Eat like a pig for better health?

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1 Eat like a pig for better health? Theo van Kempen Senior Researcher, Nutreco Adjunct professor in Nutrition, North Carolina State University Ph.D., Human Nutrition, University of Illinois Pigging out, one of man s qualities 2 1

2 Pigs don t eat with their fingers, let alone with their feet! 3 Pigs: gentle and lean, and what can we glean? Can pig nutrition teach mankind some lessons? 4 2

3 Nutritionally, pigs and humans are very similar From a nutritional perspective, pigs are an excellent model for humans Both omnivores with very comparable physiology The key advantage of pigs They adhere to the protocols Not a single one visited McDonalds during one my trials Sensitivity Pigs double in weight in weeks Nutrient requirements better defined Puiman, Nutrient requirements better defined for swine Swine vs. human nutrition Requirement for nutrients more clearly established Input much better controlled 6 NRC after Miller 3

4 Just for fun: You are what you eat. Dietary fat can be directly deposited You are what you eat Unsaturated fat is liquid/soft Saturated fat is solid/hard Averette, 2003, Hankins, Managing fertility Fertility in man Hormones and doctor visits And avoid stress through all that. Animal production Nutrition gets the blame for every problem 8 4

5 An energy/glucose rich diet improves estrus Insulin is one of the hormones involved in fertility A high plane of nutrition or high glycemic foods enhances ovulation Timed in the days before ovulation Time from start trial, h Van den Brand, Embryo implantation can be facilitated with vaso actives Embryo implantation Blood flow limiting factor for normal placenta & embryo development Results in embryo mortality Solution aborted pregnancy Increase blood flow Arginine NO Litter size improved by 7% * * Ramaekers 10 5

6 Sports nutrition for facilitating parturition Parturition The single most intensive physical challenge for just about any woman Without any nutritional support Solution And if that doesn t work: C section time! A tailor made sports drink Fraction of sows Control Test 1h 2h 3h 4h >4h Parturition 30% faster Time interval first 10 pigs 35% less piglet mortality More vigorous piglets Better recovery of mom 11 Obesity and the rules of energy metabolism 12 6

7 Nutritional responses can be modeled Ferguson Van Milgen, Efficiency of gain fixed, small variation in maintenance Genetic strain differences do exist Maintenance requirement differs (15% max) The age at which an animal matures differs (c and d) Endocrine make up of animal and thus growth changes at puberty Efficiency comparable Van Milgen,

8 Even poorly performing animals follow the rules Poor quality pigs eat less but are just as efficient as regular pigs Why do some pigs eat more and others less? Nutreco R&D: Paredes Models can predict reality very well Prediction accuracy Excellent Growth is a function of E intake Pigs don t grow from air Ferguson,

9 For managing weight our eating and exercise habits count Net energy in energy expenditure = energy for growth Humans have two options for manipulating growth Net energy in What and how much we eat Energy expenditure Increase our activity pattern 1h of intensive exercise can burn roughly 100g of fat 17 But endocrine interactions are important as well Exception to the rule? Fiddle with our endocrinology Not an exception! Extra energy can be channeled to muscle or fat growth Muscle more costly to maintain Steroid hormones like testosterone push muscle growth The more male you are, the easier it is Healthy to experiment with this??? 18 9

10 Insulin, the forgotten diet hormone? The ignored anabolic hormone Insulin strongly affects growth and its composition Insulin is secreted in response to eating carbohydrates Determines how dietary energy is utilized High insulin activity causes fat growth 19 Starch in the eyes of a technologist And what about our piggies or pigging out people? RVA manual,

11 Starch dominates insulin response, and not all starches are equal Blood glucose and insulin strongly affected by starch type Low amylose starch gives a strong blood glucose and insulin peak Insulin precedes glucose peak! Animal senses starch characteristics Insulin insulin index 1000 insulin Glucose (modeled responses) % 28% 63% amylose Time, offset glucose Pigs love rapidly digestible starch, just like people Pigs have a preference for rapidly digestible starch Tastes sweeter in both our mouth and intestines Glycemic response Preference at 60% of inclusion (%) r = 0.48 Rice (short) E naked oats E rice Brown rice 40 Rice (long) Naked oats Rolled oats E corn Rye Cooked rice Barley M E barley naked Wheat E wheat oats Casava 20 Biscuit BP Sorghum Corn Whole rice Oats Sp Oats Gr Cooked oats Corn Arg Oats Insulin Insulin index Sola Oriol,

12 Insulin index affects passage rate Rapidly digestible starch also has a faster passage rate Hungry more quickly Sola Oriol, But what does it do to the pig? A look inside the pig may give a different picture Qiagen 24 Picture courtesy: S. Hooda 12

13 But they grow better and LEANER on slowly digestible starch By increasing the insulin response to a diet, energy utilization can be directed towards lipogenesis Resulting in slower growth but more adiposity The animal is growing fat, not lean! 105 ADFI ADG G/F 100 Relative performance slow interm fast slow interm fast Raw Gelatinized 25 Moderate insulin = lean; high insulin = fat Waxy starch meals result in obese animals High amylose starch meals result in lean animals Insulin insulin index 1000 insulin Glucose (modeled responses) % 28% 63% amylose Adipose growth Muscle growth Time, offset glucose 13

14 Meal pattern is a quick way for modulating glycemic response Is man s biggest flaw that it started consuming meals rather than munch throughout the day? Pigs in captivity eat meals a day Eating pattern significantly affects gain and its composition! 27 Moderate insulin = lean; high insulin = fat Our meal pattern also affects the insulin response Frequent small meals preferred Insulin insulin index 1000 insulin Glucose (modeled responses) % 28% 63% amylose Adipose growth Muscle growth Time, offset glucose 14

15 Conclusions: pigging out isn t healthy Conclusions Swine are an excellent model for humans Rapid growth improves detection Protocol adherence vastly better Many health problems, including fertility, are attacked nutritionally in swine Man could learn some lessons Obesity Energy in out = accretion Target tissue can be modified Use slowly digestible starch Limit meal size! 29 15

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