FEEDING MANUAL Feed manual TOPIGS Finishers

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "FEEDING MANUAL Feed manual TOPIGS Finishers"

Transcription

1 FEEDING MANUAL Feed manual TOPIGS Finishers TOPIGS Support & Development Updated: 13 August 2012 Copyright TOPIGS Feeding advice Tempo progeny Target Group: Nutritionists and Farm managers Explanation: Feed advice and feed guidelines for feeding the progeny of the Tempo Terminal boar

2 Index 1. Introduction The aim of the manual Typology, characteristics of Tempo Nutritional requirements Basic assumptions Nutritional requirements Tempo Example of diet calculations for Corn Soybean Markets Example of diet calculations for Wheat-Barley Market Specific situations Ad libitum vs. restricted feeding Health conditions Paylean (Ractopamine) Pellet vs. Mash feed Immune castration Hot climates Liquid feeding Split sex feeding TOPIGS Feed Monitor TOPIGS Nutrition Website Appendix Amino acid/ Lysine ratio used to estimate amino acid requirements Standardized ileal digestible (SID) vs. apparent ileal digestible (AID) lysine Phosphorus Disclaimer: The TOPIGS Feeding MANUAL is a product of TOPIGS. No part of its contents may be reproduced or published without the prior written consent of TOPIGS. TOPIGS declares that this product has been compiled carefully, conscientiously and impartially. However, the publisher is not liable for any loss or injury that may result if this advice is followed. The reader is advised not to use this information in isolation but to review it on the basis of his or her education and experience. The information entered in this online tool will be stored and can be used for internal evaluation by TOPIGS. The information will not be published or distributed. TOPIGS, Copyright 2012 Page 1

3 1. Introduction With the continued progress in swine genetics, TOPIGS is improving the efficiency of pork production together with other desirable characteristics. Therefore the periodic re-evaluation of the nutritional requirements of our genetic lines are necessary. Pigs have daily requirements for absolute quantities of specific nutrients. TOPIGS estimate the daily nutritional requirement for energy and protein. Various factors affect voluntary feed intake and/or performance of swine, and thus will affect the concentration of nutrients that should be provided in the diet. Thus knowing the daily feed intake of the animals and understanding the factors involved, diet formulations can be adjusted accordingly to ensure optimal production at an economical cost. 2. The aim of the manual The aim of this manual is to provide a feeding guide based on the nutritional requirements of the Tempo genotype to achieve an optimum genetic performance, calculated in terms of daily gain. Daily gain is described in this manual as the sum of protein and fat deposition. Achieving the optimum genetic performance will result in optimal growth and minimal feed conversion ratio. However depending on the production system and market demands will not necessarily lead to the best economical results. Maximum lean growth can be achieved only when the nutrients, specifically amino acids and energy, are supplied in the diet at the appropriate amount. The recommendations in this manual are based on protein and fat deposition. Protein and fat deposition is influenced by factors like sex, age, feed intake, health status and genetic line. Body protein and lipid mass and their deposition in the body are most often used to describe compositional pig growth models and can be estimated separately. The results in the tables are derived from our own Pig Growth Model (IPG Pig Growth Model, 2011) and from the analysis of field data under various environments. This manual can only be used for TOPIGS genetics. Page 2

4 3. Typology, characteristics of Tempo Tempo boar is known as the TOPIGS E-line. Progeny of Tempo boars differentiate themselves in the market through: high feed intake capacity and growth high lean meat % if fed restricted easy to manage robustness: good performance under difficult circumstances like high disease pressure, climatologic challenges and suboptimal management conditions. Tempo finishers have a high feed intake capacity. This characteristic could be used as an advantage under environmental challenged conditions and also with diets with a high inclusion level of food/feed by-products. Page 3

5 4. Nutritional requirements 4.1 Basic assumptions Multi-phase feeding Castrates fed according to a controlled feed curve, Gilts and boars fed ad libitum Dry mash diet, with dry matter of 88 % (using pelleted feed improves the digestibility of the diet) Conventional health Sexes separately housed and fed Ideal ambient temperatures Page 4

6 4.2 Nutritional requirements Tempo Table 1. Daily nutritional requirements, weight development and feed intake curves of Tempo finishers Days in phase BW, kg Feed intake, kg/day Castrates Gilts Boars Immune-castrates 2,3 NE, MJ/day 1 Lys. SID, g/day 1 BW, kg Feed intake, kg/day NE, MJ/day 1 Lys. SID, g/day 1 BW, kg Feed intake, kg/day NE, MJ/day 1 Lys. SID, g/day 1 BW, kg Feed intake, kg/day NE, MJ/day ,0 1,36 14,86 16,35 25,0 1,32 14,25 16,32 25,0 1,28 13,56 15,45 25,0 1,28 13,56 15, ,9 1,59 15,16 17,15 31,8 1,52 14,96 16,88 31,9 1,42 14,45 16,35 31,9 1,42 14,32 16, ,0 1,77 16,75 18,01 38,8 1,69 16,07 17,55 38,8 1,56 15,34 17,05 38,8 1,56 14,96 17, ,3 1,93 18,35 18,39 45,9 1,83 17,66 18,30 45,8 1,67 16,49 17,76 45,8 1,67 16,25 17, ,7 2,06 19,89 18,48 53,1 1,94 19,27 18,75 52,8 1,80 18,00 18,43 52,8 1,80 18,24 18, ,3 2,18 21,56 18,51 60,3 2,05 20,63 19,10 59,9 1,92 19,02 19,01 59,9 1,92 19,80 19, ,9 2,30 22,28 18,64 67,6 2,15 21,52 19,15 67,0 2,05 20,14 19,30 67,0 2,05 20,14 19, ,7 2,40 23,19 18,75 74,9 2,23 21,81 19,28 74,2 2,15 21,38 19,68 74,2 2,15 21,48 19, ,3 2,46 24,21 18,53 82,1 2,30 22,41 19,30 81,3 2,25 22,22 20,05 81,3 2,25 22,16 20, ,4 2,54 24,81 18,23 89,0 2,37 22,96 18,68 88,2 2,30 22,89 20,17 88,2 2,30 22,89 20, ,0 2,61 25,34 17,84 95,4 2,43 23,63 18,10 94,7 2,40 23,89 20,38 94,7 2,40 23,89 20, ,0 2,66 26,04 17,21 101,4 2,50 24,66 17,15 100,9 2,45 24,59 19,45 100,9 2,45 24,59 19, ,5 2,71 26,34 16,84 107,0 2,52 25,05 16,58 106,7 2,50 24,92 18,84 106,7 2,50 24,92 18, ,6 2,76 26,73 16,31 112,3 2,57 25,74 16,00 112,1 2,55 25,04 18,33 112,1 2,55 25,04 18, ,3 2,80 27,12 15,95 117,2 2,60 25,84 15,85 117,3 2,60 25,25 17,92 119,3 2,80 27,12 15, ,6 2,83 27,83 15,46 121,8 2,66 26,05 15,64 122,2 2,61 25,84 17,41 123,6 2,83 27,83 15, ,6 2,85 28,36 14,84 126,1 2,70 26,21 15,23 126,8 2,63 26,05 17,01 127,6 2,85 28,36 14, ,3 2,90 29,65 14,01 130,2 2,72 26,45 15,01 131,1 2,65 26,45 16,89 131,3 2,90 29,65 14,01 Lys. SID, g/day Net energy (NE) and standardized ileal digestible (SID) lysine requirements are expressed as the amount required per day to achieve optimal performance. Based on the IPG Pig Growth Model (2011). For the immune-castrates the change to the final diet should be realized at the end of the first week after second vaccination (Vivax or Improvac ). TOPIGS assumes that immune-castrated pigs behave like boars up to the second vaccination, considered here as 92 days in phase, and thereafter, behave as super-castrates. Page 5

7 4.3 Example of diet calculations for Corn Soybean Markets Table 3. Nutritional requirement (g/kg) for Tempo finishers, based on a 5 phase feeding program Sex Castrates Gilts Boars Immune-castrates Body Weight (kg) Starter Grower 1 Grower 2 Finisher Final Ave Daily feed intake, kg/day 1 1,52 1,89 2,23 2,50 2,75 NE, MJ/kg 2, 3 10,3 10 9,9 9,9 9,8 ME, Mcal/kg 2, 3 3,35 3,23 3,2 3,2 3,2 Lys. SID, g/kg 2 11,6 9,30 8,00 7,00 6,50 SID Lys/NE, g/mj 1,12 0,93 0,81 0,71 0,66 Ca, g/kg 8,36 7,27 6,65 5,84 5,14 Available P, g/kg 4, 5 3,98 3,46 3,17 2,78 2,45 Digestible P, g/kg 4, 5 2,88 2,51 2,29 2,01 1,77 Ave Daily feed intake, kg/day 1 1,47 1,80 2,11 2,36 2,58 NE, MJ/kg 2, 3 10,4 10,2 10,1 9,9 9,9 ME, Mcal/kg 2, 3 3,35 3,30 3,25 3,20 3,20 Lys. SID, g/kg 2 11,7 10,0 8,50 7,50 7,00 SID Lys/NE, g/mj 1,13 1,02 0,84 0,76 0,71 Ca, g/kg 7,90 7,25 6,38 5,95 5,10 Available P, g/kg 4, 5 3,76 3,45 3,04 2,83 2,43 Digestible P, g/kg 4, 5 2,72 2,50 2,20 2,05 1,76 Ave Daily feed intake, kg/day 1 1,38 1,67 2,00 2,29 2,55 NE, MJ/kg 2, 3 10,5 10,4 10,2 10,1 9,9 ME, Mcal/kg 2, 3 3,40 3,35 3,30 3,25 3,2 Lys. SID, g/kg 2 12,4 10,5 9,00 8,50 7,60 SID Lys/NE, g/mj 1,18 1,01 0,88 0,84 0,77 Ca, g/kg 8,48 7,71 6,73 6,33 5,51 Available P, g/kg 4, 5 4,04 3,67 3,21 3,01 2,62 Digestible P, g/kg 4, 5 2,92 2,66 2,32 2,18 1,90 Ave Daily feed intake, kg/day 1 1,38 1,67 2,00 2,29 2,75 NE, MJ/kg 2, 3 10,5 10,4 10,2 10,1 9,8 ME, Mcal/kg 2, 3 3,40 3,35 3,30 3,25 3,2 Lys. SID, g/kg 2 12,4 10,5 9,00 8,50 6,50 SID Lys/NE, g/mj 1,18 1,01 0,88 0,84 0,66 Ca, g/kg 8,48 7,71 6,73 6,33 5,14 Available P, g/kg 4, 5 4,04 3,67 3,21 3,01 2,45 Digestible P, g/kg 4, 5 2,92 2,66 2,32 2,18 1,77 Average daily feed intake based on the advised feeding curve. Net energy (MJ/kg), Metabolizable energy (Mcal/kg) and SID-lysine (g/kg) are calculated on an ADFI (kg/d). NE = ME X 0.74 (The conversion factor could be different for each country); MJ = Mcal X Advised available phosphorus levels are based on diets formulated without the use of Phytase. The use of Phytase implicates in the necessity of readjusting these phosphorus levels. Definitions of Available and Digestible phosphorus are indicated in Appendix 3. Page 6

8 4.4 Example of diet calculations for Wheat-Barley Market Table 4. Nutritional requirement (g/kg) for Tempo finishers, based on a 3 phase feeding program Sex Boars Gilts Castrates BW, kg Starter Grower Finisher Ave Daily feed intake, kg/day 1 1,65 2,20 2,70 NE, MJ/kg 2 9,9 9,6 9,1 EW 3 1,13 1,09 1,03 Lys. SID, g/kg 2 10,9 8,50 6,20 SID Lys/NE, g/mj 1,10 0,89 0,68 Ca, g/kg 7,95 6,64 5,38 Available P, g/kg 4, 5 3,79 3,16 2,56 Digestible P, g/kg 4, 5 2,74 2,29 1,86 Ave Daily feed intake, kg/day 1 1,59 2,05 2,48 NE, MJ/kg 2 9,9 9,7 9,3 EW 3 1,13 1,10 1,06 Lys. SID, g/kg 2 11,1 9,10 6,80 SID Lys/NE, g/mj 1,12 0,94 0,73 Ca, g/kg 7,59 6,60 5,52 Available P, g/kg 4, 5 3,62 3,14 2,63 Digestible P, g/kg 4, 5 2,61 2,28 1,90 Ave Daily feed intake, kg/day 1 1,43 1,93 2,44 NE, MJ/kg 2 10,1 9,9 9,6 EW 3 1,15 1,13 1,09 Lys. SID, g/kg 2 11,8 9,80 7,50 SID Lys/NE, g/mj 1, ,78 Ca, g/kg 8,32 7,08 5,77 Available P, g/kg 4, 5 3,96 3,37 2,74 Digestible P, g/kg 4, 5 2,87 2,44 1, Average daily feed intake based on the advised feeding curve. Net energy (MJ/kg) and SID-lysine (g/kg) are calculated on an ADFI (kg/d). EW = 8,8 x NE (MJ/kg). Advised available phosphorus levels are based on diets formulated without the use of Phytase. The use of Phytase implicates in the necessity of readjusting these phosphorus levels. Definitions of Available and Digestible phosphorus are indicated in Appendix 3. Corn-soybean and wheat-barley are the two main feed markets in the world. Pigs fed wellbalanced wheat-barley based diets can perform as well as those fed corn-soybean diets. The minimal energy levels reachable when using these two different feed sources is what differentiates these two markets. Therefore, the feed schedules and calculations will be different for these two markets. Nevertheless, the daily nutrient requirements of Tempo finishers are the same. Page 7

9 5. Specific situations 5.1 Ad libitum vs. restricted feeding The daily feed intake of a finisher will be the key determinant for the feed industry to design a proper feed program, which will give the farmer the highest economic return. Due to the variation in feed intake, TOPIGS will support their clients by calculating the energy and digestible lysine per day, as given in this manual. When the nutritional requirements per day are known, the actual feed consumed by pigs at various body weights (or over time) is necessary to estimate the dietary levels in the diets. In the event of pigs being given food ad libitum the estimation of actual intake may also be indicative of the appetite prevailing under the particular circumstances of food type, pig type, management quality, herd health and housing environment. Tempo finishers are capable of high protein deposition and growth rates. These animals do not require complex diets or specialty ingredients. But they do require high levels of amino acids. Due to relatively low feed intake in the starter/grower phase (or early finishing), and their high capacity for protein deposition, diet formulation and management strategies should focus on increasing feed intake during this stage. Tempo finishers have a high feed intake capacity and can easily overeat from 75 kg body weight onwards, if fed ad libitum. As the genetic potential to deposit protein reduces, fat deposition increases. Consequently back fat thickness will increase and lean meat percentage will decrease. Therefore controlling the feed intake of Tempo finishers will lead to better lean meat percentages and feed conversion ratio s, as compared to ad libitum feed systems. 5.2 Health conditions The efficiency of nutrient utilization in pigs is optimized under high health environments. A high health status not only increases productivity and efficiency, but also leads to an increased nutrient demand. When pigs are immunologically challenged, nutrients are diverted away from productive functions (i.e., lean tissue growth) towards the activated immune system. Therefore under conventional health situations (most farms in the world), the immune system of the animal has to cope with all kinds of pathogens. Under SPF conditions the animals can increase their feed intake with ±10-15%, reduce maintenance with some 10% and increase protein deposition capacity with around 25g/d. The following points need to be taken under consideration for SPF animals : SPF animals grow faster; therefore have the capacity to reach higher protein deposition rates. The higher feed intake capacity in SPF animals does not reflect in an increased protein deposition level, if the protein: energy ratio s in the diet is limited. 5.3 Paylean (Ractopamine) Ractopamine-HCl, is a β-adrenergic agonist, and is labelled for use in swine diets during the final growth stages. Dietary inclusion has shown consistent improvement in pig growth performance and has led to its widespread use in the swine industry. When fed, it promotes lean growth rather than fat deposition by directing nutrients away from the fat depots towards muscle development. Fat tissue deposition requires more energy than lean growth, thus increasing lean deposition leads to improved feed efficiency prior to market and a leaner carcass. Because of the increased protein accretion, pigs that are fed Ractopamine have an increased dietary amino acid requirement. TOPIGS advices to follow the nutritional guidelines of the specific manufacturer, when using these additives. Page 8

10 5.4 Pellet vs. Mash feed The feeding behaviour and performance of pigs can also be influenced by the feed type (pellet vs. mash). Feeding pelleted diets to pigs has been shown to increase nutrient digestibility and improve FCR from 5% to 8% in finishing pigs. Improvements in animal performance have also been attributed to decreased feed wastage, reduced selective feeding, decreased ingredient segregation, less time and energy expended for pre-hension, destruction of pathogens, thermal modification of starch and protein, and improved palatability. The improvements in FCR are highly depended on pellet quality, percentage fines and pellet size. Another advantage to pelleted diets are the ability to grind grains to smaller micron sizes and to use a higher percentage of alternative ingredients in the diets and still maintain good feed flowability. All the feed curves given in this manual are based on mash diets, therefore the total nutrient intake when using pelleted feed can be higher. 5.5 Immune castration A vaccine against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) for controlling boar taint has been introduced to the global market as an animal-welfare-friendly alternative to surgical castration. The vaccine is already licensed in a number of countries. The first dose of the injection primes the pig s immune system, but does not alter testes size or function. The second dose stimulates the protective immune response that inhibits testes function. Until the second injection the animal behaves like a boar, after that it behaves like a super castrate. After the second vaccination the animals tend to eat much more, even more than regular castrates of the same weight and therefore deposit more fat. Based on this, the advice is that after the second vaccination the finishers should (preferably) be restricted and should be fed the lysine/energy ratio of castrates. TOPIGS calculated the nutritional requirements of Immune castrates, based on the above statement. 5.6 Hot climates The environment can serve as a significant factor affecting both the voluntary feed intake level and the overall nutrient requirements of pigs. Temperature, probably more than any other environmental factor, can be used to explain a majority of the variations associated with differences in feed intake and performance among groups of pigs. Given the fact that animals tend to eat less when temperature rises, feed intake capacity can be a limiting factor for optimal performance. Swine diet formulations should be adjusted to account for the variations in feed intake associated with environmental temperature changes. Some alternatives can be used to optimize the performance in hot climates. Under heat stress, pigs reduce their feed intake in order to reduce their heat production due to the thermal effect of feed (TEF). The reduction of feed consumption results in a decrease of growth of pigs which affects the profitability of the swine producers. Nutritional solutions can mainly be described according to their ability to reduce dietary heat increment or to increase dietary nutrient density. The increase of crude protein supply is associated with a higher protein turn over which enhances heat production. What might be beneficial is: (1) Low crude protein diets. Practically, crude protein is partially replaced by starch and/or fat and industrial amino acids in order to meet the protein requirement for optimal performance. (2) Offer the feed during cooler phases of the day/night Page 9

11 (3) Feed more times per day. Feed will be less per meal and have a lower influence on the energy needed to digest / internal heat etc. (4) Ensure the availability of fresh clean water. Water should be available ad libitum. Ensure a minimum flow rate of 1.5 litre water per minute. 5.7 Liquid feeding Working with liquid feeding systems requires certain precautions. For each type of diet there is an ideal dilution, which depends on the ingredients used and on how each one was included. There can be decomposition into sub products which do not have proper time to be incorporated to the liquid diet, losses of vitamins and essential nutrients can also occur. When considering the type of grain used to elaborate the feed, it is important to consider the chemical composition and the effects that the raw materials can have on the pigs feed digestibility. Therefore, we advise regular laboratory analyses of the feed to guarantee that the pigs are not fed diets that can limit their performance and/ or affect the carcass quality negatively. 5.8 Split sex feeding In general, gilts will consume 10 to 12% less feed and be about 4% more efficient in converting feed to body weight gain during the finishing period as compared to castrates. To offset the reduction in feed intake, diets for gilts need to contain higher nutrient levels (namely protein or amino acids) to achieve adequate daily intakes of these nutrients. Boars will even be more efficient than gilts. The differences in feed intake, together with the differences in performance and carcass parameters, provide the basis for split-sex feeding. 5.9 TOPIGS Feed Monitor The TOPIGS Feed Monitor is an online tool that offers the possibility to compare your current feeding program, growth rates and feed conversion ratio s of a finisher unit to TOPIGS feeding advice and performance indicators. The aim of the Feed Monitor is to give insight, in a more practical manner, in the way the finishers are fed in relation to the feed advice of TOPIGS. It is a simple tool that compares basal requirements for energy and lysine intake. The tool is available online at please contact your local TOPIGS office for the login information TOPIGS Nutrition Website For more information on feeding the TOPIGS genetic lines, nutritional products & support provided by TOPIGS and contact information of the TOPIGS Nutritionist please go to Page 10

12 Appendix 1. Amino acid/ Lysine ratio used to estimate amino acid requirements Lysine is the first limiting amino acid in most practical swine diets. It is common practice to first define the adequate lysine level in the diet and then derive the required level of other essential amino acids from lysine on the basis of an ideal protein ratio, thus giving a balanced protein diet. A balanced protein diet contains sufficient levels of each essential amino acid to meet the biological needs of the animal while minimizing the amounts of excess amino acids. The InraPorc (2011) has defined the ideal balance of amino acids for each phase of production based on the concept of Ideal Protein. This serves as basis for TOPIGS recommendations. Feed ingredients have different amino acid digestibility coefficients. Therefore, when formulating diets that are more complex, it is recommended that standardized ileal digestible values are used in the formulation process. Table 1. Amino acid ratio s for finishers in a 5 phase feed program Amino Acids 1 Starter Grower 1 Grower 2 Finisher Final Lysine Methionine Met + Cys Tryptophan Threonine Arginine Valine Isoleucine Leucine Histidine Phenylalanine Table 2. Amino acid ratio s for finishers in a 3 phase feed program Amino Acids 1 Starter Grower Finisher Lysine Methionine Met + Cys Tryptophan Threonine Arginine Valine Isoleucine Leucine Histidine Phenylalanine All Amino Acids are expressed as standardized ileal digestible (SID) Page 11

13 2. Standardized ileal digestible (SID) vs. apparent ileal digestible (AID) lysine The terminology used to describe the bioavailability and ileal digestibility of amino acids in pig feed ingredients are explained in this appendix. Ileal digestibility values may be expressed as apparent ileal digestibility (AID), standardized ileal digestibility (SID), or true ileal digestibility (TID). These terms are used to specify how ileal endogenous AA losses are reflected in digestibility values. Ileal endogenous AA losses may be separated into basal losses, which are not influenced by feed ingredient composition, and specific losses, which are induced by feed ingredient characteristics such as levels and types of fiber and antinutritional factors. Values for AID are established when total ileal outflow of AA (i.e., the sum of endogenous losses and no digested dietary AA) is related to dietary AA intake. A concern with the use of AID values is that these are not additive in mixtures of feed ingredients. This concern may be overcome by correcting AID values for defined basal endogenous losses of AA, which yields SID values. Furthermore, if the AID values are corrected for basal and specific endogenous losses, then values for TID are calculated. However, reliable procedures to routinely measure specific endogenous losses are not yet available. It is suggested that SID values should be used for feed formulation, at least until more information on TID values becomes available. Table 3. Example of the differences between SID and AID Lys for Tempo Castrates SID Lysine and AID Lysine kg Basal (g/kg DM) SID Lysine AID Lysine Lysine Methionine Methionine + Cysteine Threonine Tryptophan Page 12

14 3. Phosphorus Phosphorus is one of the most significant minerals in swine nutrition. It is essential for bone development, plays a key role in metabolic processes such as the formation of cellular membranes and is vital for enzymatic systems involved in protein and carbohydrate metabolism. The ratio between Calcium and Phosphorus is of importance because these minerals are antagonists of each other which mean that an oversupply of calcium can work negatively for the digestibility of Phosphorus. There are two expressions used for the phosphorus calculation by nutritionists: Available Phosphorus and digestible Phosphorus. The definition is as follows: Available Phosphorus = Total Phosphorus Innositol Phosphorus Digestible Phosphorus = P intake Faecal P / P Intake In raw materials, a large amount of Phosphorus is in the form of Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). The Phosphorus in Phytic acid is largely unavailable to the pig. Thus, a phytase enzyme is added to diets to enhance the pig s ability to use Phosphorus from Phytic acid. Because manufacturers have their own individual analytical techniques, it is often confusing to compare phytase sources by a single analytical method. To avoid this confusion, TOPIGS indicate the Phosphorus requirements without any influences of the Phytase enzymes. The available Phosphorus levels for maintenance and gain were estimated using the following equations based on Jongbloed et al. (1993) and Rostagno et al. (2011) : Castrates kg - Available Phosphorus (g/day) = 0,046 x BW 0,75 + 5,81 x ADG (kg) kg - Available Phosphorus (g/day) = 0,046 x BW 0,75 + 5,33 x ADG (kg) Gilts and boars kg - Available Phosphorus (g/day) = 0,046 x BW 0,75 + 5,96 x ADG (kg) Page 13

SOW AND GILT FEEDING GUIDE HYPOR LIBRA

SOW AND GILT FEEDING GUIDE HYPOR LIBRA SOW AND GILT FEEDING GUIDE HYPOR LIBRA version 2.0 IMPERIAL 1 1 introduction Sows are the economic engine of swine production and define the prolificacy and maximum productivity of the entire system. While

More information

EFFICACY OF RACTOPAMINE AND PST

EFFICACY OF RACTOPAMINE AND PST EFFICACY OF RACTOPAMINE AND PST COMBINATIONS ON FINISHER PIG PERFORMANCE Report prepared for the Co-operative Research Centre for an Internationally Competitive Pork Industry By Dr Robert van Barneveld

More information

Most limiting amino acid concept...

Most limiting amino acid concept... Review... Proteins are composed of amino acids Amino acids are the essential nutrients The dietary provision of amino acids in correct amount and provisions determines the adequacy of the protein in the

More information

EvaPig. Energy, amino acids and phosphorus values for pigs. Evaluation of Pig feeds. Introduction. Net energy. Amino acids. Phosphorus.

EvaPig. Energy, amino acids and phosphorus values for pigs. Evaluation of Pig feeds. Introduction. Net energy. Amino acids. Phosphorus. EvaPig Evaluation of Pig feeds Energy, amino acids and phosphorus values for pigs EvaPig Tutorial 1.0.0 Welcome to EvaPig! EvaPig is a calculator of energy, amino acids and phosphorus values of ingredients

More information

Consequences of 100% organic diets for pigs and poultry

Consequences of 100% organic diets for pigs and poultry Consequences of 100% organic diets for pigs and poultry Albert Sundrum Tier-EG Department of Animal Nutrition and Animal Health / University Kassel Outline! Problems concerning 100% organic diets! High

More information

Swine Feeding and Fitting Guidelines. Ryan Harrell Dec. 2008

Swine Feeding and Fitting Guidelines. Ryan Harrell Dec. 2008 Swine Feeding and Fitting Guidelines Ryan Harrell Dec. 2008 Know What You Are Feeding For?! Barrows should be fed differently from Gilts.! Market Gilts should be fed differently from Breeding Gilts! Market

More information

FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION

FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION Department of Animal Science FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION Dairy Cattle Production 342-450A Page 1 of 8 Feeding the Dairy Cow during Lactation There are main stages in the lactation cycle of the

More information

TSAA Requirements for Nursery and Growing Pigs

TSAA Requirements for Nursery and Growing Pigs TSAA Requirements for Nursery and Growing Pigs Shannon Peak Novus International, Inc. 20 Research Park Drive, St. Charles, MO 63304 USA Email: shannon.peak@novusint.com Introduction The use of synthetic

More information

SYMPOSIUM: LYSINE. Ideal Protein in Turkeys 1

SYMPOSIUM: LYSINE. Ideal Protein in Turkeys 1 SYMPOSIUM: LYSINE Ideal Protein in Turkeys 1 J. D. FIRMAN2 and S. D. BOLING3 Department of Animal Science, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 ABSTRACT This paper will review current

More information

The Production and Use of High-Valued Canola Protein Concentrates

The Production and Use of High-Valued Canola Protein Concentrates The Production and Use of High-Valued Canola Protein Concentrates David D. Maenz Chief Scientific Officer MCN BioProducts Inc. Conventional Canola Processing Whole seed Solvent extraction or double press

More information

BEC Feed Solutions. Steve Blake BEC Feed Solutions

BEC Feed Solutions. Steve Blake BEC Feed Solutions BEC Feed Solutions Presenter: Steve Blake BEC Feed Solutions Nutritional Role of Phosphorus Phosphorus (P) is present in all cells in the body Essential for many digestive and metabolic processes, including

More information

Optimizing Energy Formulation for Finishing Swine

Optimizing Energy Formulation for Finishing Swine AJINOMOTO HEARTLAND LLC Optimizing Energy Formulation for Finishing Swine James Usry Roger Campbell Dave Burnham Heartland Lysine LLC Bunge Meats, Ltd. Heartland Lysine LLC Introduction The energy content

More information

Measures and Weights. Energy and carbohydrates

Measures and Weights. Energy and carbohydrates Measures and Weights What is ppm? What is mg/kg? What is %? Why are some requirements presented as concentrations (%, ppm, or mg/kg) and others as weights (g, oz, kg, lbs)? Parts per million, like percent,

More information

A diet fit for a pig: seven basic rules

A diet fit for a pig: seven basic rules A diet fit for a pig: seven basic rules June 2013 Primefact 1292 1 st edition Jayce Morgan, Livestock Officer Pigs, Tamworth NSW Introduction When a pig is fed a proper diet there are benefits to the pig

More information

Land O Lakes Feed DDGS. Nutrients Concentrate: United States Ethanol Outlook. A Growing Opportunity

Land O Lakes Feed DDGS. Nutrients Concentrate: United States Ethanol Outlook. A Growing Opportunity DDGS A Growing Opportunity Dr. Harold Tilstra Region Manager Land O Lakes Feed hdtilstra@landolakes.com 4/9/2004 Land O' Lakes Feed; Tilstra 2 Land O Lakes Feed Vision: To To be the leading animal nutrition

More information

Understanding CNCPS and CPM: Biology, Modeling, and Best Cost Applications for Balancing the Nutrient Requirements in Dairy Diets

Understanding CNCPS and CPM: Biology, Modeling, and Best Cost Applications for Balancing the Nutrient Requirements in Dairy Diets Understanding CNCPS and CPM: Biology, Modeling, and Best Cost Applications for Balancing the Nutrient Requirements in Dairy Diets T. R. Overton, M. E. Van Amburgh, and L. E. Chase Department of Animal

More information

14/11/2014. Copper supply affects growth performance and health in growing pigs. Outline. Copper as essential trace elements

14/11/2014. Copper supply affects growth performance and health in growing pigs. Outline. Copper as essential trace elements Copper supply affects growth performance and health in growing pigs Themamiddag 4 november 2014 Outline Introduction Copper as essential trace element Paul Bikker, Jurgen van Baal, Roselinde Goselink Presence:

More information

FEEDING STRATEGIES IN POULTRY IN HOT CLIMATE

FEEDING STRATEGIES IN POULTRY IN HOT CLIMATE Poultry Today POU 0601 January 2008 1 FEEDING STRATEGIES IN POULTRY IN HOT CLIMATE INTRODUCTION Dr. John C. Morêki Non-Ruminants Division, Department of Animal Production P/Bag 0032, Gaborone, Botswana

More information

BURNETT CENTER INTERNET PROGRESS REPORT. No. 12 April, 2001. Summary of the 2000 Texas Tech University Consulting Nutritionist Survey

BURNETT CENTER INTERNET PROGRESS REPORT. No. 12 April, 2001. Summary of the 2000 Texas Tech University Consulting Nutritionist Survey BURNETT CENTER INTERNET PROGRESS REPORT No. 12 April, 2001 Summary of the 2000 Texas Tech University Consulting Nutritionist Survey M. L. Galyean and J. F. Gleghorn Department of Animal Science and Food

More information

NUTRIENTS: THEIR INTERACTIONS

NUTRIENTS: THEIR INTERACTIONS NUTRIENTS: THEIR INTERACTIONS TEACHER S GUIDE INTRODUCTION This Teacher s Guide provides information to help you get the most out of Nutrients: Their Interactions. The contents in this guide will allow

More information

CORN BY-PRODUCTS IN DAIRY COW RATIONS

CORN BY-PRODUCTS IN DAIRY COW RATIONS CORN BY-PRODUCTS IN DAIRY COW RATIONS Dennis Lunn, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur-Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc. CORN BY-PRODUCTS IN DAIRY COW RATIONS Dennis Lunn, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur-Gain, Nutreco Canada

More information

Project Pig Production Planner

Project Pig Production Planner December 2012 4H/Livestock/2012-04pr Project Pig Production Planner Scott Williams, Cache County, and Darrell Rothlisberger, Rich County Start by Selecting the Appropriate Age/Weight Hog There are many

More information

Dr Erhard Briendenhann

Dr Erhard Briendenhann Dr Erhard Briendenhann Protein Research Foundation Soya processing nutritional and financial benefits Sponsored by: Protein Research Foundation SOYBEAN PROCESSING Nutritional and financial benefits Dr

More information

Fishmeal for PIGS. Fishmeal for pigs a feed with a very healthy future

Fishmeal for PIGS. Fishmeal for pigs a feed with a very healthy future Fishmeal for PIGS Fishmeal for pigs a feed with a very healthy future Benefits for the producer productivity, health and welfare 1 Improves growth, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency 2 High protein

More information

Heat of combustion (gross energy)

Heat of combustion (gross energy) J.D. Pagan 71 MEASURING THE DIGESTIBLE ENERGY CONTENT OF HORSE FEEDS JOE D. PAGAN Kentucky Equine Research, Inc., Versailles, Kentucky, USA One of the most important measures of a horse feed s value is

More information

Improves pig performance in a wide range of health and growing conditions

Improves pig performance in a wide range of health and growing conditions Medicated Feed Additive Improves pig performance in a wide range of health and growing conditions HEALTHY ANIMALS. HEALTHY FOOD. HEALTHY WORLD. The Advantage Over the years, medicated feed additive has

More information

NUTRITION OF THE BODY

NUTRITION OF THE BODY 5 Training Objectives:! Knowledge of the most important function of nutrients! Description of both, mechanism and function of gluconeogenesis! Knowledge of the difference between essential and conditionally

More information

PARK W. WALDROUP. DEPARTMENT OF POULTRY SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS FAYETTEVILLE, AR 72701

PARK W. WALDROUP. DEPARTMENT OF POULTRY SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS FAYETTEVILLE, AR 72701 Soybean Meal Information Center FACT SHEET Soybean Use -Poultry PARK W. WALDROUP. DEPARTMENT OF POULTRY SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS FAYETTEVILLE, AR 72701 DR. KEITH SMITH KEITH SMITH AND ASSOCIATES

More information

AN EVALUATION OF DEXTROSE, LACTOSE, AND WHEY SOURCES IN PHASE 2 STARTER DIETS FOR WEANLING PIGS 1

AN EVALUATION OF DEXTROSE, LACTOSE, AND WHEY SOURCES IN PHASE 2 STARTER DIETS FOR WEANLING PIGS 1 Swine Day 2007 AN EVALUATION OF DEXTROSE, LACTOSE, AND WHEY SOURCES IN PHASE 2 STARTER DIETS FOR WEANLING PIGS 1 J. R. Bergstrom, C. N. Groesbeck, J. M. Benz, M. D. Tokach, J. L. Nelssen, S. S. Dritz 2,

More information

Optimizing Broiler Feed Conversion Ratio

Optimizing Broiler Feed Conversion Ratio Optimizing Broiler Feed Conversion Ratio July 2011 This article has been written specifically for poultry producers in Latin America. However, the recommendations given are expected to be useful and informative

More information

L-VALINE: Release the potential of your feed!

L-VALINE: Release the potential of your feed! AJINOMOTO ANIMAL NUTRITION GO TO ESSENTIALS AJINOMOTO EUROLYSINE S.A.S. May 2009 INFORMATION N 33 LVALINE: Release the potential of your feed! An indispensable amino acid for piglet growth 70% SID Val:Lys

More information

Copper and zinc in diets of growing pigs

Copper and zinc in diets of growing pigs Copper and zinc in diets of growing pigs New insights in requirements Paul Bikker and Age Jongbloed Outline Introduction Copper and zinc as essential trace element Present: recommendations, allowance and

More information

Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. Chapter 5 Lesson 2

Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Carbohydrates Definition- the starches and sugars found in foods. Carbohydrates are the body s preferred source of energy providing four

More information

The Effect of Citric Acid, Phytase, and Their Interaction on Gastric ph, and Ca, P, and Dry Matter Digestibilities

The Effect of Citric Acid, Phytase, and Their Interaction on Gastric ph, and Ca, P, and Dry Matter Digestibilities The Effect of Citric Acid, Phytase, and Their Interaction on Gastric ph, and Ca, P, and Dry Matter Digestibilities J. P. Rice 1, R. S. Pleasant 2, and J. S. Radcliffe 1 1 Department of Animal Sciences

More information

Sorghum in Poultry Production Feeding Guide

Sorghum in Poultry Production Feeding Guide Sorghum in Poultry Production Feeding Guide When determining the value of your feedstuffs it is important to remember: Sorghum DDGs are naturally darker in color and have excellent nutritional value. Color

More information

Nutrition in Dogs Karen Hedberg BVSc 2007. Canine Nutrition

Nutrition in Dogs Karen Hedberg BVSc 2007. Canine Nutrition Nutrition in Dogs Karen Hedberg BVSc 2007 Main requirements : Canine Nutrition The dog is a carnivore Dogs can vary considerably at different stages of their life in their requirements for energy, fat

More information

Introduction. Introduction Nutritional Requirements. Six Major Classes of Nutrients. Water 12/1/2011. Regional Hay School -- Bolivar, MO 1

Introduction. Introduction Nutritional Requirements. Six Major Classes of Nutrients. Water 12/1/2011. Regional Hay School -- Bolivar, MO 1 Cattle and Horse Nutrition Dona Goede Livestock Specialist Introduction Many health, reproductive and production problems can be prevented with good nutrition. Poor nutrition results in: Poor conception

More information

HYPO-ALLERGENIC SUPER PREMIUM DOG & CAT FOODS

HYPO-ALLERGENIC SUPER PREMIUM DOG & CAT FOODS Formulated and made in Britain HYPO-ALLERGENIC SUPER PREMIUM DOG & CAT FOODS Developed by leading pet nutritionists, our pet foods represent the finest dry pet foods on the market All our own pet foods

More information

UTI CAT FOOD COMPARISON CHART

UTI CAT FOOD COMPARISON CHART UTI CAT FOOD COMPARISON CHART believes that urinary tract infections, crystals and kidney problems in today s cat are due mainly to excessive minerals consumed by our cats as they age. Once you cat reaches

More information

Nutrient Requirements of Sheep and Goats

Nutrient Requirements of Sheep and Goats A L A B A M A A & M A N D A U B U R N U N I V E R S I T I E S ANR-812 Nutrient Requirements of Sheep and Goats Feed, whether purchased or produced on the farm, makes up a large part of the expenses incurred

More information

655 Southgate Drive Guelph, Ontario N1G 5G6. DATE: November 6, 2007 PROPOSAL # 07/135 ONTARIO PORK RESEARCH PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT

655 Southgate Drive Guelph, Ontario N1G 5G6. DATE: November 6, 2007 PROPOSAL # 07/135 ONTARIO PORK RESEARCH PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT 655 Southgate Drive Guelph, Ontario N1G 5G6 DATE: November 6, 2007 PROPOSAL # 07/135 ONTARIO PORK RESEARCH PROPOSAL FINAL REPORT Project Leaders: C.F.M de Lange Project Title: Reducing the negative impact

More information

Sheep Nutrition. Sheep Nutrition. Nutrient Needs. Sheep Nutrition Water. Products Produced. Use of Pasture\Range and Forages.

Sheep Nutrition. Sheep Nutrition. Nutrient Needs. Sheep Nutrition Water. Products Produced. Use of Pasture\Range and Forages. Products Produced Muscle (Meat) Milk Fiber (wool, mohair, cashmere) Use of Pasture\Range and Forages Able to produce acceptable product on forage Nutrient Needs Water Energy (TDN, ME, or NE) Protein (CP

More information

Trends in U.S. Broiler Production and Nutrition Perspectives from a Top 10 Broiler Integrator Carla J. Price, Ph.D Sanderson Farms Laurel, MS

Trends in U.S. Broiler Production and Nutrition Perspectives from a Top 10 Broiler Integrator Carla J. Price, Ph.D Sanderson Farms Laurel, MS Trends in U.S. Broiler Production and Nutrition Perspectives from a Top 10 Broiler Integrator Carla J. Price, Ph.D Sanderson Farms Laurel, MS Elizabeth J. Kim, Ph.D ARS-USDA Poultry Research Unit Mississippi

More information

Proposed Revisions Edited per Comments for 2014 Official Publication 1 AAFCO METHODS FOR SUBSTANTIATING NUTRITIONAL ADEQUACY OF DOG AND CAT FOODS

Proposed Revisions Edited per Comments for 2014 Official Publication 1 AAFCO METHODS FOR SUBSTANTIATING NUTRITIONAL ADEQUACY OF DOG AND CAT FOODS Proposed Revisions Edited per Comments for 2014 Official Publication 1 AAFCO METHODS FOR SUBSTANTIATING NUTRITIONAL ADEQUACY OF DOG AND CAT FOODS This section contains the minimum testing methods for the

More information

Broiler Nutrition Supplement

Broiler Nutrition Supplement Broiler Nutrition Supplement 2009 2 Contents Introduction... 4 Supply of Nutrients... 4 Protein and Amino Acids... 5 Macro Minerals... 6 Non-Nutritive Feed Additives... 7 Broiler Diet Specifications...

More information

Energy in the New Dairy NRC. Maurice L. Eastridge 1 Department of Animal Sciences The Ohio State University

Energy in the New Dairy NRC. Maurice L. Eastridge 1 Department of Animal Sciences The Ohio State University Energy in the New Dairy NRC Maurice L. Eastridge 1 Department of Animal Sciences The Ohio State University Introduction Energy is vital to the function of all cells, and thus physiologically, it is vital

More information

Response of Dairy Cows to Supplements of Energy and Protein in Early and Mid Lactation

Response of Dairy Cows to Supplements of Energy and Protein in Early and Mid Lactation Response of Dairy Cows to Supplements of Energy and Protein in Early and Mid Lactation Ryan Law, Fiona Young and Conrad Ferris Innovative and practical management approaches to reduce nitrogen excretion

More information

Pediatrics. Specialty Courses for Medical Assistants

Pediatrics. Specialty Courses for Medical Assistants Pediatrics Specialty Courses for Medical Assistants 7007 College Boulevard, Suite 385 Overland Park, Kansas 66211 www.ncctinc.com t: 800.875.4404 f: 913.498.1243 Pediatrics Specialty Certificate Course

More information

Appendix 5 Making homemade fish feed

Appendix 5 Making homemade fish feed 193 Appendix 5 Making homemade fish feed Fish feed is one of the most expensive inputs for a small-scale aquaponic unit. Feed is also one of the most important components of the whole aquaponic ecosystem

More information

Forage Crises? Extending Forages and Use of Non-forage Fiber Sources. Introduction

Forage Crises? Extending Forages and Use of Non-forage Fiber Sources. Introduction Forage Crises? Extending Forages and Use of Non-forage Fiber Sources Mike Allen and Jennifer Voelker Michigan State University Dept. of Animal Science Introduction Forage availability is sometimes limited

More information

PROCESSING OF WHEAT FOR GROWING-FINISHING SWINE

PROCESSING OF WHEAT FOR GROWING-FINISHING SWINE PROCESSING OF WHEAT FOR GROWING-FINISHING SWINE W.G. Luce 1, A.C. Clutter 2, C.V. Maxwell 3, S.R. McPeake 4 and R. Vencl 5 Story in Brief A trial involving 470 crossbred pigs was conducted to evaluate

More information

Eat like a pig for better health?

Eat like a pig for better health? Eat like a pig for better health? Theo van Kempen Senior Researcher, Nutreco Adjunct professor in Nutrition, North Carolina State University Ph.D., Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Pigging out,

More information

Assessing protein quality

Assessing protein quality Assessing protein quality Toon van Hooijdonk IDF/ISO Analytical Week June 5, 2013, Rotterdam Food security: a massive challenge UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Int Energy Agency (IEA) Int Food

More information

Impact of using vaccination with Improvac on boar taint, carcass composition and meat quality Jim Allison 1, Jaroslav Kratochvíl 2

Impact of using vaccination with Improvac on boar taint, carcass composition and meat quality Jim Allison 1, Jaroslav Kratochvíl 2 Impact of using vaccination with Improvac on boar taint, carcass composition and meat quality Jim Allison 1, Jaroslav Kratochvíl 2 1 Pfizer Animal Health, United States of America 2 Pfizer Animal Health,

More information

Increasing Profitability Through an Accelerated Heifer Replacement Program

Increasing Profitability Through an Accelerated Heifer Replacement Program Increasing Profitability Through an Accelerated Heifer Replacement Program Robert B. Corbett, D.V.M Dairy Health Consultation Accelerating heifer growth has been a very controversial subject in recent

More information

CAPRICORN: A Windows Program for Formulating and Evaluating Rations for Goats

CAPRICORN: A Windows Program for Formulating and Evaluating Rations for Goats CAPRICORN: A Windows Program for Formulating and Evaluating Rations for Goats A. Ahmadi 1, P.H. Robinson 1 1 Animal Science, University of California, Davis, California, USA, phrobinson@ucdavis.edu Abstract

More information

Nutrition Guide. National Swine. Nursery Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management. Introduction. Objectives

Nutrition Guide. National Swine. Nursery Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management. Introduction. Objectives Nursery Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management Introduction National Swine Nutrition Guide Authors Joel M. DeRouchey, Kansas State University Robert D. Goodband, Kansas State University

More information

DETERMINING PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVELS IN BROILER DIETS THAT MAXIMIZE PROFITS G. M. PESTI* ABSTRACT

DETERMINING PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVELS IN BROILER DIETS THAT MAXIMIZE PROFITS G. M. PESTI* ABSTRACT DETERMINING PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVELS IN BROILER DIETS THAT MAXIMIZE PROFITS G. M. PESTI* ABSTRACT Current theory holds that setting energy levels in feed formulation is not necessary because birds eat

More information

Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences

Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? How does the balance of the major energy-related

More information

Feeding Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA) Decreases Lipogenesis and Alters Expression of Lipogenic Genes in Porcine Adipose Tissue

Feeding Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA) Decreases Lipogenesis and Alters Expression of Lipogenic Genes in Porcine Adipose Tissue Feeding Conjugated Linoleic Acids (CLA) Decreases Lipogenesis and Alters Expression of Lipogenic Genes in Porcine Adipose Tissue M.L. Heckart, J.M. Eggert, A.P. Schinckel, S.E. Mills, and S.S. Donkin Department

More information

Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs

Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs Michael F. Hutjens Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, 232 ASL, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Email: hutjensm@uiuc.edu

More information

Protein. Protein. Why is protein important?

Protein. Protein. Why is protein important? Protein Protein Though protein is often perceived as an area of concern for vegans, it is actually very easily accessible on a vegan diet, particularly if a variety of plant foods are consumed regularly.

More information

Grow Taller 4 Idiots 2

Grow Taller 4 Idiots 2 1 Grow Taller 4 Idiots 2 Warning and Disclaimer Every effort has been made to make this digital book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or fitness is implied. The information provided

More information

Lohmann Brown Management Guide May 2007

Lohmann Brown Management Guide May 2007 Lohmann Brown Management Guide May 2007 Contents Introduction Page 1 Performance Objectives Page 2 Rearing Management Page 3 Bodyweight Profile Page 4-5 Lighting Page 6-8 Housing - Laying Period Page 9

More information

TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS FOR PIGS

TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS FOR PIGS TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS FOR PIGS DEFINITIONS OF AMBIENT TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS FOR PIGS: A REVIEW Mark L. Lorschy SUMMARY Pigs, like all animals, have an ability to live in a variety of thermal environments.

More information

Intake Energy Energy available in the feedstuff. It is also known as potential energy.

Intake Energy Energy available in the feedstuff. It is also known as potential energy. Lesson 9: Energy Energy in Feedstuffs Overview Most feedstuffs provide energy. While fats, oils, and grains have the highest energy content, roughages and mineral supplements have little or no energy content.

More information

Grouping to Increase Milk Yield and Decrease Feed Costs

Grouping to Increase Milk Yield and Decrease Feed Costs 61 Grouping to Increase Milk Yield and Decrease Feed Costs Michael S. Allen 1 Department of Animal Science Michigan State University Abstract There are many advantages of grouping cows to optimize their

More information

FEEDING YOUR CAT: KNOW THE BASICS OF FELINE NUTRITION

FEEDING YOUR CAT: KNOW THE BASICS OF FELINE NUTRITION FEEDING YOUR CAT: KNOW THE BASICS OF FELINE NUTRITION Cat Foods Just like dog food, cat food comes in 3 varieties: Dry Semi-Moist Canned Not all cat foods are created equal The three key negative issues

More information

Aging Well Part III Basal Metabolism Rate

Aging Well Part III Basal Metabolism Rate Aging Well Part III Basal Metabolism Rate By: James L. Holly, MD Consider the following facts. If you are five-foot-eleven-inches tall, your basal metabolism rate (BMR) is: Age Male Female 20 1952 1663

More information

Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins

Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins Functions of proteins: Enzymes Transport and Storage Motion, muscle contraction Hormones Mechanical support Immune protection (Antibodies) Generate and transmit nerve impulses

More information

NUTRITION MACRONUTRIENT RATIO

NUTRITION MACRONUTRIENT RATIO It s that time of year again when we say goodbye to summertime shorts, slops and vests and say hello to long pants, coats and thermal underwear. While most people despise the chilly winter, for those of

More information

ANIMAL AND PLANT PRODUCTIVITY - Monogastric Nutrition - S. Novak, S. Moehn, M. Yegani and D. Korver

ANIMAL AND PLANT PRODUCTIVITY - Monogastric Nutrition - S. Novak, S. Moehn, M. Yegani and D. Korver MONOGASTRIC NUTRITION S. Novak, S. Moehn, M. Yegani and D. Korver Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada Keywords: Pig, poultry, equine, nutrition,

More information

Developing farm-specific lysine requirements using accretion curves: Data collection procedures and techniques

Developing farm-specific lysine requirements using accretion curves: Data collection procedures and techniques PRODUCTION TOOL Smith JW, Tokach MD, Schinckel AP, et al. Developing farm-specific lysine requirements using accretion curves: Data collection procedures and techniques. Swine Health Prod. 1999;7(6):277

More information

EUROPEAN COMMISSION HEALTH & CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL

EUROPEAN COMMISSION HEALTH & CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL EUROPEAN COMMISSION HEALTH & CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL Directorate C - Scientific Opinions C2 - Management of scientific committees II; scientific co-operation and networks Revision of the

More information

Spray-dried porcine plasma, a healthy feed ingredient for resilient weaner pigs

Spray-dried porcine plasma, a healthy feed ingredient for resilient weaner pigs Spray-dried porcine plasma, a healthy feed ingredient for resilient weaner pigs Jos Houdijk Disease Systems, SRUC, Edinburgh, UK Background The slaughterhouse by-product spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP)

More information

FARMING FOR THE FUTURE How mineral fertilizers can feed the world and maintain its resources in an Integrated Farming System

FARMING FOR THE FUTURE How mineral fertilizers can feed the world and maintain its resources in an Integrated Farming System How mineral fertilizers can feed the world and maintain its resources in an Integrated Farming System european fertilizer manufacturers association Global trends in population growth (Population 1000 million),

More information

Note Taking Guide. Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins (pp ) Foods Supply Nutrients. Foods Supply Energy. Section 8-1.

Note Taking Guide. Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins (pp ) Foods Supply Nutrients. Foods Supply Energy. Section 8-1. Section 8-1 Note Taking Guide Carbohydrates, Fats, and Proteins (pp. 192 199) Foods Supply Nutrients 1. List four reasons why the body needs nutrients. The body needs nutrients to a.. b.. c.. d.. 2. List

More information

GUIDELINES FOR DIET CONTROL IN DIABETES MELLITUS Importance of Food Exchange Lists and Perspectives for the Future *

GUIDELINES FOR DIET CONTROL IN DIABETES MELLITUS Importance of Food Exchange Lists and Perspectives for the Future * 57 GUIDELINES FOR DIET CONTROL IN DIABETES MELLITUS Importance of Food Exchange Lists and Perspectives for the Future * Hiroshi KAJINUMA** Asian Med. J. 44(2): 57 63, 2001 Abstract: Food Exchange List

More information

What is Protein?

What is Protein? The Effects of Whey Supplementation and Natural Diet on Protein Synthesis and Muscle Hypertrophy Dylan Dimke Mallory Ventrella Sarah Wilcox May 2014 I n t r o d u c t i o n Protein is commonly known among

More information

Dietary Vitamin or Mineral Mix Removal During the Finisher Period on Broiler Chicken Performance

Dietary Vitamin or Mineral Mix Removal During the Finisher Period on Broiler Chicken Performance 2002 Poultry Science Association, Inc. Dietary Vitamin or Mineral Mix Removal During the Finisher Period on Broiler Chicken Performance A. Maiorka, A. C. Laurentiz, E. Santin, L. F. Araújo, and M. Macari

More information

Monitoring of the dairy cow for optimizing health and production - energy and protein status

Monitoring of the dairy cow for optimizing health and production - energy and protein status Monitoring of the dairy cow for optimizing health and production - energy and protein status Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Tjele, Denmark AU-FOULUM KLAUS LØNNE INGVARTSEN HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

More information

Regulation of Metabolism. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College

Regulation of Metabolism. By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College Regulation of Metabolism By Dr. Carmen Rexach Physiology Mt San Antonio College Energy Constant need in living cells Measured in kcal carbohydrates and proteins = 4kcal/g Fats = 9kcal/g Most diets are

More information

Quality of organic legumes prediction of main ingredients and amino acids by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Quality of organic legumes prediction of main ingredients and amino acids by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy ! Agriculture and Forestry Research, Special Issue No 362 (Braunschweig, 2012) ISSN 0376-0723 Download: www.vti.bund.de/en/startseite/vti-publications/landbauforschung-special-issues.html Quality of organic

More information

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402

10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 10.1 The function of Digestion pg. 402 Macromolecules and Living Systems The body is made up of more than 60 % water. The water is found in the cells cytoplasm, the interstitial fluid and the blood (5

More information

ALL ABOUT FISH COLLAGEN COLLAGEN PEPTIDES FOR A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE

ALL ABOUT FISH COLLAGEN COLLAGEN PEPTIDES FOR A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE ALL ABOUT FISH COLLAGEN COLLAGEN PEPTIDES FOR A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE ZZAZEN NATURAL BEAUTY FROM WITHIN! Collagen is a glue forming protein which is the main component of the connective tissue in the body.

More information

Methionine Supplementation of Low-Protein Broiler Diets: Influence upon Growth Performance and Efficiency of Protein Utilization

Methionine Supplementation of Low-Protein Broiler Diets: Influence upon Growth Performance and Efficiency of Protein Utilization International Journal of Poultry Science 5 (6): 569-573, 006 ISSN 68-8356 Asian Network for Scientific Information, 006 Methionine Supplementation of Low-Protein Broiler Diets: Influence upon Growth Performance

More information

Detailed Course Descriptions for the Human Nutrition Program

Detailed Course Descriptions for the Human Nutrition Program 1 Detailed Course Descriptions for the Human Nutrition Program Major Required Courses NUTR221 Principles of Food Science and Nutrition Credit (Contact) Hours 2 CH(2 Theory) Prerequisites Course Description

More information

breeder Breeder Management Supplement Fast Feather Female cobb-vantress.com

breeder Breeder Management Supplement Fast Feather Female cobb-vantress.com Breeder Manaement Supplement Fast Feather Female breeder cobb-vantress.com Cobb 500 FF Breeder Manaement Supplement Introduction This Cobb Breeder Manaement Supplement is to be used in conjunction with

More information

The principles of dairy nutrition

The principles of dairy nutrition 5 The principles of dairy nutrition This chapter explains the key principles of dairy nutrition to better understand the practices of feeding management. The main points in this chapter Feeds contain the

More information

Effect of Flaxseed Inclusion on Ruminal Fermentation, Digestion and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Growing and Finishing Diets for Beef Cattle

Effect of Flaxseed Inclusion on Ruminal Fermentation, Digestion and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Growing and Finishing Diets for Beef Cattle Effect of Flaxseed Inclusion on Ruminal Fermentation, Digestion and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Growing and Finishing Diets for Beef Cattle T.C. Gilbery, G.P. Lardy, D.S. Hagberg and M.L. Bauer NDSU

More information

Level 3. Applying the Principles of Nutrition to a Physical Activity Programme Level 3

Level 3. Applying the Principles of Nutrition to a Physical Activity Programme Level 3 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTION PAPER Paper number APNU3.0 Please insert this reference number in the appropriate boxes on your candidate answer sheet Title MOCK PAPER Time allocation 50 minutes Level 3 Applying

More information

Your Hay Test and Your Horse

Your Hay Test and Your Horse Page 1 Your Hay Test and Your Horse How to Decipher the Lab Report and Tell What it Means Buying hay for your horse can be a challenge whether you buy it a few bales at a time or buy a year s supply as

More information

Distillers Grains for Beef Cattle

Distillers Grains for Beef Cattle Distillers Grains for Beef Cattle Terry Klopfenstein Distillers byproducts are excellent feed resources for feedlot cattle. Distillers byproducts are normally available for use in feedlot finishing diets

More information

FEEDING ORGANIC PIGS A HANDBOOK OF RAW MATERIALS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FEEDING PRACTICE

FEEDING ORGANIC PIGS A HANDBOOK OF RAW MATERIALS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FEEDING PRACTICE FEEDING ORGANIC PIGS A HANDBOOK OF RAW MATERIALS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FEEDING PRACTICE Produced by: Professor Sandra Edwards School of Agriculture Food & Rural Development University of Newcastle Newcastle

More information

Diet formulation: making use of non-linear functions

Diet formulation: making use of non-linear functions Diet formulation: making use of non-linear functions Rick Kleyn, Nutrition Consultant, SPESFEED (Pty) Ltd. Introduction Traditionally, feed formulation is achieved through the use of linear programming

More information

6/29/2009 6.8 5.3 TDN

6/29/2009 6.8 5.3 TDN Common Sense Meat Goat-Nutrition Brian Freking OSU LeFlore Co. Extension Nutrition Feeding goats is the single largest expense behind the purchase cost of the animals. Can be as high as 60% of the total

More information

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1

Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 1. Compound X increases the rate of the reaction below. Compound X is most likely A. an enzyme B. a lipid molecule C. an indicator D. an ADP molecule 2. The equation below

More information

Using Corn Ethanol Byproducts in Beef Rations. NDSU Animal and Range Sciences

Using Corn Ethanol Byproducts in Beef Rations. NDSU Animal and Range Sciences Using Corn Ethanol Byproducts in Beef Rations Corn Ethanol By products Grain Milling/Processing Operations Generally want to remove the starch portion of the grain Residue remaining (byproducts) are generally

More information

How do Patients Take THE GIFT from Mother Earth, BEST FULVIC and Humic and Fulvic Based Supplements?

How do Patients Take THE GIFT from Mother Earth, BEST FULVIC and Humic and Fulvic Based Supplements? How do Patients Take THE GIFT from Mother Earth, BEST FULVIC and Humic and Fulvic Based Supplements? Patients typically start taking THE GIFT from Mother Earth. THE GIFT from Mother Earth is a highly-concentrated

More information

Aquatic Animal Nutrition: Understanding Feed Conversion Ratios

Aquatic Animal Nutrition: Understanding Feed Conversion Ratios Aquatic Animal Nutrition: Understanding Feed Conversion Ratios Grade Level: 9-12 Subject Area: Aquaculture, Nutrition Time: 30 minutes +introduction/discussion time Student Performance Standards (Sunshine

More information