Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins"

Transcription

1 Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins Functions of proteins: Enzymes Transport and Storage Motion, muscle contraction Hormones Mechanical support Immune protection (Antibodies) Generate and transmit nerve impulses Control growth and differentiation Lens protein in eye Feathers Spider webs Horns Milk proteins Antibiotics Mushroom poison.. Luciferin, luciferase Hemoglobin

2 Amino Acids General structure α carbon, side chain (R group)

3 Amino Acids

4 Amino Acids

5 Amino Acids

6 Amino Acids

7 Amino Acids

8 Amino Acids Amino Acid Nonpolar, aliphatic R group Glycine Alanine Proline Valine Leucine Isoleucine Methionine Abbreviations Gly G Ala A Pro P Val V Leu L Ile I Met M Aromatic R groups Phenylalanine Tyrosine Tryptophan Polar, uncharged R groups Serine Threonine Cysteine Asparagine Glutamine Positively charge R groups Lysine Histidine Arginine Negatively charged R groups Aspartate Glutamate Phe Tyr Trp Ser Thr Cys Asn Gln Lys His Arg Asp Glu F Y W S T C N Q K H R D E

9 Amino Acids

10 Amino Acids Additional properties of Amino Acids Numbering of R group carbons ε δ γ β α CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH COO - + NH 3 + NH 3 Aromatic side chains absorb UV light Trp 280 nm Tyr 280 nm Phe 260 nm Peptide bond nm Disulfide bond formation with cysteine oxidation reduction

11 Amino Acids Nonpolar, aliphatic R group Gly, Ala, Pro, Val, Leu, Ile, Met Gly - no steric hindrance Pro - hinders backbone flexibility hydrophobic core of soluble proteins found in transbilayer part of membrane proteins Aromatic R groups Phe, Tyr, Trp hydrophobic, Stacking Tyr/Trp - H-bonding Tyr - site of phosphorylation Polar, uncharged R groups Ser, Thr, Cys, Asn, Gln Ser/Thr - H-bonding; phosphorylated, glycosylated; enzyme active sites Cys - disulfide bonds; enzyme active sites; metal ion binding Asn/Gln - very polar, H-bonding Positively charge R groups Lys, His, Arg His - pka close to neutrality (catalysis); ligand for metal ions (Zn 2+, Fe 2+ ) Negatively charged R groups Asp, Glu General acids/bases in catalysis (lysozyme) Chelate divalent metal ions (Mg, Ca, Mn, Zn)

12 Uncommon Amino Acids collagen prothrombin myosin elastin

13 Amino Acids Optical Activity of Amino Acids For all AA except glycine the α carbon is bonded to 4 different groups: Carboxyl, amino, hydrogen, and R group (in Gly, R group is hydrogen) Chiral center = All AA except Gly Gly

14 Amino Acids Optical Activity of Amino Acids 1 Chiral center = stereoisomers Stereoisomer found in proteins =

15 Amino acids act as acids and bases zwitterion amphoteric Base = proton acceptor, electron pair donor Acid = proton donor, electron pair acceptor

16 Amino acid titration Curve 2 buffer regions pk 1 = a carboxyl group pk 2 = a amino group isoelectric point (pi)- ph where there is an equal amount of (+) and (-) charges (overall charge of zero) isoelectric point (pi) for glycine is at ph = 5.97 pi = (pk 1 + pk 2 )/2

17 Chemical environment influences pka

18 Titration Curve of Histidine Histidine R group has pk a = 6.0 No other AA side chain has a pk a near neutral ph So Histidine is really the only AA that can be: an effective buffer at physiological ph (7.0)

19 Peptides and Proteins Peptide - two amino acids joined covalently by a peptide bond Polypeptide - many AA joined together by peptide bond (M.W.<10,000) Protein - macromolecule with one or more polypeptide chains condensation

20 Peptides Ionization

21 Biologically active Peptides & Polypeptides Dipeptide (Nutrasweet) Other small peptides Oxytocin (9 aa) - stimulates uterine contractions Bradykinin (9 aa) - inhibits tissue inflammation Amanitin - mushroom poison Polypeptides Insulin - pancreatic hormone, needed for sugar metabolism, 2 polypeptide chains (30 aa and 21 aa) Glucagon - pancreatic hormone, opposes action of insulin (29 aa) Corticotropin - anterior pituitary gland hormone, stimulates adrenal cortex (39 aa)

22

23 Proteins contain other prosthetic groups

24 Protein Structure

BOC334 (Proteomics) Practical 1. Calculating the charge of proteins

BOC334 (Proteomics) Practical 1. Calculating the charge of proteins BC334 (Proteomics) Practical 1 Calculating the charge of proteins Aliphatic amino acids (VAGLIP) N H 2 H Glycine, Gly, G no charge Hydrophobicity = 0.67 MW 57Da pk a CH = 2.35 pk a NH 2 = 9.6 pi=5.97 CH

More information

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbon. V. Polypeptides and Proteins

IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbon. V. Polypeptides and Proteins IV. -Amino Acids: carboxyl and amino groups bonded to -Carbon A. Acid/Base properties 1. carboxyl group is proton donor! weak acid 2. amino group is proton acceptor! weak base 3. At physiological ph: H

More information

Biochemistry 2000 Sample Questions 1 Amino Acids & Proteins 1. (1) Give brief definitions or unique descriptions of the following terms:

Biochemistry 2000 Sample Questions 1 Amino Acids & Proteins 1. (1) Give brief definitions or unique descriptions of the following terms: (1) Give brief definitions or unique descriptions of the following terms: (a) oligopeptide (b) quaternary structure (c) zwitterion (d) salting out (2) Consider the 20 amino acids that commonly occur in

More information

Amino Acids and Proteins

Amino Acids and Proteins Amino Acids and Proteins Proteins are composed of amino acids. There are 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. All have: N2 C α R COO Amino acids at neutral p are dipolar ions (zwitterions) because

More information

Amino Acids. Dr. Kevin Ahern

Amino Acids. Dr. Kevin Ahern Amino Acids Dr. Kevin Ahern Part 1 - Amino Acids Structure and Chemistry Part 1 - Amino Acids Structure and Chemistry Building Blocks of Proteins Part 1 - Amino Acids Structure and Chemistry Building Blocks

More information

H H N - C - C 2 R. Three possible forms (not counting R group) depending on ph

H H N - C - C 2 R. Three possible forms (not counting R group) depending on ph Amino acids - 0 common amino acids there are others found naturally but much less frequently - Common structure for amino acid - C, -N, and functional groups all attached to the alpha carbon N - C - C

More information

C Cys Cysteine Cysteine is a small till intermediately large hydrophobic residue. It doesn t like the alpha helix, but doesn t mind strand and turn. I

C Cys Cysteine Cysteine is a small till intermediately large hydrophobic residue. It doesn t like the alpha helix, but doesn t mind strand and turn. I A Ala Alanine Alanine is a small, hydrophobic residue. Its side chain, R, is just a methyl group. Alanine likes to sit in an alpha helix,it doesn t like beta strand very much, but it hates beta-turns.

More information

Amino Acids and Proteins

Amino Acids and Proteins Amino Acids and Proteins Proteins functions Most abundant and functionally diverse group of molecules Indispensable for life Have several diverse functions: - Catalytic functions [enzymes] - Receptor [insulin

More information

Proteins: Workshop I Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Proteins Chem 306

Proteins: Workshop I Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Proteins Chem 306 ame Proteins: Workshop I Amino Acids - The Building Blocks of Proteins Chem 306 verview - Proteins are large biological molecules that perform many different functions. (Table I). Proteins are made of

More information

Classification of Amino Acids (based on polarity)

Classification of Amino Acids (based on polarity) Amino Acids Amino acids are building blocks for proteins They have a central α-carbon and α-amino and α- carboxyl groups 20 different amino acids Same core structure, but different side group (R) The α-c

More information

Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Protein-over 50 amino acids, peptide-under 50 amino acids.

Proteins are polymers of amino acids. Protein-over 50 amino acids, peptide-under 50 amino acids. Amino Acids and Proteins: Protein Functions: enzymes, transport (hemoglobin-o 2, tranferrin-fe), protection (MHC molecules, immunoglobulins), hormones (insulin, glucagons), gene transcription regulation

More information

THIS NOW DON T PUT IT OFF.

THIS NOW DON T PUT IT OFF. Lecture 3: Introduction to Proteins; Amino Acids, the Building Blocks of Proteins [PDF] Reading: Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer: Chapter 2, pp. 25-34; Appendix to chapter 2, pp. 61-62 (visualizing protein structures)

More information

Protein Structure and Function. Amino acid structure

Protein Structure and Function. Amino acid structure Protein Structure and Function Lecture 2b: Amino acid structure and properties Amino acid structure Un-ionized form Dipolar form (zwitterion) 2 Amine (α-amino) Carboxylic acid C 3 C Side chain 1 Ionization

More information

Pipe Cleaner Proteins. Essential question: How does the structure of proteins relate to their function in the cell?

Pipe Cleaner Proteins. Essential question: How does the structure of proteins relate to their function in the cell? Pipe Cleaner Proteins GPS: SB1 Students will analyze the nature of the relationships between structures and functions in living cells. Essential question: How does the structure of proteins relate to their

More information

Biochemistry 2000 Sample Questions Amino Acids & Purification. (1) Give brief definitions or unique descriptions of the following terms:

Biochemistry 2000 Sample Questions Amino Acids & Purification. (1) Give brief definitions or unique descriptions of the following terms: (1) Give brief definitions or unique descriptions of the following terms: (a) oligopeptide (c) neutral drift (e) zwitterion (b) stationary phase (d) quaternary structure (f) salting out (2) Consider the

More information

Lecture 4: Amino Acids. Amino Acids. Margaret A. Daugherty Fall Proteins are the workhorses of the cell

Lecture 4: Amino Acids. Amino Acids. Margaret A. Daugherty Fall Proteins are the workhorses of the cell Swiss-prot database: ow many proteins? From where? Lecture 4: Amino Acids Margaret A. Daugherty Fall 2003 1986 Use http://us.expasy.org to get to swiss-prot database Proteins are the workhorses of the

More information

Part A: Amino Acids and Peptides (Is the peptide IAG the same as the peptide GAI?)

Part A: Amino Acids and Peptides (Is the peptide IAG the same as the peptide GAI?) ChemActivity 46 Amino Acids, Polypeptides and Proteins 1 ChemActivity 46 Part A: Amino Acids and Peptides (Is the peptide IAG the same as the peptide GAI?) Model 1: The 20 Amino Acids at Biological p See

More information

From Amino Acids to Proteins - in 4 Easy Steps

From Amino Acids to Proteins - in 4 Easy Steps From Amino Acids to Proteins - in 4 Easy Steps Although protein structure appears to be overwhelmingly complex, you can provide your students with a basic understanding of how proteins fold by focusing

More information

Amino Acids. Proteins are the most abundant and functionally diverse molecules in living systems.

Amino Acids. Proteins are the most abundant and functionally diverse molecules in living systems. Amino Acids Amino Acids Proteins are the most abundant and functionally diverse molecules in living systems. Virtually every life process depends on proteins. Proteins display an incredible diversity of

More information

Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins

Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins Proteins are the most abundant biological macromolecules All proteins are constructed from a set of 20 amino acid known as α-amino acids Amino acids share common structural

More information

Introduction to Proteins; Amino Acids, the Building Blocks of Proteins

Introduction to Proteins; Amino Acids, the Building Blocks of Proteins Lecture 3 Introduction to Proteins; Amino Acids, the Building Blocks of Proteins Reading: Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer: Chapter 2, pp. 25-34 Appendix to Chapter 2, pp. 60-61 (visualizing protein structures)

More information

Advanced Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry CHEM 5412 Dept. of Chemistry, TAMUK

Advanced Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry CHEM 5412 Dept. of Chemistry, TAMUK Advanced Medicinal & Pharmaceutical Chemistry CHEM 5412 Dept. of Chemistry, TAMUK Dai Lu, Ph.D. dlu@tamhsc.edu Tel: 361-221-0745 Office: RCOP, Room 307 Drug Discovery and Development Drug Molecules Medicinal

More information

CHM333 LECTURE 6: 1/25/13 SPRING 2013 Professor Christine Hrycyna AMINO ACIDS II: CLASSIFICATION AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH AMINO ACID:

CHM333 LECTURE 6: 1/25/13 SPRING 2013 Professor Christine Hrycyna AMINO ACIDS II: CLASSIFICATION AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH AMINO ACID: AMINO ACIDS II: CLASSIFICATION AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH AMINO ACID: - The R group side chains on amino acids are VERY important. o Determine the properties of the amino acid itself o Determine

More information

Ionization of amino acids

Ionization of amino acids Amino Acids 20 common amino acids there are others found naturally but much less frequently Common structure for amino acid COOH, -NH 2, H and R functional groups all attached to the a carbon Ionization

More information

1. 1. Amino acids and proteins. 1: Biochemistry of macromolecules and metabolic pathways. Key terms

1. 1. Amino acids and proteins. 1: Biochemistry of macromolecules and metabolic pathways. Key terms 1. 1 Amino acids and proteins Key terms Polymer: A large molecule made from repeating units called monomers. Monomer: A molecule that is a basic unit; many monomers join together to make a polymer. Amino

More information

Amino Acids. 1. All proteins are composed of 20 standard amino acids, which are specified by the genetic code.

Amino Acids. 1. All proteins are composed of 20 standard amino acids, which are specified by the genetic code. 4 This chapter introduces you to the structure and chemistry of amino acids. The chapter begins by discussing the zwitterionic character of amino acids at physiological ph, followed by a brief introduction

More information

The amino acids differ in the properties of their side chains. Hydrophobic, non acidic (the H+ ion won t associate with water)

The amino acids differ in the properties of their side chains. Hydrophobic, non acidic (the H+ ion won t associate with water) Amino Acids 101 What is an amino acid? Amino acids, or alpha- amino acids, are the building blocks of peptides and proteins They are composed of amine and carboxylic acid groups, separated by the alpha-carbon

More information

Shu-Ping Lin, Ph.D. E-mail: splin@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

Shu-Ping Lin, Ph.D. E-mail: splin@dragon.nchu.edu.tw Amino Acids & Proteins Shu-Ping Lin, Ph.D. Institute te of Biomedical Engineering ing E-mail: splin@dragon.nchu.edu.tw Website: http://web.nchu.edu.tw/pweb/users/splin/ edu tw/pweb/users/splin/ Date: 10.13.2010

More information

Principles of Drug Action 1, Spring 2005, Amino Acids AMINO ACIDS. Jack DeRuiter

Principles of Drug Action 1, Spring 2005, Amino Acids AMINO ACIDS. Jack DeRuiter I. Introduction AMI ACIDS Jack Deuiter Amino acids are organic compounds that consist of a basic amino group and acidic carboxylic acid moiety. The properties of these individual functional groups are

More information

Protein primary structure: Amino acids

Protein primary structure: Amino acids Protein primary structure: Amino acids I. Diversity of proteins Numerous biological functions are performed by proteins. These include oxygen transport and storage (hemoglobin and myoglobin, respectively),

More information

Copyright Mark Brandt, Ph.D In general, biochemistry does not use the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog R/S nomenclature commonly used in

Copyright Mark Brandt, Ph.D In general, biochemistry does not use the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog R/S nomenclature commonly used in Amino acids Biological roles: 1. Amino acids can be metabolized to produce energy. This is especially important during fasting, when the breakdown of muscle protein is a major source of energy and biosynthetic

More information

AMINO ACIDS & PEPTIDE BONDS STRUCTURE, CLASSIFICATION & METABOLISM

AMINO ACIDS & PEPTIDE BONDS STRUCTURE, CLASSIFICATION & METABOLISM AMINO ACIDS & PEPTIDE BONDS STRUCTURE, CLASSIFICATION & METABOLISM OBJECTIVES At the end of this session the student should be able to, recognize the structures of the protein amino acid and state their

More information

27.3 Acid-Base Behavior of Amino Acids

27.3 Acid-Base Behavior of Amino Acids 27.3 Acid-Base Behavior of Amino Acids Recall While their name implies that amino acids are compounds that contain an NH 2 group and a C 2 H group, these groups are actually present as NH 3 and C 2 respectively.

More information

Biochem Lecture #2

Biochem Lecture #2 Biochem 1 2014 Lecture #2 Amino Acids, Peptides, Proteins Learning goals: Structure and naming of amino acids Structure and properties of peptides Ionization behavior of amino acids and peptides Methods

More information

Identifying amino acids in protein NMR spectra:

Identifying amino acids in protein NMR spectra: Identifying amino acids in protein NMR spectra: 1) Glycine (Gly, G) Glycine is the only amino acid with 2 alpha protons (Hα1 and Ηα2). Often the HN-Hα coupling is observed for both alpha protons, along

More information

Concept 5.4: Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions

Concept 5.4: Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions Concept 5.4: Proteins include a diversity of structures, resulting in a wide range of functions Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells Some proteins speed up chemical reactions

More information

The Organic Chemistry of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

The Organic Chemistry of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins Essential rganic Chemistry Chapter 16 The rganic Chemistry of Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins Amino Acids a-amino carboxylic acids. The building blocks from which proteins are made. H 2 N C 2 H Note:

More information

Amino Acids and Proteins

Amino Acids and Proteins Amino Acids and Proteins Proteins are composed of amino acids. There are 20 amino acids commonly found in proteins. All have: N2 C α R COO Amino acids at neutral p are dipolar ions (zwitterions) because

More information

4 Titration Curve of an Amino Acid

4 Titration Curve of an Amino Acid p H 4 Titration Curve of an Amino Acid Simple amino acid Acidic amino acid Basic amino acid 7 OH - equivalents Objectives: A) To determine the titration curve for an amino acid and B) to use this curve

More information

Peptide bonds: resonance structure. Properties of proteins: Peptide bonds and side chains. Dihedral angles. Peptide bond. Protein physics, Lecture 5

Peptide bonds: resonance structure. Properties of proteins: Peptide bonds and side chains. Dihedral angles. Peptide bond. Protein physics, Lecture 5 Protein physics, Lecture 5 Peptide bonds: resonance structure Properties of proteins: Peptide bonds and side chains Proteins are linear polymers However, the peptide binds and side chains restrict conformational

More information

Understanding the Nature of Amino Acids

Understanding the Nature of Amino Acids Ionization of Water Understanding the Nature of Amino Acids MOLE BIO/BIOCHEMISTRY Water dissociates into hydronium (H 3 O + ) or (H + ) and hydroxide (OH - ). We write the equilibrium as H 2 O H +

More information

Introduction to Proteins; Amino Acids, the Building Blocks of Proteins

Introduction to Proteins; Amino Acids, the Building Blocks of Proteins Introduction to Proteins; Amino Acids, the Building Blocks of Proteins Reading: Berg, Tymoczko & Stryer: Chapter 2, pp. 25-34 Appendix to Chapter 2, pp. 60-61 (visualizing protein structures) Review General

More information

Biomolecules. Protein Carbohydrate Nucleic acid Lipid

Biomolecules. Protein Carbohydrate Nucleic acid Lipid 01. Amino Acids 1 Biomolecules Protein Carbohydrate Nucleic acid Lipid 2 peptide polypeptide protein di-, tri-, oligo- 3 4 fibrous proteins proteins globular proteins 5 Figure 4.1 Anatomy of an amino acid.

More information

Chapter 26 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

Chapter 26 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 26 Biomolecules: Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins Proteins Amides from Amino Acids Amino acids contain a basic amino group and an acidic carboxyl

More information

Amino Acids and Proteins

Amino Acids and Proteins Amino Acids and Proteins Chapter 27 1 C 2-2 Amino Acids Amino acid: a compound that contains both an amino group and a carboxyl group α-amino acid: an amino acid in which the amino group is on the carbon

More information

PROTEINS. Proteins play key roles in living systems. An Introduction to Structure and Functions of Proteins. Function of a Protein Depends mainly on:

PROTEINS. Proteins play key roles in living systems. An Introduction to Structure and Functions of Proteins. Function of a Protein Depends mainly on: PROTEINS An Introduction to Structure and Functions of Proteins Proteins play key roles in living systems Examples of protein functions Catalysis: Almost all chemical reactions in a living cell are catalyzed

More information

Amino Acids. UNIT I: Protein Structure and Function I. OVERVIEW COOH C II. STRUCTURE OF THE AMINO ACIDS. Free amino acid

Amino Acids. UNIT I: Protein Structure and Function I. OVERVIEW COOH C II. STRUCTURE OF THE AMINO ACIDS. Free amino acid UNIT I: Protein Structure and Function Amino Acids 1 I. OVERVIEW Proteins are the most abundant and functionally diverse molecules in living systems. Virtually every life process depends on this class

More information

Amino Acids. base MeNH 2. H 3 NMe conjugate base. conjugate acid. R O H acid. base NH 2 R 1 R H acid

Amino Acids. base MeNH 2. H 3 NMe conjugate base. conjugate acid. R O H acid. base NH 2 R 1 R H acid Amino Acids 1 The basic amine reacts with the acidic proton of acetic acid to form a conjugate base and a conjugate acid. If methylamine and acetic acid ( = C 3 ) are mixed together, for example, the product

More information

Review I: Protein Structure

Review I: Protein Structure Review I: Protein Structure Rajan Munshi BBSI @ Pitt 2006 Department of Computational Biology University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine May 23, 2006 Amino Acids Building blocks of proteins 20 amino acids

More information

Goals To explore protein 3-d structure To learn about the non-covalent interactions that govern protein structure To start learning about enzymes

Goals To explore protein 3-d structure To learn about the non-covalent interactions that govern protein structure To start learning about enzymes Protein Structure Goals To explore protein 3-d structure To learn about the non-covalent interactions that govern protein structure To start learning about enzymes verview In this lab session, you will

More information

Electorphoretic Separation of Proteins

Electorphoretic Separation of Proteins Electorphoretic Separation of Proteins Introduction: Proteins occupy a central position in the structure and function of all living organisms. Some proteins serve as structural components while others

More information

The role of amino acids in life as the building blocks of proteins is readily apparent. 3 Amino Acids CHAPTER

The role of amino acids in life as the building blocks of proteins is readily apparent. 3 Amino Acids CHAPTER APTER 3 Amino Acids 3.1 Proteins Are Built from a Repertoire of 20 Amino Acids 3.2 Amino Acids ontain a Wide Array of Functional Groups 3.3 Essential Amino Acids Must Be btained from the Diet In Lewis

More information

CHM333 LECTURE 2: 8/28/07 FALL 2009 Professor Christine Hrycyna

CHM333 LECTURE 2: 8/28/07 FALL 2009 Professor Christine Hrycyna AMINO ACIDS I - All 20 amino acids in pure form are white, crystalline, high-melting solids - Amino acids act as: enzymes (catalysts), metabolic intermediates, carriers of energy and waste products and

More information

Amino Acids and Peptides

Amino Acids and Peptides Jul 4 at 2:43 PM Amino Acids and Peptides Lecture#3 Ionization of Amino Acids : * All amino acids have at least two ionizable groups ( The carboxylic group and the amino group), both of them can be ionized,

More information

Answers to Week 2 Practice Problems

Answers to Week 2 Practice Problems 1. a. Use the R-groups to help you start identifying amino acids, then look at the order of N-H, C α, and carbonyl groups to follow the peptide backbone: Cys-Tyr-Phe-Gln-Asn-Cys-Pro-Arg-Gly-(NH 2 ) b.

More information

Ch18_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Ch18_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch18_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following can be classified as biomolecules except A) lipids. B) proteins. C)

More information

PROTEINS. Proteins play key roles in living systems

PROTEINS. Proteins play key roles in living systems PROTEINS An Introduction to Structure and Functions of Proteins Proteins play key roles in living systems Examples of protein functions Catalysis: Almost all chemical reactions in a living cell are catalyzed

More information

R Amino Acids. Voet & Voet: Pages Any introductory Biochemistry textbook will have a chapter on amino acids and their properties

R Amino Acids. Voet & Voet: Pages Any introductory Biochemistry textbook will have a chapter on amino acids and their properties O C O Chapter 4: N Cα Amino Acids Voet & Voet: Pages 67-81 Any introductory Biochemistry textbook will have a chapter on amino acids and their properties Slide 1 Proteins Most abundant macromolecules in

More information

Chapter 19 Amino Acids and Proteins

Chapter 19 Amino Acids and Proteins Chapter 19 Amino Acids and Proteins 19.1 Proteins and Amino Acids 19.2 Amino Acids as Acids and Bases Copyright 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings 1 Functions of Proteins Proteins

More information

General Structure of Amino Acids

General Structure of Amino Acids General Structure of Amino Acids Three Major Types of Amino Acids Classification based on polarities of side chains 1. Non-polar R groups 2. Uncharged Polar R groups 3. Charged Polar R groups Disulfide

More information

Amino Acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All AA s have the same basic structure: Side Chain. Alpha Carbon. Carboxyl. Group.

Amino Acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All AA s have the same basic structure: Side Chain. Alpha Carbon. Carboxyl. Group. Protein Structure Amino Acids Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. All AA s have the same basic structure: Side Chain Alpha Carbon Amino Group Carboxyl Group Amino Acid Properties There are

More information

CH 2. Chem 226 Problem Set #13 Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry, 4 th edition, John McMurry. Chapter 15

CH 2. Chem 226 Problem Set #13 Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry, 4 th edition, John McMurry. Chapter 15 hem 226 Problem et #13 Fundamentals of rganic hemistry, 4 th edition, John McMurry. hapter 15 2. Eighteen of the 19 L-amino acids have the configuration at the α-carbon. ysteine is the only L- amino acid

More information

2. Molecular Genetics: Proteins 2.1. Amino Acids. Proteins are long molecules composed of a string of amino acids. There are 20 commonly seen amino

2. Molecular Genetics: Proteins 2.1. Amino Acids. Proteins are long molecules composed of a string of amino acids. There are 20 commonly seen amino 2. Molecular Genetics: Proteins 2.1. Amino Acids. Proteins are long molecules composed of a string of amino acids. There are 20 commonly seen amino acids. These are given in table 1 with their full names

More information

Structure and properties of proteins. Vladimíra Kvasnicová

Structure and properties of proteins. Vladimíra Kvasnicová Structure and properties of proteins Vladimíra Kvasnicová Chemical nature of proteins biopolymers of amino acids macromolecules (M r > 10 000) Classification of proteins 1) by localization in an organism

More information

Amino Acids and Peptides. Nafith Abu Tarboush DDS, MSc, PhD

Amino Acids and Peptides. Nafith Abu Tarboush DDS, MSc, PhD Amino Acids and Peptides Nafith Abu Tarboush DDS, MSc, PhD natarboush@ju.edu.jo www.facebook.com/natarboush Protein structure and function Greek: proteios, primary (importance) 50 % of body s dry weight

More information

COO - l. l R. Proteins of all species from bacteria to human being are built from the same 20 amino acids.

COO - l. l R. Proteins of all species from bacteria to human being are built from the same 20 amino acids. AMINOACIDS COO - l + H 3 N C α H Proteins of all species from bacteria to human being are built from the same 20 amino acids. l R Amino acids are chemical compounds consisitong of at least one amine and

More information

Figure 1. Figure from Introduction to Protein Architecture, by Arthur Lesk showing a hydrophobicity scale for amino acids

Figure 1. Figure from Introduction to Protein Architecture, by Arthur Lesk showing a hydrophobicity scale for amino acids 2. Molecular Genetics: Proteins 2.1. Amino Acids. Proteins are long molecules composed of a string of amino acids. There are 20 commonly seen amino acids. These are given in table 1 with their full names

More information

DNA Lecture II Protein Synthesis Notes. Using the Code of Life DNA & RNA. Page #1 (Stratton 2010) Name: 2. : production of proteins

DNA Lecture II Protein Synthesis Notes. Using the Code of Life DNA & RNA. Page #1 (Stratton 2010) Name: 2. : production of proteins Page #1 Using the Code of Life DNA & RNA Slide #2 Two process involve DNA : making an copy of DNA a. purpose: b. occurs: c. uses: DNA : production of proteins a. purpose: & b. occurs: between nucleus &

More information

Chapter 5 Overview. Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins. Proteins molecular tools of life. Functions

Chapter 5 Overview. Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins. Proteins molecular tools of life. Functions Chapter 5 Overview Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins Proteins molecular tools of life Functions n n n n n Structural cell shape, connective tissue (cartilage, bond) Catalysis enzymes Metabolic regulation

More information

Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins The α Amino Acids The general structure of the amino acids found in proteins could be depicted as: 2 As their name implies, they all contain a carboxylic acid group

More information

Amino Acids and Proteins

Amino Acids and Proteins Amino Acids and Proteins Biology 12 A. Allen 1 Where do we find proteins? What do gelatin desserts, hair, antibodies, spider webs, blood clots, egg whites, tofu, and fingernails all have in common? They

More information

Amino Acids. Jana Novotna. Department of Medical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry 2016

Amino Acids. Jana Novotna. Department of Medical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry 2016 Amino Acids Jana Novotna Department of Medical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry 2016 General characteristics of amino Building blocks of proteins. acids (AA) 20 common AA - encoded by standard genetic

More information

AMINO ACIDS, POLYPEPTIDES, AND PROTEINS

AMINO ACIDS, POLYPEPTIDES, AND PROTEINS 29 09/28/2013 8:30:17 Page 427 APTER 29 AMIN AIDS, PLYPEPTIDES, AND PRTEINS SLUTINS T REVIEW QUESTINS 1. The designation a (alpha) means that the amine group in common amino acids is connected to the carbon

More information

Chapter 25 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins

Chapter 25 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins Chapter 25 Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins eview of Concepts Fill in the blanks below. To verify that your answers are correct, look in your textbook at the end of Chapter 25. Each of the sentences

More information

There is alignment, and there is multiple alignment

There is alignment, and there is multiple alignment There is alignment, and there is multiple alignment Multiple alignment - what it means (F1) a Sequence: 1 string of nucleotide or amino acid characters an Alignment (or Pair-Wise Alignment): 2 sequences

More information

Paper: 6 Chemistry 2.130 University I Chemistry: Models Page: 2 of 7. 4. Which of the following weak acids would make the best buffer at ph = 5.0?

Paper: 6 Chemistry 2.130 University I Chemistry: Models Page: 2 of 7. 4. Which of the following weak acids would make the best buffer at ph = 5.0? Paper: 6 Chemistry 2.130 University I Chemistry: Models Page: 2 of 7 4. Which of the following weak acids would make the best buffer at ph = 5.0? A) Acetic acid (Ka = 1.74 x 10-5 ) B) H 2 PO - 4 (Ka =

More information

Chapter 16 Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes

Chapter 16 Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes Chapter 16 Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes 1 Functions of Proteins Proteins in the body are polymers made from 20 different amino acids differ in characteristics and functions that depend on the order

More information

Protein Physics. A. V. Finkelstein & O. B. Ptitsyn LECTURE 1

Protein Physics. A. V. Finkelstein & O. B. Ptitsyn LECTURE 1 Protein Physics A. V. Finkelstein & O. B. Ptitsyn LECTURE 1 PROTEINS Functions in a Cell MOLECULAR MACHINES BUILDING BLOCKS of a CELL ARMS of a CELL ENZYMES - enzymatic catalysis of biochemical reactions

More information

Molecular Biology Basic Concepts

Molecular Biology Basic Concepts Molecular Biology Basic Concepts Prof. Dr. Antônio Augusto Fröhlich Charles Ivan Wust LISHA - UFSC {guto charles}@lisha.ufsc.br http://www.lisha.ufsc.br/~{guto charles} September 2003 September 2003 http://www.lisha.ufsc.br/~guto

More information

Protein Structure Determination by NMR. Proteins Primary, secondary, tertiary structure 1 H NMR

Protein Structure Determination by NMR. Proteins Primary, secondary, tertiary structure 1 H NMR Protein Structures by MR Laboratory for Biomolecular MR Spectroscopy, Center for Insoluble Protein Structures (inspi) and Interdisciplinary anoscience Center (iao) Protein Structure Determination by MR

More information

Chemistry 110. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 22 Proteins

Chemistry 110. Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell & Farrell. Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry Chapter 22 Proteins hemistry 110 Bettelheim, Brown, ampbell & Farrell Ninth Edition Introduction to General, rganic and Biochemistry hapter 22 Proteins Step-growth polyamide (polypeptide) polymers or oligomers of L-α-aminoacids.

More information

NAME. EXAM I I. / 36 September 25, 2000 Biochemistry I II. / 26 BICH421/621 III. / 38 TOTAL /100

NAME. EXAM I I. / 36 September 25, 2000 Biochemistry I II. / 26 BICH421/621 III. / 38 TOTAL /100 EXAM I I. / 6 September 25, 2000 Biochemistry I II. / 26 BIH421/621 III. / 8 TOTAL /100 I. MULTIPLE HOIE (6 points) hoose the BEST answer to the question by circling the appropriate letter. 1. An amino

More information

Sequence Alignment and Dynamic Programming. J. R. Quine Department of Mathematics

Sequence Alignment and Dynamic Programming. J. R. Quine Department of Mathematics Sequence Alignment and Dynamic Programming J. R. Quine Department of Mathematics Sources Part of this lecture is taken from Calculating the secrets of life, Chapter 3: Seeing conserved signals: using algorithms

More information

2) Here is tyrosine with its pka values noted:

2) Here is tyrosine with its pka values noted: 1. a) At ph 1.0, the following amino acid side chains have (+) charge: Lys, Arg, His b) At ph 12.0, only the side chain of Arg has (+1) charge. 2) Here is tyrosine with its pka values noted: remember that

More information

Chapter 19 Aminoacids and Proteins

Chapter 19 Aminoacids and Proteins Chapter 19 Aminoacids and Proteins Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins; they contain a carboxylic acid group and an amino group on the alpha (α) carbon, the carbon adjacent to the C=O; because

More information

A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys

A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys Questions- Proteins & Enzymes A. A peptide with 12 amino acids has the following amino acid composition: 2 Met, 1 Tyr, 1 Trp, 2 Glu, 1 Lys, 1 Arg, 1 Thr, 1 Asn, 1 Ile, 1 Cys Reaction of the intact peptide

More information

CHAPTER 29 AMINO ACIDS, POLYPEPTIDES, AND PROTEINS SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS. alpha carbon atom

CHAPTER 29 AMINO ACIDS, POLYPEPTIDES, AND PROTEINS SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS. alpha carbon atom EIS29-451-462.v2.qxd 12/9/07 10:50 PM Page 451 APTER 29 AMIO AIDS, POLYPEPTIDES, AD PROTEIS SOLUTIOS TO REVIEW QUESTIOS 1. The amino acids of proteins are called alpha amino acids because the amine group

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules. 1. Polymers 2. Carbohydrates 3. Proteins 4. Lipids 5.

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules. 1. Polymers 2. Carbohydrates 3. Proteins 4. Lipids 5. Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules 1. Polymers 2. Carbohydrates 3. Proteins 4. Lipids 5. Nucleic Acids 1. Polymers Chapter Reading pg. 67 What are Polymers? Polymers are

More information

Biochemistry 1. 3 rd year College of Pharmacy University of Kerbala

Biochemistry 1. 3 rd year College of Pharmacy University of Kerbala Biochemistry 1 3 rd year College of Pharmacy University of Kerbala AMINO ACIDS Amino acids are compounds having an amino (- NH 2 ) and a carboxyl (-COOH) groups. α- amino acids have the general formula

More information

Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids

Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids Acid-Base Properties of Amino Acids Amino acids can undergo an intramolecular acid base reaction (proton transfer) Transfer of the H from the COOH group to the NH 2 group forms a dipolar ion, an ion that

More information

Proteins are Biomolecules

Proteins are Biomolecules Amino Acids and Proteins Introduc1on to Amino Acids and Protein Structure A Complement to Chapter 18 Proteins are Biomolecules Biomolecules: Proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids are examples

More information

Lecture 1. Amino acids and the Peptide Bond-I

Lecture 1. Amino acids and the Peptide Bond-I Lecture 1 Amino acids and the Peptide Bond-I Introduction The word protein is believed to originate from the from Greek prōteios meaning primary. This is perhaps a perfect way to describe what these molecules

More information

CHAPTER 29 AMINO ACIDS, POLYPEPTIDES, AND PROTEINS SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS

CHAPTER 29 AMINO ACIDS, POLYPEPTIDES, AND PROTEINS SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS APTER 29 AMI AIDS, PLYPEPTIDES, AD PRTEIS SLUTIS T REVIEW QUESTIS 1. The designation, α, means that the amine group in common amino acids is connected to the carbon immediately adjacent to the carboxylic

More information

Proteins. Amino Acids. Chapter 3. Molecular Diagnostics Fundamentals, Methods and Clinical Applications Second Edition 2/5/2013

Proteins. Amino Acids. Chapter 3. Molecular Diagnostics Fundamentals, Methods and Clinical Applications Second Edition 2/5/2013 Proteins Chapter 3 Amino Acids Nonpolar Alanine, Ala, A Isoleucine, Ile, I Leucine, Leu, L Methionine, Met, M Phenylalanine, Phe, F Tryptophan,Trp, W Valine, Val, V Negatively Charged (Acidic) Aspartic

More information

Chapter 16 Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes. Functions of Proteins. Examples of Amino Acids. Amino Acids. Nonpolar Amino Acids. Types of Amino Acids

Chapter 16 Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes. Functions of Proteins. Examples of Amino Acids. Amino Acids. Nonpolar Amino Acids. Types of Amino Acids Chapter 16 Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes 16.1 Functions of Proteins 16.2 Amino Acids 16.3 Amino Acids as Acids and Bases Functions of Proteins Proteins perform many different functions in the body.

More information

What amino acids really look like

What amino acids really look like What amino acids really look like Tetrahedral carbon Cα Page 13 (12) Molecular Asymmetry Page 18 (16) Chiral Carbon with 4 different substituent groups (hand) Achiral Amino acid Structure The central carbon

More information

8. Which amino acids have side chain pk a values less than 7.0? A. R B. E C. H D. A A. V B. K C. Q D. I

8. Which amino acids have side chain pk a values less than 7.0? A. R B. E C. H D. A A. V B. K C. Q D. I 8. Which amino acids have side chain pk a values less than 7.0? A. R B. E C. H D. A 9. The titration curve to the right could be for which amino acids? A. V B. K C. Q D. I 11. The titration curve to the

More information

Package acide-amine.sty

Package acide-amine.sty Package acide-amine.sty This package provide commands who draw an amino acid. You will nd below the list of amino acids available. Molecules were initialy drawn by Florian Hollandt, see : http://www.texample.net/tikz/examples/author/florian-hollandt/

More information

CHEM 121. Chapter 20 Name: Date:

CHEM 121. Chapter 20 Name: Date: CHEM 121. Chapter 20 Name: Date: 1. Proteins are polymers in which A) unbranched chains of amino acids are present. B) branched chains of amino acids are present. C) both unbranched and branched chains

More information

-H 2 O R O. Peptides can be hydrolyzed under aqueous acid conditions. The products of this hydrolysis process are units called amino acids.

-H 2 O R O. Peptides can be hydrolyzed under aqueous acid conditions. The products of this hydrolysis process are units called amino acids. Amino Acids: Proteins come in several different types: structural (skin, fingernails, silk, cartilage), hormonal (insulin) and enzymatic (DA polymerase). What is the chemical similarity of the different

More information