaist teaching quaification in their subject area. The DTLLS quaification and programme wi be embedded within this speciaist quaification. FE ecturers have five years to compete their teaching quaification if taken in service. The FE teaching quaification wi be the Postgraduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) if you are a graduate. If you are not a graduate then the quaification wi be a Certificate of Education (CertEd). The CertEd has been extended to adut and community earning services and work-based earning providers. Pease note that your FE teaching quaification does not quaify you to teach in schoos. But if you are teaching under-16s in a coege setting, you are quaified to undertake this teaching. For detais of the FE quaifications, and for information about where such programmes are approved, any bursaries, grants or goden handshakes avaiabe to trainees, see the Lifeong Learning Sector Counci website: Lifeong Learning UK aso has a very good hepdesk which can offer hep and advice on FE teaching quaifications. You can ca them on: Continuing professiona deveopment in further education The changes in the requirements regarding FE teaching quaifications contain the condition that FE ecturers shoud register with the professiona body, the Institute for Learning (IfL). To maintain membership of IfL you must undertake 30 hours of continuing professiona deveopment (CPD) per year and this has to be recorded. The empoyer has the right to inspect this og but not approve its content. The IfL wi monitor CPD ogs and sampe some to be inspected each year. You wi be required to confirm JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

14 14 starting your career Quaifications, professiona deveopment and probation Continuing professiona deveopment means maintaining, improving and broadening reevant knowedge and skis in your subject speciaism, teaching and training onine to IfL each year that you have competed 30 hours CPD. Further detais of the IfL onine og are given beow. Continuing professiona deveopment means maintaining, improving and broadening reevant knowedge and skis in your subject speciaism, teaching and training, so that it has a positive impact on your teaching practice and the experience of earners. CPD can incude attending an interna or externa course, or reading a book. CPD is taiored to you and your roe, and any activities you undertake in order to keep up to date with deveopments in a subject area or of changes in teaching methods wi count as meaningfu professiona deveopment, as ong as you have refected on how they have benefitted your professiona practice. You shoud be abe to answer the foowing questions: What professiona deveopment activities have you undertaken this year? Have you refected on the earning you have gained from these activities? Have the activities and the refection made a difference to how you teach or train? Can you show evidence of what the difference is and the impact it has made to earners, coeagues or the organisation in which you work? USEFUL LINKS 1 For detais of IfL, the benefits of joining, access to the REfLECT on-ine og and more information on CPD visit: 2 There is aso information on the UCU website at: 3 UCU have aso produced a too kit expaining the changes to FE initia teacher training and CPD which can be found under Branch Resources: Professiona formation in further education careers The way in which FE teachers usuay train and quaify is different from the path foowed by schoo teachers. Schoo teachers train to obtain their quaified teacher status (QTS) before starting work and then are required to compete a successfu probationary year working in the cassroom. Athough there are a few pre-service FE teaching programmes, most FE ecturers undertake their professiona quaification during their empoyment and there is no equivaent to the schoo teachers probationary year. However, FE now has a period of what is termed professiona formation. This is the post-quaification process by which a teacher is abe to gain Quaified Teacher Learning and Skis (QTLS) by demonstrating through professiona practice: the abiity to effectivey use the skis and knowedge gained whie training the capacity to meet the occupationa standards required of a teacher. The professiona formation process incudes the competion of the appropriate quaification, evidence of numeracy and iteracy skis at, or above, eve 2, EARLY CAREERS: A UCU GUIDE

15 starting your career 15 Quaifications, professiona deveopment and probation supporting testimony, the endorsement of the competed appication by an appropriate person and a sef-decaration of suitabiity. The personaised eements incude: an account of the candidate s expertise in their subject area. This can be a mix of persona refection on subject-reated skis or expertise, and peer observation from a suitabe expert witness evidence of teaching and earning which is an account of the candidate s abiity to effectivey use the skis and knowedge gained through initia teacher training to deiver their subject to a range of earners. It coud incude, or be a mix of, a persona refection on teaching and earning, peer or earner observation from a suitabe expert witness, observation of teaching and earning and micro teaching which incudes videos and reviews In recent years higher education institutions have expanded the training and deveopment opportunities on offer to academic and academic-reated staff sef-evauation an individua anaysis of the candidate s earning needs and goas for the next 12 months professiona deveopment panning an individuaised earning pan detaiing the actions to be taken to address the needs and goas identified through sef-assessment refective practice refection on the impact of professiona deveopment on the candidate s teaching practice, the benefit to earners and wider communities. Professiona deveopment in higher education Most recruits to academic posts in universities either have a PhD in the subject they are teaching or are studying for an appropriate research quaification. However, the Post-Compusory Education and Training, Certificate in Education (pre-service), is the professiona quaification for those wishing to teach in further education coeges, adut education, higher education and a wide range of other education and training settings outside the schoo sector. There are aso a variety of universities that run higher-eve courses eading to a quaification for entry into higher education teaching, which have been nationay accredited by the Higher Education Academy. These ead to associate practitioner, registered practitioner and practitioner-eve quaifications. There are aso master seve courses. In recent years higher education institutions have expanded the training and deveopment opportunities on offer to academic and academic-reated staff. The deveopment of in-house teaching courses for new academic staff, in particuar, has been a major priority for staff and educationa deveopment units. However, UCU has a number of criticisms of the approach adopted by institutions, incuding: the fragmentation of professiona roes the teaching ony approach an approach driven by costs rather than pedagogy a ack of consutation with practitioners over their deveopment needs JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

16 16 starting your career Quaifications, professiona deveopment and probation Since 2006 new academic staff have to compete a teaching and earning quaification as a requirement of probation inappropriate course deivery an over-emphasis on innovation and virtua earning environments the negect of houry-paid part-time ecturers and fixed-term researchers. UCU continues to argue for training and professiona deveopment that refects: respect for teaching and earning support that academics find effective the promotion of inks between research, schoarship and teaching professiona autonomy and academic freedom a community of schoarship where staff and students contribute to the deveopment of the teaching and research agenda a recognition of the European and internationa dimension to a of these issues, and the vaue of coaboration with feow academics at these eves. A positive union agenda for professiona deveopment might incude: continuing professiona deveopment needs ocated in the context of the coege, and determined in consutation with staff, on the basis of a mode of peer support and shared practice eg peer-supported review. staff entitement to sabbaticas the preservation of time for research and schoarship, sometimes referred to as sef-managed time identified time and budget for deveopment activities an agenda for professiona deveopment in the context of widening participation and increasing student diversity that is not mechanistic but stimuates debate on the curricuum and wider, academic impications identified time and budget for activities to support new staff, incuding houry-paid part-timers, such as mentoring maintaining the deveopmenta focus of appraisa separate from issues to do with pay and conditions union invovement in determining staff priorities for forma training incuding content and deivery. PROBATION FOR ACADEMIC STAFF Since 2006 new academic staff have to compete a teaching and earning quaification as a requirement of probation. These teaching programmes are run by the empoying institution but within an overa accreditation and standards framework estabished by the Higher Education Academy. The courses are often provided by the university s education deveopment, or teaching and earning, unit, and generay ead to a postgraduate quaification. The courses are ikey to cover issues such as deveoping teaching practice, student earning and support, quaity assurance, assessing student earning and course design and deveopment. EARLY CAREERS: A UCU GUIDE

17 starting your career 17 Quaifications, professiona deveopment and probation The courses are meant to enabe participants to become more competent, confident and refective ecturers and, whie these courses can be usefu for staff new to higher education teaching, a number of critica observations have aso been voiced. Surveys suggest that many new academics strugge to compete the extensive workoads demanded by the courses. Another widey voiced concern is that the content of the teaching is too generic and may be overy infuenced by pedagogies in the humanities and the socia sciences. Nationay, UCU has raised these concerns with the Higher Education Academy, the body that oversees the accreditation of these courses. We woud continue to wecome feedback from eary career academics about their experiences on these courses. USEFUL LINKS 1 The Higher Education Academy (HEA) which was estabished in 2004 seeks to hep institutions, discipine groups and a staff to provide the best possibe earning experience for their students. In particuar the HEA is responsibe for accrediting over 200 institutiona teaching programmes for new academic staff. The HEA website has a number of teaching resources for new academic staff at: and subject-specific advice is avaiabe through their Subject Centres at: Since 1997 UCU, aong with other unions, has been appointing and training union earning representatives (ULRs), and there is egisation extending paid statutory time off to ULRs 2 Vitae is a nationa organisation concerned with the persona, professiona and career deveopment of doctora researchers and research staff in higher education institutions and research institutes: UCU earning representatives UCU has responded to the issues regarding training and deveopment in further education by creating a new roe in UCU branches earning representatives. Since 1997 UCU, aong with other unions, have been appointing and training union earning representatives (ULRs), and there is egisation extending paid statutory time off to ULRs. UCU sees its ULRs performing two main functions: ULRs act as earning and deveopment experts assisting branches to take up issues of initia training and CPD through the norma coective bargaining processes. UCU considers that these issues shoud be part of the process of coective bargaining with cear union poicies for them and their impementation at coege eve. ULRs aso have a roe in giving individua UCU members information, advice and guidance on training and deveopment issues. If you are interested in earning more about what UCU earning representatives do or becoming one, go to or emai JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

18 18 starting your career Careers in research The 2009 Careers in Research onine survey shows that research staff woud ike greater access to information and advice about career progression and appication processes Working as a researcher Many education professionas start their academic careers as contract researchers. This means they work on a fixed-term contract basis to carry out a piece of research. Others start off as research assistants whie they are working on their PhD or as ecturers. Funding There is a range of sources of funding for academic research. This incudes: GRANTS Grants are offered to individua researchers, groups of researchers, and to researchers working coaborativey across the UK or abroad. Research students can receive support for advanced courses and PhDs, and post-doctora researchers carrying out an independent programme of research can be eigibe for feowships. INDEPENDENT FUNDING This kind of support usuay goes towards funding the research infrastructure eg equipment and buidings. Research resources, incuding art coections and research faciities, as we as the dissemination of knowedge and ideas outside the academic institution, might aso receive independent funding. CORE FUNDING Core funding is awarded on an annua basis and is usuay used to support estabished research staff and those aso engaged in ecturing. Professiona deveopment for eary-career researchers In recent years there has been greater emphasis on training, professiona deveopment and peer support activities for eary-career researchers in higher education. A recent survey of eary-career researchers indicated that two-thirds of respondents had participated in training within their higher education institution (HEI) in the ast year, up from a third in Amost haf caim to have undertaken more than five days of continuing professiona deveopment in the ast year. However, the 2009 Careers in Research onine survey (CROS) shows that research staff woud ike greater access to specific information and advice about career progression and appication processes, within and outside academia. Researchers report that they woud ike training in a variety of areas, with a particuar emphasis on research skis and techniques. In addition, there is a strong feeing among research staff that they are not vaued as highy as their ecturer coeagues. About a haf of a respondents fee that they are not on an equa footing with ecturing staff with regard to opportunities for career progression and participation in departmenta and institutiona decision-making. EARLY CAREERS: A UCU GUIDE

19 starting your career 19 Careers in research Where can you go for support within your institution? RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT UNIT OR RESEARCH FUNDING OFFICE You can approach these offices for information on research deveopment, support for grant appications and other careers support reated to funding. SUPERVISORS, GRANT HOLDERS, LINE MANAGERS These staff may be abe to give advice based on their own experience. They may aso offer support with career deveopment activity and feedback on your skis. INFORMAL NETWORKS Don t forget your own network of academic coeagues, union members and former students and empoyees. They may aso be abe to offer usefu tips based on their own experience. Researchers shoud be treated as equas in the schoary community and have support managing their projects and workoad THE UCU RESEARCHERS LIST This is a forum on the UCU website where researchers can share ideas and information, network and discuss reevant issues. Go to: THE UCU RESEARCHERS' SURVIVAL GUIDE This booket contains practica advice for researchers on a wide range of career issues. For more information on the guide and to downoad a copy, go to: VITAE Vitae is an organisation which offers information and guidance to researchers. They have a number of pubications aimed at research staff in HE. More information can be found on their website at: You and your research manager When taking to your research manager, it is important to remember the foowing: Your principa investigator/supervisor shoud hep you find your way around and buid your networks. You shoud be treated as an equa in your schoary community. You shoud have access to an independent mentor. You shoud have support with managing your project and your workoad. You shoud get recognition for a your work. You shoud have time for your own work. If you teach, you shoud be propery remunerated and supported. You shoud have access to career deveopment activities. You shoud have support in preparing for your next contract. JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

20 2 getting the most from your career n Cassroom management n Lesson observation n Mentoring n Work/ife baance n Safeguarding and security

21 getting the most from your career 21 Cassroom management The background Good cassroom and behaviour management is one of the key eements of successfu teaching and earning, and wi be crucia to your success and commitment as a teacher. Cassroom management has become an increasingy important aspect of a ecturer s ife, especiay in further education, as government poicy initiatives for the year-od age group mean that FE coeges are taking younger students than they have in the past. Athough FE coeges have aways taken schoo-age students via schoo-coege inks, the number of such students has grown dramaticay in recent years. The type of younger students coming to FE coeges has aso changed, as many of them have been rejected by schoos. Sometimes this is because their ack of achievement may damage the schoo s position in the oca eague tabes, or because their behaviour, often described as chaenging, means that they are disruptive and disturb the earning of their feow students. The majority of younger students wi benefit from the adut environment of a coege. However, a significant minority wi misbehave in this new setting It is compusory for students under 16 to attend education. Traditionay FE and HE students attended because they wanted to. If they were unhappy with their earning or the institution, they woud usuay vote with their feet and eave, rather than behave disruptivey. Even for traditiona FE students aged 16 and above the position has been changing. Many such students, aduts as we as year-ods, are attending coeges with some reuctance and compusion. Sometimes coege attendance is part of the hep they are being offered because they are unempoyed. For exampe the various New Dea initiatives introduced by the Labour government have incuded an eement of compusory earning and training at a coege. The government s atest response to growing youth unempoyment caused by the recession incudes benefit sanctions for those not taking up job offers or further training. Apprenticeship programmes contain an eement of off-the-job training usuay undertaken in a coege. Aduts acking basic skis may aso have to attend iteracy and/or numeracy programmes or face osing benefit. Growing unempoyment means that many FE students and indeed some HE students are attending coeges because they can t find work. The issues invoved are unikey to disappear, especiay if the government s pans to extend compusory earning to the age of 18 are impemented. Disruptive behaviour in the cassroom The majority of younger students wi benefit from the adut environment of a coege. However, a significant minority wi misbehave in this new setting. Lecturers in the cassroom increasingy report disruptive behaviour in their casses. The Learning and Skis Deveopment Agency, Northern Ireand, in a usefu pubication on behaviour management uses the term disruptive behaviour to encompass a range of behaviours from the midy irritating to those which can be dangerous. The Further Education and Deveopment Agency pubication Ain t Misbehavin defines disruptive behaviour as patterns of repeated behaviour which significanty interrupt the earning of others or threaten their persona security or we being. (FEDA 1998) JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

22 22 getting the most from your career Cassroom management It is aways worth anaysing what is taking pace when confronted with disruptive behaviour Exampes of disruptive behaviour incude: not finishing work or avoiding the task set teasing or buying other peope caing out and interrupting coming in noisiy/ate constant taking refusa to compy with reasonabe instruction mobie phone use and texting poor attendance or persistent ateness putting on make-up, combing hair rude, cheeky or inappropriate comments eating and drinking in essons not respecting other peope s property substance abuse. These behaviours are probematic because of their frequency, severity, or duration. They undermine teaching and earning and are a significant cause of stress for a concerned. WHY DO STUDENTS MISBEHAVE? Reasons why students are disruptive in the cassroom can incude the foowing: They ack appropriate socia skis. They ack basic skis to be successfu. Their chaenging behaviour has become habitua and is reinforced by the attention they receive from ecturers and peers. They don t want to be in coege. Some ecturers may trigger misbehaviour by treating students with disrespect (put downs, sarcasm). It is aways worth anaysing what is taking pace when confronted with disruptive behaviour. When this happens in your cassroom, ask the foowing questions: Where does the disruption take pace? What form does the disruptive behaviour take? Who is invoved? When does the disruption occur? Why does the organisation experience disruptive behaviour? It is important to try to identify the probem as sometimes behaviour can be improved by such basic responses as changes to timetabe and room aocation. Cassroom management and/or behaviour management Cassroom management is appicabe to a teaching and earning situations, whether within forma settings such as the cassroom, workshop or aboratory, and within more informa settings such as ibraries, resource centres and private study areas. EARLY CAREERS: A UCU GUIDE

23 getting the most from your career 23 Cassroom management Behaviour management is part and parce of cassroom management, but is often focused around unacceptabe and disruptive behaviour. We offer some pointers to more genera and positive cassroom management, which is foowed by information about what to do if students behave in an unacceptabe or disruptive way. This guidance comes from various pubications and current work within the FE sector. It therefore has a bias towards FE practice and teaching. However it is ikey that the exampes given are reevant and transferabe to higher education situations. CREATING A POSITIVE ENVIRONMENT The core of cassroom management is to try to estabish a success-orientated environment for teaching and earning. The evidence from schoos is that this works best when deveoped and appied consistenty across the whoe institution. However there are strategies that you can adopt within your own cassroom which wi hep. The core of cassroom management is to try to estabish a success-orientated environment for teaching and earning A USEFUL STARTING POINT To estabish a positive earning environment in your cassroom, you need to create and use a working statement of principes, for exampe: Teachers have the right to teach. Students have the right to earn. We a have the right to fee safe. We need to make cear that rights are to be inked to responsibiities. Cassroom rues ensure that these principes and responsibiities are estabished. Rues shoud be: negotiated, consuted with and discussed with your students enforceabe reasonabe not just to the teacher but aso to the students framed positivey cear, taught, and dispayed consistenty appied across a your teaching few in number so you and your students know what they are. Specific subject areas may require you to estabish specific rues, and procedures appropriate to that subject such as procedures for the use of toos and equipment. Learners need to experience the consequences of their behaviour whether appropriate or inappropriate. PROMOTING RESPONSIBLE BEHAVIOUR There are a number of strategies you can adopt to promote and encourage responsibe behaviour in your students. These can incude: ensuring your esson is we panned and prepared expaining things ceary JOIN YOUR UNION ONLINE:

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