Spray-dried porcine plasma, a healthy feed ingredient for resilient weaner pigs

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1 Spray-dried porcine plasma, a healthy feed ingredient for resilient weaner pigs Jos Houdijk Disease Systems, SRUC, Edinburgh, UK

2 Background The slaughterhouse by-product spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) has great nutritive value for nonruminant livestock, especially weaner pigs A total of 75 trials, using a variety of plasma products, have very recently been reviewed (Torrallardona, 2010) SDPP benefits were found to be sensitive to several managerial, nutritional and environmental factors Weaning age and weight Control diet composition Infectious environment Inclusion level 2

3 Background In many countries world-wide, SDPP is considered an alternative protein source for weaner pigs Currently, UK quality assurance schemes do not permit the use of plasma products ~90% of UK pigs are produced under such QA schemes Would weaner pigs in UK benefit from SDPP? Weaned at 4 weeks of age High spec weaner diets (cooked cereals, milk and fishmeal) High health status A series of two studies were carried out at SRUC using typical UK diet formulations 3

4 Objective Study 1 SDPP may improve resilience to enteric infection Increased intake (palatability?) Local of systemic health properties Objective Assess effects of replacing dried skim milk powder (DSMP) with SDPP on resilience to experimentally induced sub-clinical post weaning colibacillosis Hypothesis Replacing DSMP for SDPP increases weaner pig performance, especially in the presence of sub-clinical post weaning colibacillosis 4

5 Materials and Methods Animals 32 pens of 4 pigs 2 males and 2 females Balanced for litter origin Two round of 16 pens Four pens per each of four rooms in weaner unit Weaning age and weight 28.7±0.3 days 9.4±0.1 kg 5

6 Materials and Methods Test diets Commercial basis of weaner diets for 9-10 kg pigs Acidifiers and appetizers were omitted SDPP (Proglobulin 80P) was included through w/w exchanged against DSMP at 50 g/kg Iso-energetic (DE 16.9 MJ/kg) Pure amino acids to balance at Lysine (16.7 g/kg) Same lactose levels through whey powder inclusion Follow-on diets for three weeks Commercial on-farm diets 6

7 Materials and Methods Experimental sub-clinical post weaning colibacilossis Enterotoxigenic E. coli In-feed trickle infection model 10 8 cfu in 20 ml of sterile PBS mixed with 20 g of feed to produce a porridge Days 4, 6, 8, 11 and 13 post weaning Sham-infected control Sterile PBS only 7

8 Materials and Methods Experimental design 2 x 2 factorial (n=8) DSMP vs SDPP ETEC vs Sham Each of the four treatments were in each room Experimental periods Treatments imposed from d0 until d14 post weaning Farm diets for further three weeks until d35 to assess carry over effects 8

9 Materials and Methods Weekly body weights to estimate average daily gain Feed offered and refused to estimate average daily feed intake Daily between d0 d14 Weekly d14 d35 FCR calculated (feed intake per unit weight gain) 9

10 Materials and Methods Faecal samples D1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 18, 21, 28 and 35 Faecal analyses ETEC Lactobacilli, coliforms, and L:C ratio ph, dry matter Daily faeces, cleanliness and health scores 10

11 Materials and Methods Serum acute phase proteins (APP) Haptoglobin C-reactive protein Serum amyloid A Pig major acute phase protein Serum APP levels may increase due to stress, injury and infection APP are nutritionally costly Negative correlation with host performance Our earlier studies suggest that ETEC challenge evokes APP responses 11

12 Materials and Methods Statistics 2 x 2 factorial Room as Block Pen is experimental unit GLM in Genstat 12

13 Average daily feed intake 13

14 Average daily feed intake 14

15 Average daily gain 15

16 Average daily gain 16

17 Feed conversion ratio 17

18 ETEC shedding ETEC challenge 18

19 Haptoglobin 19

20 Pig Major Acute Phase Protein 20

21 C-reactive protein 21

22 Serum Amyloid A 22

23 Other results Experimental treatments tended to affect faecal scores SDPP resulted in slightly higher scores over DSMP (1.29 vs 1.21) Experimental treatments did not affect faecal lactobacilli, coliforms, L:C ratios, ph and dry matter, nor pig cleanliness and health scores 23

24 Discussion SDPP inclusion improved performance Likely caused by increased intake Feed conversion ratio not affected Nutrient sparing effect from reduced inflammation Slightly higher faeces score Direct result from higher intake Magnitude small; unlikely detrimental No impact on faecal dry matter content SDPP did not greatly affect ETEC excretion Improved resilience rather than resistance Culture techniques is not the most sensitive 24

25 Background to Study 2 We have shown that the SDPP Proglobulin 80P improves weaner pig resilience to ETEC challenge Increased intake Presence of immunoglobulins (IgG) Here, this role of IgG was challenged through comparing Proglobulin 80P with an experimentally IgG-enriched plasma product (IgG-Plus) 25

26 Objective Study 2 To assess effects of replacing dried skim milk powder (DSMP) with IgG-Plus or Proglobulin 80-P on performance of weaner pigs, experimentally challenged with ETEC Hypothesis IgG-Plus and Proglobulin 80P would similarly improve weaner pig performance over DSMP 26

27 Materials and Methods Animals 24 pens of 4 pigs 2 males and 2 females Balanced for litter origin Two round of 12 pens Three pens per each of four rooms in weaner unit Weaning age and weight 26.7±0.7 days 8.70±0.12 kg 27

28 Materials and Methods Test diets Commercial basis of weaner diets for 9-10 kg pigs Acidifiers and appetizers were omitted Proglobulin 80P (50 g/kg) and IgG-Plus (33 g/kg) were included through w/w exchanged against DSMP Iso-energetic (DE 16.9 MJ/kg) Pure amino acids to balance at Lysine (16.7 g/kg) Same lactose levels through whey powder inclusion The SDPP test diets had same level of IgG at g/kg Follow-on diets Commercial on-farm diets 28

29 Materials and Methods Experimental design Three feeding treatments allocated to one of three pens in each of four rooms over two rounds n=8 for each feeding treatment Experimental periods Feeding treatments were applied from d0 until d14 post weaning Farm diets were offered for a further two weeks until d28 to assess carry over effects 29

30 Materials and Methods Observations Weekly body weights: average daily gain (ADG) Feed fed and refused: average daily feed intake (ADFI) Daily recording of feeds offered Daily refusals between d0 d14 Weekly refusals between d14 d28 FCR calculated (ADFI/ADG) Faecal samples d4, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21 for ETEC quantification APP concentrations on day 7 and 14 Daily faeces, cleanliness and health scores 30

31 Materials and Methods Statistics One-way ANOVA Orthogonal contrasts statements to locate diet effects Effect of SDPP per se (DSMP vs (Proglobulin 80P / IgG-Plus)) Effect of SDPP type (Proglobulin 80P vs IgG-Plus) Round as Block Pen is experimental unit GLM in Genstat 31

32 Feed intake: d0 d14 32

33 Feed intake: d0-d28 33

34 Weight gain: d0-d14 34

35 Weight gain: d0-d28 35

36 Feed conversion ratio: d0-d14 36

37 Feed conversion ratio: d0-d28 37

38 Final body weight (d28) kg 38

39 Consistent effects between studies kg kg 39

40 Haptoglobin 40

41 Pig Major Acute Phase Protein 41

42 C-reactive protein 42

43 Serum Amyloid A 43

44 Other results Feeding treatment tended to affect faecal scores Proglobulin 80P and IgG-Plus resulted in slightly higher scores over DSMP (1.24 vs 1.14) Feeding treatments did not affect faecal ETEC concentrations, cleanliness and health scores 44

45 Discussion Proglobulin 80P and IgG-Plus similarly improved performance of ETEC challenged weaner pigs This support the view that performance benefits of Proglobulin 80P are likely due to its IgG level Concurring effects on serum APP were less pronounced than in Study 1 Most results in the right direction but not significant Significant effects observed for one APP only (Pig-MAP) APP are notoriously variable; n=8 perhaps too low The relationship between performance, APP and diet composition requires further study 45

46 Conclusions SDPP products consistently improve growth performance of ETEC challenged weaner pigs SDPP may be considered as AGP alternative Performance benefits likely arise from IgG levels Results are consistent with large body of evidence that SDPP products are protein sources of great nutritional value for newly weaned pigs Its use in the UK remains subject to authorisation, registration, permission and safety requirements under UK regulations for feedstuff use 46

47 Acknowledgements SRUC Dave Anderson, Spiridoula Athanasiadou, Sandra Terry, Lesley Smith, Jolinda Pollock, Kirsty Hughes, Frankie Alcock, Loraine Henderson and Brian Murray Sonac / Darling Ingredients International Carine van Vuure, Geert van der Velde, Louis van Deun, Meindert Pelser Funding Sonac BV Initial contact LinkedIn 47

48 Thanks for your attention 48

49 Average daily feed intake 49

50 Spare slides 50

51 Average daily feed intake 51

52 Average daily gain 52

53 Average daily gain 53

54 Averaged ETEC shedding 54

55 Haptoglobin 55

56 Pig Major Acute Phase Protein 56

57 C-reactive protein 57

58 Serum Amyloid A 58

59 Conclusions Study 1 SDPP inclusion in weaner pig diets Increases weaner pig performance Increase weaner pig resilience to (experimental) subclinical post weaning colibacillosis Reduces (selected) acute phase protein responses indicating reduced inflammation 59

60 Feed intake: d14-d28 60

61 Weight gain: d14-d28 61

62 Feed conversion ratio: d14-d28 62

63 Final body weight (d28) 63

64 Materials and Methods Day 5 post weaning Sham infection (-) 10 8 cfu ETEC challenge (+) Three diet treatments H: high protein (23% CP) L: low protein (13% CP) HA: H + in-feed AGP 2 x 3 factorial (n=9) ETEC challenge evoked APP response is sensitive to host protein nutrition 64 (Houdijk et al., 2007)

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