Understanding CNCPS and CPM: Biology, Modeling, and Best Cost Applications for Balancing the Nutrient Requirements in Dairy Diets

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Understanding CNCPS and CPM: Biology, Modeling, and Best Cost Applications for Balancing the Nutrient Requirements in Dairy Diets"

Transcription

1 Understanding CNCPS and CPM: Biology, Modeling, and Best Cost Applications for Balancing the Nutrient Requirements in Dairy Diets T. R. Overton, M. E. Van Amburgh, and L. E. Chase Department of Animal Science Cornell University, Ithaca NY Novus International Breakfast at 2010 Penn State Dairy Nutrition Workshop

2 Outline of discussion Overview of CPM Dairy and CNCPS Key biological concepts in models Opportunities to use models to improve efficiency of nitrogen use on farms Uses of CPM/CNCPS fatty acid submodel Diet comparison CPM and CNCPS 6.1

3 CPM Dairy Development led by University of Pennsylvania with collaboration from Cornell and W. H. Miner Institute Initial release of CPM Dairy version 1.0 in 1998 Release of CPM Dairy version 3.0 in 2006 CHO and protein biology similar to CNCPS 5.0 Nonlinear optimization Addition of fatty acid submodel Available at

4 CNCPS 6.1 Available at in beta form Anticipate final release January 2011 Updates within CNCPS 6.1 Expanded carbohydrate pools and changes in CHO rates Changes in passage rate assignments Changes in nitrogen recycling and protein fraction rates Corrections to accounting in previous versions Net result is significant changes in how CNCPS evaluates nitrogen economy of the cow along with predictions of metabolizable protein Also available to the industry in licensed platforms AMTS NDS

5

6

7 Overview of key biological concepts in CPM/CNCPS

8 Characteristics of CNCPS and CPM compared to other formulation programs Breaks down carbohydrates and proteins into fractions and models their fermentation/digestion Dynamic versus static Amounts of nutrient fractions fermented/degraded in the rumen depends upon competition between rates of degradation and rates of passage Values for CHO and protein degradability not constant Focused on nutrient requirements versus ingredient requirements Provides ability to focus on improving efficiency of nutrient (N and P) use (and now also methane production in CNCPS 6.1)

9 CHO fractions and rates in CPM Dairy 3.0 Pool Composition Ruminal Kd (%/hr) Intestinal digestibility, % A1 Silage acids A2 Simple sugars B1 Starch B2 Soluble fiber B3 Available NDF C Unavailable NDF 0 0

10 CNCPS 6.1 CHO Pools and Rates Item Pool Calculation kd %/hr ID % mass Acetic A1 C2 + C3 + C Prop. A1 C2 + C3 + C But. A1 C2 + C3 + C Lactic A2 Lactic Other Organics A3 Other OAAs Sugar A4 Sugar Starch B1 Starch Soluble Fiber B2 Total CHO - (A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + B1 + B3 + C) NDF B3 NDF - C Lignin C Lignin x

11 Rates of degradation (kd) of protein A and B1 pools in CNCPS v5.0 and v6.1. Feed ProtA kd v.5.0 ProtA kd v.6.1 ProtB1 kd v.5.0 ProtB1 kd v.6.1 Corn Grain Ground Corn High Moisture 22% Soybean Meal Corn Silage Grass Silage Alfalfa Silage From: Broderick, 1989; Volden et al. 2002, Choi et al., 2003; Hequist and Uden, 2006; Lanzas et al., 2007

12 Pool Disappearance Calculations Rumen disappearance used to be calculated using the same passage rate (feed specific) for all pools. So, disappearance is now calculated as: Protein A and B1 flow with the LIQUID passage rate Carbohydrates A1-A4 flow with the LIQUID passage rate Carbohydrate B1 flows with the CONCENTRATE passage rate All other pools flow with the feed specific passage rates

13 Summary for CNCPS V6.1 Several updates to the biology and fixes New carbohydrate fractions the CHO A pool has been fractionated into the constituents: volatile fatty acids, lactic acid, organic acids, and sugars (Lanzas et al., 2007) New solid and liquid passage rate equations (Seo et al., 2006) Ruminal nitrogen limitation submodel (Tedeschi et al. 2002) Bacterial ash accounting (Tylutki et al. 2008) Additional updates to pool sizes, chemistry and passage assignments (Van Amburgh et al.)

14 CNCPS v6.1 Most limiting ME or MP Allowable Milk Yield from 21 to 52 kg/d and CP from 12.7 to 17.4% among 24 data sets (1000 individual cows represented) research to herd level data

15 Opportunities to improve efficiency of nitrogen and AA use in dairy rations

16 Protein metabolism in cows Dietary CP Saliva True protein Peptides NPN Urea RUMEN RUP Amino acids Microbial protein Ammonia Liver Amino acids SMALL NTESTINE RUP Microbial protein Endogenous protein Mammary gland Metabolizable protein (absorbed AA) MILK Schwab, 2005

17 Summary of whole-body nitrogen (protein) metabolism in the cow About 35% of nitrogen intake is excreted in the manure 25 to 30% of nitrogen intake is excreted in the milk Excessive ammonia in the rumen is absorbed and detoxified to urea in the liver Amino acids supplied in excess of requirements absorbed by liver and nitrogen detoxified to urea Urea produced in the liver can be recycled to the rumen for use by rumen bacteria Urea also is excreted in the milk (MUN) and in the urine (waste)

18 Practical ways to improve N efficiency (Van Amburgh) Reduce amount of N fed Reduce/remove safety factors Utilize N fractions wisely Pay attention to forms fed (soluble, RDP, RUP) rather than total amount of protein Learn how to rely on recycled N to improve efficiencies Focus on absorbable AA Ratios and amounts for maintenance and production

19 How does decreasing the supply of rumen degradable protein (RDP) affect efficiency of nitrogen use by the cow?

20 Composition of diets used to evaluate effects of decreasing RDP supply while maintaining RUP supply on performance and nitrogen utilization (Cyriac et al., 2008). NRC predicted RDP, % of diet DM Item Ingredient, % of DM Corn silage Mixed grass legume silage Whole cottonseed Rolled high moisture shelled corn Soybean hulls Soybean meal Protected soybean meal Corn grain, ground Tallow Mineral/vitamin Composition and NRC estimate CP, % of DM NDF, % of DM ADF, % of DM NEL, Mcal/kg RDP supply, g/d RDP balance, g/d RUP supply, g/d

21 Performance and nitrogen utilization in cows fed diets to decrease RDP supply while maintaining RUP supply on performance and nitrogen utilization (Cyriac et al., 2008). NRC predicted RDP, % of diet DM Item DMI, kg/d * Milk yield, kg/d * Milk CP, % Milk CP, kg/d * MUN, mg/dl * NRC predicted NEL allowable milk, kg/d NRC predicted MP allowable milk, kg/d Nitrogen Intake N, g/d * Milk N, g/d * Predicted urine N, g/d * N efficiency (Milk/intake), % * * denotes significant (P < 0.05) linear or quadratic effect of treatment

22 Example use of CNCPS to improve efficiency of nitrogen use

23 900-cow dairy, Lansing NY High group ~1550 lbs ~ 100 DIM 60 lb/d DMI ~ 120 lb/d milk 16.1% CP 60% forage

24 Item CP (%DM) 16.1 SP (%CP) 38 RDP (%DM) 8.14 Ether Extract (%DM) 5.2 LCFA (%DM) 4.1 Total Unsaturate (g/day) NFC (%DM) 41.1 Total Ferm. CHO (%CHO) 59.0 Ash (%DM) 7.59 Forage (%DM) 60.0 NDF (%DM) Forage NDF (%DM) Forage NDF (%NDF) Forage NDF (%BW) 0.94 CHO A4 (Sugar) 5.5 CHO B1 (Starch) 28.3 CHO B2 (Sol. Fiber) 7.4 CHO_B3 (Avail. NDF) 24.2 CHO C (2.4 * Lig) 6.7

25 N efficiency 37% Most farms are 25 to 30% Productive N:Urinary N 1.47:1 Most farms are 0.6 to 0.8:1 Van Amburgh, Chase, and Higgs, unpublished data

26 Survey of commercial herds achieving high levels of milk nitrogen efficiency. From Higgs (2009) MS Thesis LE Chase, advisor

27 Survey of commercial herds achieving high levels of milk nitrogen efficiency. From Higgs (2009) MS Thesis LE Chase, advisor

28 Survey of commercial herds achieving high levels of milk nitrogen efficiency. From Higgs (2009) MS Thesis LE Chase, advisor

29 Fatty acid submodel (Moate et al., 2004) New addition with CPM 3.0 Incorporated into CNCPS 6.1 Predicts intakes, ruminal metabolism, flows to intestine, and digestibility of fatty acids Strengths Feed fatty acid library (intake predictions) Weaknesses Predictions of duodenal flows of individual fatty acids

30 Milk fat case study 70-cow dairy Production average ~ 90 lbs Milk fat consistently running ~3.0 to 3.1%

31 Rumensin ~ 320 mg/d

32

33

34 Ration example CNCPS 6.1 vs. CPM

35 Northeast/Upper Midwest ration example

36

37 Base diet Modified diet

38 Base diet Modified diet

39 Base diet Modified diet

40 Base diet Modified diet

41 Base diet Modified diet

42 Base diet Modified diet

43 Summary and conclusions Updates to CNCPS 6.1 have made the model more robust in evaluating on farm nutritional management Updates to pool sizes, digestion and passage rates/assignments made the model more sensitive in predicting ME and MP allowable milk Most apparent for protein and N supply, especially with lower CP diets Fatty acid submodel has some utility in helping troubleshoot milk fat issues

44 Novus International / Cornell webinar series Conducted in collaboration with Dairy Herd Management magazine Webinars already conducted (recorded and available) Overview of CNCPS 6.1 and comparison to CPM Drs Mike Van Amburgh and Tom Overton Improving efficiency of nitrogen use Drs Mike Van Amburgh and Larry Chase Upcoming webinars November 17 Oxidative balance Drs. Barry Bradford (K State) and Julia Dibner (Novus) December 16 Transition cow nutrition Dr. Tom Overton January 12 Cow comfort study February 9 Troubleshooting milk fat Dr. Tom Overton

Understanding Feed Analysis Terminology

Understanding Feed Analysis Terminology Understanding Feed Analysis Terminology One of the most important steps in developing a ration suitable for dairy animals is feed testing. It is essential to have a starting point in order to formulate

More information

Forage Crises? Extending Forages and Use of Non-forage Fiber Sources. Introduction

Forage Crises? Extending Forages and Use of Non-forage Fiber Sources. Introduction Forage Crises? Extending Forages and Use of Non-forage Fiber Sources Mike Allen and Jennifer Voelker Michigan State University Dept. of Animal Science Introduction Forage availability is sometimes limited

More information

2014 Virginia State Feed Association & Nutritional Management "Cow" College 2/20/2014. Patton Nittany Dairy Nutrition, Inc.

2014 Virginia State Feed Association & Nutritional Management Cow College 2/20/2014. Patton Nittany Dairy Nutrition, Inc. The Practical Application of Balancing Lactating Cow Rations for Amino Acids Robert A. Patton Nittany Dairy Nutrition, Inc Mifflinburg, PA Background Nature has made the protein and AA nutrition of the

More information

Opportunities Inputting Lab Values in Ration Software

Opportunities Inputting Lab Values in Ration Software Opportunities Inputting Lab Values in Ration Software NIRSC/NFTA/FeedAC Joint Annual Meeting Feb 13, 2008 Indianapolis, IN Dr. Tim Snyder Nutrition Manager Nutritional and management consulting serving

More information

FEEDING & METABOLISM OF DIETARY PROTEIN

FEEDING & METABOLISM OF DIETARY PROTEIN Department of Animal Science FEEDING & METABOLISM OF DIETARY PROTEIN Dairy Cattle Production 342-450A Page 1 of 11 Protein Fractions of Ruminant Feeds These are some of the important protein fractions

More information

Making the Most of Grass-Based Forages in Diet Formulation

Making the Most of Grass-Based Forages in Diet Formulation Making the Most of Grass-Based Forages in Diet Formulation Michael Murphy Lantmännen Animal Feeds Division, Box 301 92, S-104 25 Stockholm, Sweden, Email: michael.murphy@lantmannen.se Take Home Messages

More information

Measures and Weights. Energy and carbohydrates

Measures and Weights. Energy and carbohydrates Measures and Weights What is ppm? What is mg/kg? What is %? Why are some requirements presented as concentrations (%, ppm, or mg/kg) and others as weights (g, oz, kg, lbs)? Parts per million, like percent,

More information

Effective Fiber for Dairy Cows

Effective Fiber for Dairy Cows Feed Management A Key Ingredient in Livestock and Poultry Nutrient Management Effective Fiber for Dairy Cows R. D. Shaver Professor and Extension Dairy Nutritionist Department of Dairy Science College

More information

FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION

FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION Department of Animal Science FEEDING THE DAIRY COW DURING LACTATION Dairy Cattle Production 342-450A Page 1 of 8 Feeding the Dairy Cow during Lactation There are main stages in the lactation cycle of the

More information

Overview. What Is Component Feeding? Component vs. TMR Feeding. Component vs. TMR Feeding. Component vs. TMR Feeding COMPONENT FEEDING OF DAIRY COWS

Overview. What Is Component Feeding? Component vs. TMR Feeding. Component vs. TMR Feeding. Component vs. TMR Feeding COMPONENT FEEDING OF DAIRY COWS COMPONENT FEEDING OF DAIRY COWS Mat Haan Dairy Educator Penn State Extension Gabriella Varga Distinguished Professor Penn State University Department of Animal Science Dairy Nutrition Conference Grantville,

More information

Feed Efficiency in Lactating Dairy Cows

Feed Efficiency in Lactating Dairy Cows Feed Efficiency in Lactating Dairy Cows J. Linn 1, M. Raeth-Knight 1, S. Fredin 1, and A. Bach 2 1 University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 2 Spain IRTA-Unitat de Remugants, Barcelona, Spain Efficient utilization

More information

Energy in the New Dairy NRC. Maurice L. Eastridge 1 Department of Animal Sciences The Ohio State University

Energy in the New Dairy NRC. Maurice L. Eastridge 1 Department of Animal Sciences The Ohio State University Energy in the New Dairy NRC Maurice L. Eastridge 1 Department of Animal Sciences The Ohio State University Introduction Energy is vital to the function of all cells, and thus physiologically, it is vital

More information

Comparison of Software Applications for Formulating Dairy Rations

Comparison of Software Applications for Formulating Dairy Rations Comparison of Software Applications for Formulating Dairy Rations Dan N. Waldner Extension Dairy Specialist Oklahoma State University Introduction A variety of software programs are available in the marketplace

More information

National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine Beef Nutrient Requirements

National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine Beef Nutrient Requirements National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine Beef Nutrient Requirements - 2016 Overview of Revisions to the NRC (1996, 2000) Publication M. L. Galyean College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural

More information

Grouping to Increase Milk Yield and Decrease Feed Costs

Grouping to Increase Milk Yield and Decrease Feed Costs 61 Grouping to Increase Milk Yield and Decrease Feed Costs Michael S. Allen 1 Department of Animal Science Michigan State University Abstract There are many advantages of grouping cows to optimize their

More information

MINERALS IN FORAGES: COW CONSIDERATIONS. Jim Linn University of Minnesota

MINERALS IN FORAGES: COW CONSIDERATIONS. Jim Linn University of Minnesota MINERALS IN FORAGES: COW CONSIDERATIONS Jim Linn University of Minnesota FOCUS OF PAPER AND PRESENTATION MACRO MINERALS (Ca, P, K, Mg, Na, Cl, S) Forage mineral content Quantity Availability Lactating

More information

Distillers Grains for Beef Cattle

Distillers Grains for Beef Cattle Distillers Grains for Beef Cattle Terry Klopfenstein Distillers byproducts are excellent feed resources for feedlot cattle. Distillers byproducts are normally available for use in feedlot finishing diets

More information

The Strategic Use of Ruminally Protected Amino Acids in Dairy Nutrition

The Strategic Use of Ruminally Protected Amino Acids in Dairy Nutrition The Strategic Use of Ruminally Protected Amino Acids in Dairy Nutrition Robert A. Patton 1 Nittany Dairy Nutrition, Inc. Introduction When speaking with dairy nutritionists working at the field level about

More information

The principles of dairy nutrition

The principles of dairy nutrition 5 The principles of dairy nutrition This chapter explains the key principles of dairy nutrition to better understand the practices of feeding management. The main points in this chapter Feeds contain the

More information

Advancements in Feeding Carbohydrates

Advancements in Feeding Carbohydrates Advancements in Feeding Carbohydrates Maurice L. Eastridge Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, 2029 Fyffe Court, 221B Animal Science Building, Columbus, OH 43210, Email: eastridge.1@osu.edu

More information

Strategies for Diet Formulation with High Corn Prices

Strategies for Diet Formulation with High Corn Prices 87 Strategies for Diet Formulation with High Corn Prices Joanne Knapp J.D. Heiskell & Co. Abstract Due to unprecedented changes in grain prices during the past year, the dairy industry is reexamining how

More information

Effect of Flaxseed Inclusion on Ruminal Fermentation, Digestion and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Growing and Finishing Diets for Beef Cattle

Effect of Flaxseed Inclusion on Ruminal Fermentation, Digestion and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Growing and Finishing Diets for Beef Cattle Effect of Flaxseed Inclusion on Ruminal Fermentation, Digestion and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Growing and Finishing Diets for Beef Cattle T.C. Gilbery, G.P. Lardy, D.S. Hagberg and M.L. Bauer NDSU

More information

DDGS. Keywords:DDGS CNCPS nutritivevalue ruminants nycytx02-02 DDGS (CNCPS) 8 DDGS % CHO 56.10±5.65 % NDF 45.06±4.24 % ADF 18.94±1.

DDGS. Keywords:DDGS CNCPS nutritivevalue ruminants nycytx02-02 DDGS (CNCPS) 8 DDGS % CHO 56.10±5.65 % NDF 45.06±4.24 % ADF 18.94±1. 092 003 2010 DDGS : DDGS (CNCPS) 8 DDGS 8 DDGS % 28.28±2.56% (11.01±1.03% CHO56.10±5.65% NDF45.06±4.24% ADF18.94±1.52% 3.67±0.35% PA PB 1 PB 2 PB 3 PC 5.67±0.27% 4.9±0.51% 22.89±2.39% 49.8±4.77% 16.68±2.61%

More information

Feed Management Plan Template (06. 21. 10) Address: Address: Town, State, Zip: Homer City. Farm Name: Phone: Fax: e-mail:

Feed Management Plan Template (06. 21. 10) Address: Address: Town, State, Zip: Homer City. Farm Name: Phone: Fax: e-mail: Feed Management Plan Template (06. 21. 10) Producer's Name: Address: LG Address: Town, State, Zip: Homer City Farm Name: Phone: Fax: e-mail: Consultant's Name: Cargill Animal Nutrition Address: Address:

More information

Feeding Low Protein Diets to Dairy Cows

Feeding Low Protein Diets to Dairy Cows Feeding diets with lowered protein content reduces nitrogen input, improves nitrogen utilization efficiency, and reduces nitrogen losses from manure. Reducing dietary protein also benefits the producer

More information

Potassium in the Early Lactation Dairy Cow and its Impact on Milk and Milk Fat Production

Potassium in the Early Lactation Dairy Cow and its Impact on Milk and Milk Fat Production Potassium in the Early Lactation Dairy Cow and its Impact on Milk and Milk Fat Production J H Harrison 1, R White 2, R Kincaid 3, T Jenkins 4, and E Block 5. 1 Department of Animal Science, WSU-Puyallup

More information

Associative effects of feeds. Gbola Adesogan Department of Animal Sciences University of Florida

Associative effects of feeds. Gbola Adesogan Department of Animal Sciences University of Florida Associative effects of feeds Gbola Adesogan Department of Animal Sciences University of Florida Associative effects DEFINITION: Interaction between nutrients in different ingredients in a ration which

More information

Forage Quality. Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist

Forage Quality. Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist Forage Quality Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist Forage Quality and Pasture Nutrition Ted Probert Regional Dairy Specialist Intensive Grazing vs MiG Is This High Quality Forage? Is This High Quality

More information

Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences

Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences Dietary Fat Supplements and Body Condition: Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? James K. Drackley, Professor of Animal Sciences Does Fatty Acid Profile Matter? How does the balance of the major energy-related

More information

EXTENSION CIRCULAR 422 FROM FEED TO MILK: UNDERSTANDING RUMEN FUNCTION

EXTENSION CIRCULAR 422 FROM FEED TO MILK: UNDERSTANDING RUMEN FUNCTION EXTENSION CIRCULAR 422 FROM FEED TO MILK: UNDERSTANDING RUMEN FUNCTION CONTENTS Part I: Background in Basic Nutrition of Dairy Cattle... 1 Rumen physiology...1 Rumination and saliva production... 3 Function

More information

CORN BY-PRODUCTS IN DAIRY COW RATIONS

CORN BY-PRODUCTS IN DAIRY COW RATIONS CORN BY-PRODUCTS IN DAIRY COW RATIONS Dennis Lunn, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur-Gain, Nutreco Canada Inc. CORN BY-PRODUCTS IN DAIRY COW RATIONS Dennis Lunn, Ruminant Nutritionist Shur-Gain, Nutreco Canada

More information

Basic Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cows 1

Basic Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cows 1 AN190 1 Matt Hersom 2 Introduction Meeting the basic nutrient requirements of beef cows is a key component of meeting cow herd production and profitability goals for the beef cattle enterprise. Adequate

More information

Nordic Feed Evaluation System. Harald Volden, TINE SA Norwegian University of Life Sciences NorFor scientific group

Nordic Feed Evaluation System. Harald Volden, TINE SA Norwegian University of Life Sciences NorFor scientific group Nordic Feed Evaluation System Harald Volden, TINE SA Norwegian University of Life Sciences scientific group A feed evaluation system for cattle Net energy Metabolizable protein Feed intake Animal requirements

More information

ROLLED VERSUS WHOLE CORN: EFFECTS ON RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF FEEDLOT STEERS

ROLLED VERSUS WHOLE CORN: EFFECTS ON RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF FEEDLOT STEERS ROLLED VERSUS WHOLE CORN: EFFECTS ON RUMINAL FERMENTATION OF FEEDLOT STEERS D. S. Secrist 1, F. N. Owens 2, W. J. Hill 1 and S. D. Welty 3 Story in Brief The differences between rolled (2 particle sizes)

More information

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle

Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle E-974 Department of Animal Science Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University Nutrient

More information

Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs

Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs Accelerated Replacement Heifer Feeding Programs Michael F. Hutjens Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, 232 ASL, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Email: hutjensm@uiuc.edu

More information

The Encapsulated Methionine for

The Encapsulated Methionine for Smartamine M Smartamine M The Encapsulated Methionine for Ruminants Methionine More than milk www.adisseo.com feedsolutions.adisseo.com Smartamine M Smartamine M Methionine - More than Milk Essential for

More information

PROTEIN LEVELS FOR FEEDLOT STEERS FED HIGH MOISTURE CORN

PROTEIN LEVELS FOR FEEDLOT STEERS FED HIGH MOISTURE CORN PROTEIN LEVELS FOR FEEDLOT STEERS FED HIGH MOISTURE CORN D. S. Secrist 1, W. J. Hill 1, F. N. Owens 2, M. T. Van Koevering 3, C. A. Strasia 4 and D. R. Gill 2 Story in Brief The effects of two protein

More information

Managing Carbohydrates for Performance Horses. Bill Vandergrift, PhD EquiVision, Inc. EV Farm, LLC

Managing Carbohydrates for Performance Horses. Bill Vandergrift, PhD EquiVision, Inc. EV Farm, LLC Managing Carbohydrates for Performance Horses Bill Vandergrift, PhD EquiVision, Inc. EV Farm, LLC Outline Understand the basic carbohydrate groups What their primary sources are What they are converted

More information

Fiber in Beef Cattle Diets

Fiber in Beef Cattle Diets Fiber in Beef Cattle Diets While energy and protein are often the major focus of many beef cattle nutritional programs, fiber is another essential diet component beef cattle producers need to consider.

More information

BURNETT CENTER INTERNET PROGRESS REPORT. No. 12 April, 2001. Summary of the 2000 Texas Tech University Consulting Nutritionist Survey

BURNETT CENTER INTERNET PROGRESS REPORT. No. 12 April, 2001. Summary of the 2000 Texas Tech University Consulting Nutritionist Survey BURNETT CENTER INTERNET PROGRESS REPORT No. 12 April, 2001 Summary of the 2000 Texas Tech University Consulting Nutritionist Survey M. L. Galyean and J. F. Gleghorn Department of Animal Science and Food

More information

FEEDING VALUE OF SEED-HARVESTED COWPEA VINES FOR GOATS. Sandra G. Solaiman, PhD, PAS. George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station

FEEDING VALUE OF SEED-HARVESTED COWPEA VINES FOR GOATS. Sandra G. Solaiman, PhD, PAS. George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Paper No. 06-11 Tuskegee University Technical Paper No. 07-09 September, 2007 Tuskegee University FEEDING VALUE OF SEED-HARVESTED COWPEA VINES FOR GOATS Sandra G. Solaiman, PhD, PAS George Washington

More information

Reducing Feed Cost while Optimizing Productivity

Reducing Feed Cost while Optimizing Productivity Reducing Feed Cost while Optimizing Productivity Barry Robinson Great Northern Livestock Consulting Ltd., Box 5540, Westlock AB T7P 2P5 Email: brobinson@xplornet.com Take Home Messages High quality forages

More information

J. Dairy Sci. 93 : doi: /jds American Dairy Science Association, 2010.

J. Dairy Sci. 93 : doi: /jds American Dairy Science Association, 2010. J. Dairy Sci. 93 :2105 2118 doi: 10.3168/jds.2009-2693 American Dairy Science Association, 2010. Effect of rumen-protected methionine on feed intake, milk production, true milk protein concentration, and

More information

Usage of the Penn State Forage Separator for evaluating particle size of TMRs. Ashley Rene Garcia

Usage of the Penn State Forage Separator for evaluating particle size of TMRs. Ashley Rene Garcia Usage of the Penn State Forage Separator for evaluating particle size of TMRs by Ashley Rene Garcia Dairy Science Department College of Agriculture, Food, and Environmental Sciences California Polytechnic

More information

FIBER DIGESTIBILITY AND STARCH CONTENT OF CORN SILAGE. Neal P. Martin, David R. Mertens, Mary Beth Hall, and Joe G.

FIBER DIGESTIBILITY AND STARCH CONTENT OF CORN SILAGE. Neal P. Martin, David R. Mertens, Mary Beth Hall, and Joe G. FIBER DIGESTIBILITY AND STARCH CONTENT OF CORN SILAGE Neal P. Martin, David R. Mertens, Mary Beth Hall, and Joe G. Lauer 1 ABSTRACT Corn silage is a major forage crop in Idaho, supporting its dairy industry.

More information

The effect of fish meal or pea meal on milk fatty acid composition in organic farming

The effect of fish meal or pea meal on milk fatty acid composition in organic farming Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences, 6, Suppl., 007, 79 83 The effect of fish meal or pea meal on milk fatty acid composition in organic farming S.A. Adler,3 and Å.T. Randby Norwegian Institute for Agricultural

More information

Matching nutritional requirements of gestating cows from October to April with various extended grazing practices

Matching nutritional requirements of gestating cows from October to April with various extended grazing practices Matching nutritional requirements of gestating cows from October to April with various extended grazing practices Greg Penner, PhD Associate Professor and Centennial Enhancement Chair in Ruminant Nutritional

More information

Overview. Calves. The First 3 Months. Components for Success. Dry Cow Nutrition. Improper Dry Cow Nutrition

Overview. Calves. The First 3 Months. Components for Success. Dry Cow Nutrition. Improper Dry Cow Nutrition Overview Calves The First 12 Weeks 75% of losses during 1st 3 months High quality diet a must Prone to health problems Labor intensive Quick Feedback The First 3 Months Period of maximum risk and cost

More information

INTRODUCTION. KEY WORDS crude protein, dairy cow, digestive fiber, milk production, nitrogen excretion. Research Article. Mohtashami et al.

INTRODUCTION. KEY WORDS crude protein, dairy cow, digestive fiber, milk production, nitrogen excretion. Research Article. Mohtashami et al. Mohtashami et al. Research Article Effect of Different Amounts of Protein and Varying Proportions of Corn Silage and Alfalfa hay on Milk Production and Nitrogen Excretion of Dairy Holstein Cows B. Mohtashami

More information

Summary. Keywords: methanol, glycerin, intake, beef cattle. Introduction

Summary. Keywords: methanol, glycerin, intake, beef cattle. Introduction Effect of Methanol Infusion on Intake and Digestion of a Grain-based Diet by Beef Cattle K.N. Winsco, N.M. Kenney, R.O. Dittmar, III, J.A. Coverdale, J.E. Sawyer, and T.A. Wickersham Texas A & M University,

More information

ENERGETICS FOR THE PRACTICING NUTRITIONIST 1

ENERGETICS FOR THE PRACTICING NUTRITIONIST 1 ENERGETICS FOR THE PRACTICING NUTRITIONIST 1 W. P. Weiss Department of Animal Sciences Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center The Ohio State University, Wooster TAKE-HOME MESSAGE A primary function

More information

BEC Feed Solutions. Steve Blake BEC Feed Solutions

BEC Feed Solutions. Steve Blake BEC Feed Solutions BEC Feed Solutions Presenter: Steve Blake BEC Feed Solutions Nutritional Role of Phosphorus Phosphorus (P) is present in all cells in the body Essential for many digestive and metabolic processes, including

More information

Feeding of Sugar Cane Silage to Dairy Cattle during the Dry Season

Feeding of Sugar Cane Silage to Dairy Cattle during the Dry Season 1125 Feeding of Sugar Cane Silage to Dairy Cattle during the Dry Season W. Suksombat* and P. Junpanichcharoen School of Animal Production Technology, Institute of Agricultural Technology, Suranaree University

More information

Considering ruminal interactions in energy and protein evaluation systems for ruminants in Denmark

Considering ruminal interactions in energy and protein evaluation systems for ruminants in Denmark Considering ruminal interactions in energy and protein evaluation systems for ruminants in Denmark J. Madsen 1, T. Hvelplund 2, M. R. Weisbjerg 2,, I. K. Hindrichsen 1 and P. Lund 2 1 Department of Large

More information

Elliot Block, Ph.D. Senior Manager, Animal Research and Technical Services ARM & HAMMER Animal Nutrition Church & Dwight Co., Inc.

Elliot Block, Ph.D. Senior Manager, Animal Research and Technical Services ARM & HAMMER Animal Nutrition Church & Dwight Co., Inc. Rumen Microbial Protein Production: Are We Missing an Opportunity to Improve Dietary and Economic Efficiencies in Protein Nutrition of the High Producing Dairy Cow? Elliot Block, Ph.D. Senior Manager,

More information

Protein and Energy Supplementation to Beef Cows Grazing New Mexico Rangelands

Protein and Energy Supplementation to Beef Cows Grazing New Mexico Rangelands Protein and Energy Supplementation to Beef Cows Grazing New Mexico Rangelands Cooperative Extension Service Circular 564 College of Agriculture and Home Economics CONTENTS General ruminant nutrition...

More information

Heat of combustion (gross energy)

Heat of combustion (gross energy) J.D. Pagan 71 MEASURING THE DIGESTIBLE ENERGY CONTENT OF HORSE FEEDS JOE D. PAGAN Kentucky Equine Research, Inc., Versailles, Kentucky, USA One of the most important measures of a horse feed s value is

More information

EvaPig. Energy, amino acids and phosphorus values for pigs. Evaluation of Pig feeds. Introduction. Net energy. Amino acids. Phosphorus.

EvaPig. Energy, amino acids and phosphorus values for pigs. Evaluation of Pig feeds. Introduction. Net energy. Amino acids. Phosphorus. EvaPig Evaluation of Pig feeds Energy, amino acids and phosphorus values for pigs EvaPig Tutorial 1.0.0 Welcome to EvaPig! EvaPig is a calculator of energy, amino acids and phosphorus values of ingredients

More information

NUTRITION MANAGEMENT FOR TASMANIAN DAIRY FARMERS

NUTRITION MANAGEMENT FOR TASMANIAN DAIRY FARMERS NUTRITION MANAGEMENT FOR TASMANIAN DAIRY FARMERS An Initiative of the Pasture Plu$ Program Workshop Manual Revised Edition May 2007 Acknowledgments Nutrition Management for Tasmanian Dairy Farmers We greatly

More information

To produce beef efficiently, cattlemen know

To produce beef efficiently, cattlemen know A2387 for Beef Cattle M.G. Siemens D.M. Schaefer R.J. Vatthauer If you need additional information, the University of Wisconsin Extension offers producers the Taurus Beef Ration Balancing and Profit Projection

More information

Effects of manipulating protein and phosphorus nutrition of feedlot cattle on nutrient management and the environment 1

Effects of manipulating protein and phosphorus nutrition of feedlot cattle on nutrient management and the environment 1 Effects of manipulating protein and phosphorus nutrition of feedlot cattle on nutrient management and the environment 1 T. J. Klopfenstein 2 and G. E. Erickson Department of Animal Science, University

More information

Optimal livestock diet formulation with farm environmental compliance consequences. Joleen Hadrich, Christopher Wolf. and.

Optimal livestock diet formulation with farm environmental compliance consequences. Joleen Hadrich, Christopher Wolf. and. Optimal livestock diet formulation with farm environmental compliance consequences Joleen Hadrich, Christopher Wolf and Stephen Harsh Michigan State University Selected Paper prepared for presentation

More information

Handling and Use of Glycerin in Feed

Handling and Use of Glycerin in Feed Handling and Use of Glycerin in Feed Joe Harris, Ph.D. Westway Feed Products, Inc. Jan. 9, 2007 Objectives of Discussion Explain why feed manufacturers have interest in biodiesel derived glycerin Describe

More information

Feed Analysis: It's All About Energy

Feed Analysis: It's All About Energy Learn what grains are, what they contain, and how they can be used to meet the nutritional requirements of llamas and alpacas. A question often posed by llama and alpaca owners is in reference to the best

More information

Swine Fact Sheet Animal and Dairy Sciences Auburn University

Swine Fact Sheet Animal and Dairy Sciences Auburn University Swine Fact Sheet Animal and Dairy Sciences Auburn University SFS-0300 September, 2000 EVALUATING ALTERNATIVE FEEDSTUFFS FOR SWINE W. F. "Frank" Owsley, Ph.D. Animal and Dairy Sciences Department Auburn

More information

Considerations Associated with Corn Processing in Dairy Rations

Considerations Associated with Corn Processing in Dairy Rations ARIZONA AND NEW MEXICO DAIRY NEWSLETTER COOPERATIVE EXTENSION The University of Arizona New Mexico State University OCTOBER 2008 THIS MONTH S ARTICLE: Considerations Associated with Corn Processing in

More information

Managing Intake of Lactating Dairy Cows

Managing Intake of Lactating Dairy Cows THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE PB 1598 Managing Intake of Lactating Dairy Cows Managing Intake of Lactating Dairy Cows John K. Bernard, Associate Professor and Monty J. Montgomery,

More information

The 2000 NRC for Dairy Cattle: Energy, Vitamins, and Minerals

The 2000 NRC for Dairy Cattle: Energy, Vitamins, and Minerals The 2000 NRC for Dairy Cattle: Energy, Vitamins, and Minerals Bill Weiss Department of Animal Sciences Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center The Ohio State University, Wooster 44691 The National

More information

Increasing Profitability Through an Accelerated Heifer Replacement Program

Increasing Profitability Through an Accelerated Heifer Replacement Program Increasing Profitability Through an Accelerated Heifer Replacement Program Robert B. Corbett, D.V.M Dairy Health Consultation Accelerating heifer growth has been a very controversial subject in recent

More information

Introduction. Introduction Nutritional Requirements. Six Major Classes of Nutrients. Water 12/1/2011. Regional Hay School -- Bolivar, MO 1

Introduction. Introduction Nutritional Requirements. Six Major Classes of Nutrients. Water 12/1/2011. Regional Hay School -- Bolivar, MO 1 Cattle and Horse Nutrition Dona Goede Livestock Specialist Introduction Many health, reproductive and production problems can be prevented with good nutrition. Poor nutrition results in: Poor conception

More information

Most limiting amino acid concept...

Most limiting amino acid concept... Review... Proteins are composed of amino acids Amino acids are the essential nutrients The dietary provision of amino acids in correct amount and provisions determines the adequacy of the protein in the

More information

Effects of Incremental Dietary Levels of Ground Flaxseed on Milk Production, Ruminal Metabolism, and Enteric Methane Emissions in Organic Dairy Cows

Effects of Incremental Dietary Levels of Ground Flaxseed on Milk Production, Ruminal Metabolism, and Enteric Methane Emissions in Organic Dairy Cows University of New Hampshire University of New Hampshire Scholars' Repository Honors Theses Student Scholarship Fall 2012 Effects of Incremental Dietary Levels of Ground Flaxseed on Milk Production, Ruminal

More information

Land O Lakes Feed DDGS. Nutrients Concentrate: United States Ethanol Outlook. A Growing Opportunity

Land O Lakes Feed DDGS. Nutrients Concentrate: United States Ethanol Outlook. A Growing Opportunity DDGS A Growing Opportunity Dr. Harold Tilstra Region Manager Land O Lakes Feed hdtilstra@landolakes.com 4/9/2004 Land O' Lakes Feed; Tilstra 2 Land O Lakes Feed Vision: To To be the leading animal nutrition

More information

Uses and Abuses of NIR for Feed Analysis

Uses and Abuses of NIR for Feed Analysis Uses and Abuses of NIR for Feed Analysis Dan Undersander 1 University of Wisconsin Madison, WI Introduction Dairymen use feed and forage testing to reduce feed costs and maximize production. As such, accuracy

More information

Nutrient and Fertilizer Value of Dairy Manure

Nutrient and Fertilizer Value of Dairy Manure Agriculture and Natural Resources FSA4017 Nutrient and Fertilizer Value of Dairy Manure Jodie A. Pennington Professor - Dairy and Goats Karl VanDevender Professor - Waste Management John A. Jennings Professor

More information

Feeds, Nutrients, and Animal Requirements

Feeds, Nutrients, and Animal Requirements Feeds, Nutrients, and Animal Requirements NDSU Feedlot School January 27-28, 2011 Dr. Vern Anderson Carrington Research Extension Center The Art and Science of Ruminant Nutrition Microbes in the rumen

More information

DIGESTION is the physical and

DIGESTION is the physical and Digestion DIGESTION is the physical and chemical breakdown of feeds as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The structures of the gastrointestinal tract include the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach,

More information

What a re r Lipids? What a re r Fatty y Ac A ids?

What a re r Lipids? What a re r Fatty y Ac A ids? 2010 - Beef Cattle In-Service Training Inclusion of Lipids into Beef Cattle Diets Reinaldo F. Cooke, Ph. D. Oregon State University EOARC, Burns What are Lipids? Organic compounds Plant and animal compounds

More information

Ruminant Digestive System

Ruminant Digestive System Ruminant Digestive System Complex structure with four compartments Source: Animal Feeding and Nutrition (Jurgens) Ruminant Characteristics Primarily herbivores Cattle, sheep, goats, deer, elk Camelids

More information

Forage Value Chapter 2. Forage Value

Forage Value Chapter 2. Forage Value Forage Value Chapter 2 Forage Value 2 Livestock producers in the western United States, including Oregon, are at an economic disadvantage relative to those in some other regions in North America because

More information

Summary report. A review of 11 applied dairy nutrition models used in Australia

Summary report. A review of 11 applied dairy nutrition models used in Australia Summary report A review of 11 applied dairy nutrition models used in Australia Copyright Dairy Australia 2009. All rights reserved. ISSN: 978-09806008-1-0 Publisher Editors Layout and Prepress For more

More information

Feed Management Plan Template (01. 25. 09) Anonymous Farm. Address: Address: Town, State, Zip: Farm Name: Phone: Fax: Name:

Feed Management Plan Template (01. 25. 09) Anonymous Farm. Address: Address: Town, State, Zip: Farm Name: Phone: Fax:   Name: Feed Management Plan Template (01. 25. 09) Producer's Name: Address: Anonymous Farm Address: Town, State, Zip: Farm Name: Phone: Fax: e-mail: Consultant's Name: Address: Address: Town, State, Zip: Business

More information

Digestion of feeds in the milk-fed calf

Digestion of feeds in the milk-fed calf 3 Digestion of feeds in the milk-fed calf This chapter describes the various processes of digestion in the milk-fed calf. The main points in this chapter The adult animal requires a fully functioning rumen

More information

MEASURING PHYSICALLY EFFECTIVE FIBER ON-FARM TO PREDICT COW RESPONSE

MEASURING PHYSICALLY EFFECTIVE FIBER ON-FARM TO PREDICT COW RESPONSE MEASURING PHYSICALLY EFFECTIVE FIBER ON-FARM TO PREDICT COW RESPONSE K. W. Cotanch and R. J. Grant W. H. Miner Agricultural Research Institute Chazy, NY INTRODUCTION This paper is a follow-up to our 2005

More information

The effects of partial replacement of corn silage on biochemical blood parameters in lactating primiparous dairy cows

The effects of partial replacement of corn silage on biochemical blood parameters in lactating primiparous dairy cows The effects of partial replacement of corn silage on biochemical blood parameters in lactating primiparous dairy cows U. Polat, H. Gencoglu, I.I. Turkmen Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Uludag,

More information

Importance of Nitrogen Recycling to Beef Cattle Grazing Low-Protein Forages

Importance of Nitrogen Recycling to Beef Cattle Grazing Low-Protein Forages Importance of Nitrogen Recycling to Beef Cattle Grazing Low-Protein Forages Evan C. Titgemeyer 1 Department of Animal Sciences & Industry Kansas State University Introduction To maximize digestion by cattle,

More information

6/29/2009 6.8 5.3 TDN

6/29/2009 6.8 5.3 TDN Common Sense Meat Goat-Nutrition Brian Freking OSU LeFlore Co. Extension Nutrition Feeding goats is the single largest expense behind the purchase cost of the animals. Can be as high as 60% of the total

More information

The Digestive System

The Digestive System The Digestive System In order to make use of the nutrients stored in feedstuffs, all animals must first break down (digest) feed into a form that can be absorbed by the body. The focus of this chapter

More information

Nutrition. The process of consuming nutrients and the body s use of those nutrients to maintain life processes.

Nutrition. The process of consuming nutrients and the body s use of those nutrients to maintain life processes. Nutrition The process of consuming nutrients and the body s use of those nutrients to maintain life processes. There are 6 Essential Nutrients found in varying amounts in the food and drinks we consume.

More information

Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle

Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle DIVISION OF AGRICULTURE RESEARCH & EXTENSION University of Arkansas System Agriculture and Natural Resources Alternative Feeds for Beef Cattle FSA3047 Shane Gadberry Associate Professor - Animal Science

More information

CAPRICORN: A Windows Program for Formulating and Evaluating Rations for Goats

CAPRICORN: A Windows Program for Formulating and Evaluating Rations for Goats CAPRICORN: A Windows Program for Formulating and Evaluating Rations for Goats A. Ahmadi 1, P.H. Robinson 1 1 Animal Science, University of California, Davis, California, USA, phrobinson@ucdavis.edu Abstract

More information

Overview of Fat Digestion and Metabolism in Dairy Cows

Overview of Fat Digestion and Metabolism in Dairy Cows Overview of Fat Digestion and Metabolism in Dairy Cows James K. Drackley Professor of Animal Sciences University of Illinois, Urbana email: drackley@uiuc.edu Introduction Over the last 25 years, the use

More information

GRAZING WHOLE CORN WINTER COW NUTRITION

GRAZING WHOLE CORN WINTER COW NUTRITION Federated Co-operatives Limited GRAZING WHOLE CORN WINTER COW NUTRITION Sharon Klinger Ruminant Nutritionist Corn and Cow Nutrition Water Energy Protein Minerals Vitamins Basic Animal Nutrition The cow

More information

Value of Modified Wet Distillers Grains in Cattle Diets without Corn

Value of Modified Wet Distillers Grains in Cattle Diets without Corn AS 653 ASL R2184 2007 Value of Modified Wet Distillers Grains in Cattle Diets without Corn Allen H. Trenkle Iowa State University Recommended Citation Trenkle, Allen H. (2007) "Value of Modified Wet Distillers

More information

UTI CAT FOOD COMPARISON CHART

UTI CAT FOOD COMPARISON CHART UTI CAT FOOD COMPARISON CHART believes that urinary tract infections, crystals and kidney problems in today s cat are due mainly to excessive minerals consumed by our cats as they age. Once you cat reaches

More information

Gestation.

Gestation. publication 400-012 Nutrition and Feeding of the Cow-Calf Herd: Production Cycle Nutrition and Nutrient Requirements of Cows, Pregnant Heifers and Bulls John B. Hall, Extension Animal Scientist, Virginia

More information

Version 3. CPM-Dairy. Cornell*Penn*Miner. This manual was produced using Doc-To-Help, by WexTech Systems, Inc.

Version 3. CPM-Dairy. Cornell*Penn*Miner. This manual was produced using Doc-To-Help, by WexTech Systems, Inc. Version 3 CPM-Dairy Cornell*Penn*Miner This manual was produced using Doc-To-Help, by WexTech Systems, Inc. Contents Overview 4 Introduction...4 Getting Started 7 Introduction...7 Upgrading From Previous

More information

The Digestive System of Lambs

The Digestive System of Lambs The Digestive System of Lambs Basil Bactawar, County Extension Director/ & Agent Union County Extension, Lake Butler, Florida The digestive systems of mammals are broadly divided into two classes: 1. Monogastric

More information

FEEDING MANUAL Feed manual TOPIGS Finishers

FEEDING MANUAL Feed manual TOPIGS Finishers FEEDING MANUAL Feed manual TOPIGS Finishers TOPIGS Support & Development Updated: 13 August 2012 Copyright TOPIGS Feeding advice Tempo progeny Target Group: Nutritionists and Farm managers Explanation:

More information