Normalization of Database Tables. Functional Dependency. Examples of Functional Dependencies: So Now what is Normalization? Transitive Dependencies

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1 ISM 602 Dr. Hamid Nemati Objectives The idea Dependencies Attributes and Design Understand concepts normaization (Higher-Leve Norma Forms) Learn how to normaize tabes Understand normaization and database design issues Denomaization Functiona Dependency Exampes Functiona Dependencies: A Functiona Dependency Is A Reationship Between Or Among Attributes Such That The Vaues Of One Attribute Depend On, Or Are Determined By, The Vaues Of The Other Attribute(s). Partia Dependency: Is A Reationship Between Attributes Such That The Vaues Of One Attribute Is Dependent On, Or Determined By, The Vaues Of Another Attribute Which Is Part Of The Composite Key. Partia Dependencies Are Not Good Due To dupication Of Data And Update Anomaies; If we know an ISBN, then we know the Book Tite and the author(s) ISBN Book Tite ISBN Author(s) If we know the VIN, then we know who is the Auto owner VIN Auto_Owner If we know Student-ID (SID), then we can uniquey determine his/her Name SID S_Name Transitive Dependencies So Now what is? Is A Reationship Between Attributes Such That The Vaues Of One Attribute Is Dependent On, Or Determined By, The Vaues Of Another Attribute Which Is Not A Part Of The Key. Exist when a nonkey attribute vaue is functionay dependent upon another nonkey vaue in the record. For exampe: EMPLOYEE_ID --> JOB_CATEGORY JOB_CATEGORY --> HOURLY_RATE An empoyee data tabe that incudes the houry pay rate woud require searching every empoyee record to propery update an houry rate for a particuar job category. GOLDEN RULE OF NORMALIZATION: Enter The Minimum Data Necessary, Avoiding Dupicate Entry Of Information, With Minimum Risks To Data Integrity. Goas Of : Eiminate Redundancies Caused By: Fieds Repeated Within A Fie Fieds Not Directy Describing The Key Entity Fieds Derived From Other Fieds Avoid Anomaies In Updating (Adding, Editing, Deeting) Represent Accuratey The Items Being Modeed Simpify Maintenance And Retrieva Of Info

2 and Basic Rue for is a process for assigning attributes to entities. It reduces data redundancies and heps eiminate the data anomaies. works through a series stages caed norma forms: First norma form (1NF) Second norma form (2NF) Third norma form (3NF) The highest eve normaization is not aways desirabe. The attribute vaues in a reationa tabe shoud be functionay dependent (FD) on the primary key vaue. A reationship is functionay dependent when one attribute vaue impies or determines the attribute vaue for the other attribute. EM_SS_NUM --> EM_NAME Coroaries Coroary 1: No repeating groups aowed in reationa tabes. Coroary 2: A reationa tabe shoud not have attributes invoved in a transitive dependency reationship with the primary key. Benefits and Faciitates data integration. Reduces data redundancy. Provides a robust architecture for retrieving and maintaining data. Compiments data modeing. Reduces the chances data anomaies occurring. The Need for Case a Construction Company Buiding project -- Project number, Name, Empoyees assigned to the project. Empoyee -- Empoyee number, Name, Job cassification The company charges its cients by biing the hours spent on each project. The houry biing rate is dependent on the empoyee s position. and Deetion Anomay Probems with the Tabe 5.1 The project number is intended to be a primary key, but it contains nus. The tabe dispays data redundancies. The tabe entries invite data inconsistencies. The data redundancies yied the foowing anomaies: Update anomaies. Addition anomaies. Deetion anomaies. Occurs when the remova a record resuts in a oss important information about an entity. Exampe: A the information about a customer is contained in an order fie, if the order is canceed, a the customer information coud be ost when the order record is deeted Soution: Create two tabes--one tabe contains order information and the other tabe contains customer information.

3 Update Anomay Insertion Anomay Occurs when a change a singe attribute in one record requires changes in mutipe records Exampe: A staff person changes their teephone number and every potentia customer that person ever worked with has to have the corrected number inserted. Soution: Put the empoyees teephone number in one ocation--as an attribute in the empoyee tabe. Occurs when there does not appear to be any reasonabe pace to assign attribute vaues to records in the database. Probaby have overooked a critica entity. Exampe: Adding new attributes or entire records when they are not needed. Where do you pace information on new Evauator s? Do you create a dummy Lead. Soution: Create a new tabe with a primary key that contains the reevant or functiona dependent attributes. and and Conversion to First Norma Form A reationa tabe must not contain repeating groups. Repeating groups can be eiminated by adding the appropriate entry in at east the primary key coumn(s). (See Tabe 5.3) Dependency Diagram The arrows above the entity indicate that the entity s attributes are dependent on the combination PROJ_NUM and EMP_NUM. The arrows beow the dependency diagram indicate ess desirabe dependencies based on ony a part the primary key -- partia dependencies. Tabe 5.2 The Evergreen Data Figure 5.1 A Dependency Diagram: First Norma Form and and 1NF Definition The term first norma form (1NF) describes the tabuar format in which: A the key attributes are defined. There are no repeating groups in the tabe. A attributes are dependent on the primary key. Conversion to Second Norma Form Starting with the 1NF format, the database can be converted into the 2NF format by Writing each key component on a separate ine, and then writing the origina key on the ast ine and Writing the dependent attributes after each new key. EMPLOYEE (EMP_NUM, EMP_NAME, JOB_CLASS, CHG_HOUR) ASSIGN (PROJ_NUM, EMP_NUM, HOURS)

4 and and 2NF Definition A tabe is in 2NF if: It is in 1NF and It incudes no partia dependencies; that is, no attribute is dependent on ony a portion the primary key. Note: It is sti possibe for a tabe in 2NF to exhibit transitive dependency; that is, one or more attributes may be functionay dependent on nonkey attributes. See figure 5.2 page 290. Conversion to Third Norma Form Create a separate tabe with attributes in a transitive functiona dependence reationship. ASSIGN (PROJ_NUM, EMP_NUM, HOURS) EMPLOYEE (EMP_NUM, EMP_NAME, JOB_CLASS) JOB (JOB_CLASS, CHG_HOUR) and and Design 3NF Definition A tabe is in 3NF if: It is in 2NF and It contains no transitive dependencies. Design and Exampe: (Construction Company) Summary Operations: The company manages many projects. Each project requires the services many empoyees. An empoyee may be assigned to severa different projects. Some empoyees are not assigned to a project and perform duties not specificay reated to a project. Some empoyees are part a abor poo, to be shared by a project teams. Each empoyee has a (singe) primary job cassification. This job cassification determines the houry biing rate. Many empoyees can have the same job cassification. and Design and Design Two Initia Entities: EMP_INITIAL, JOB_DESCRIPTION, Three Entities After Transitive Dependency d EMP_INITIAL, JOB_CODE) JOB (JOB_CODE, JOB_DESCRIPTION, Figure 5.7 The Initia E-R Diagram for a Contracting Company

5 and Design and Design Creation the Composite Entity ASSIGN Figure 5.8 The Modified E-R Diagram for a Contacting Company Figure 5.9 The Fina (Impementabe) E-R Diagram for the Contracting Company and Design Attribute ASSIGN_HOUR is assigned to the composite entity ASSIGN. Manages reationship is created between EMPLOYEE and PROJECT. and Design PROJECT (PROJ_NUM, PROJ_NAME, EMP_NUM) EMP_INITIAL, EMP_HIREDATE, JOB_CODE) JOB (JOB_CODE, JOB_DESCRIPTION, ASSIGN (ASSIGN_NUM, ASSIGN_DATE, PROJ_NUM, EMP_NUM, ASSIGN_HOURS) Figure 5.10 The Reationa Schema for the Contracting Company Summary A Journey First Norma Form (1NF) Repeating Groups Second Norma Form (2NF) Partia Functiona Third Norma Form (3NF) Transitive Functiona Higher order Norma Forms A Remaining Functiona Denormaization is ony one many database design goas. Normaized (decomposed) tabes require additiona processing, reducing system speed. purity is ten difficut to sustain in the modern database environment. The confict between design efficiency, information requirements, and processing speed are ten resoved through compromises that incude denormaization.

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