14/11/2014. Copper supply affects growth performance and health in growing pigs. Outline. Copper as essential trace elements

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1 Copper supply affects growth performance and health in growing pigs Themamiddag 4 november 2014 Outline Introduction Copper as essential trace element Paul Bikker, Jurgen van Baal, Roselinde Goselink Presence: recommendations, allowance and practice Environmental consequences New studies into copper responses in pigs Requirements Growth promoting effect Conclusions and practical implications Copper as essential trace elements Many physiological functions Component of metalloenzymes Red blood cells, heamoglobin, iron metabolism Oxidants and anti-oxidants Consequences of Cu-deprivation Anaemia Loss of pigment Bone development, disturbed ossification Connective tissue (e.g. aorta rupture) Ataxia (central nervous system)(lambs) However: Cu-deprivation very unlikely in pigs Copper as essential trace elements Many physiological functions Component of metalloenzymes Red blood cells, heamoglobin, iron metabolism Oxidative enzymes (anti-oxidants) Consequences of Cu-deprivation Loss of appetite reduced growth rate (Zn) Skin abnormalities (parakeratosis, thickening, lesions) (Zn) Bone development, growth, reproduction (Cu, Zn) Cu-deprivation only after experimental induction Copper recommendations in mg/kg Copper inclusion levels in practical diets Source Piglets GF pigs Sows GfE, NRC, / /3.0 10/20 EU max Contribution of ingredients: 5-8 mg Cu per kg Few (recent) dose response studies (baby pigs) Copper (PDV survey 2007; Adamse et al., 2011) ~160 mg/kg for pigs <12 weeks ~20-25 mg/kg GF pigs and sows Inclusion is largely based on maximum allowance 1

2 Copper balance growing pigs Copper in the environment BW, kg Cu, mg/kg Cu, g Nursery GF-pigs Retention Excretion 10.2 Excretion, % 98.7 Not included Grower diet 2 wk Grower diet 4 wk Copper balance of agricultural area in NL (x 1000 kg) Total supply Animal manure 1) Crops Accumulation ) From 2001 new calculation method Copper allowance, max. EU levels Background Copper EC PDV EC 2004 Pigs < 12 wk Pigs wk Pigs >16 wk Copper in surface water in NL (Römkens et al., 2012) A L W Breeding pigs EC as total content, PDV as added via premix (Dutch agreement) From ingredients: 5-8 mg Cu per kg Intermediate conclusions Feed4Foodure, MMM4, copper and zinc Requirements poorly documented and not applied Dietary copper levels close to EC maximum >90% excretion in manure renewed interest Aims Reduction in excretion without loss of animal performance and health Reduction of Cu and Zn losses from farm animals by developing insight in their absorption from the GIT and utilisation in the body. Short term dietary recommendations Long term understanding of absorption processes mechanisms of growth and health promoting effects Inclusion in nutrient based response models 2

3 Copper content, mg/kg DM Copper content, mg/l serum copper, µmol/l 14/11/2014 Dose response studies in growing pigs Experiment copper, treatments Cu requirements in young growing pigs (8-40 kg) Large scale, 10 x 8 pigs / treatment Tempo x Topigs 20 (LR x GY) Practical diet composition Effect of phytase Effect of growth promoting level of copper Assumption: requirements decrease with body weight extrapolation of results to GF pigs. Treatment Added Cu mg/kg Total Cu mg/kg Phytase FTU/kg Zn, added 45 mg/kg, analysed Phytase, analysed, 165 (intrinsic) and 760 FTU/kg Results, growth performance Results copper in serum 40 Day 28 Day 56 phytase Copper content, mg/kg diet Results copper in liver and bile Effect of phytase on nutrient digestibility (%) Liver phytase Bile phytase T 1 - T FTU SEM P-value DM Ca P Cu < Copper content, mg/kg diet 0 Zn <

4 piglets, % 14/11/2014 Phytate and trace elements Effect of high copper on growth performance T mg T mg SEM P-value BW D56, kg <0.001 SD BW D56, kg ADG, g/d <0.001 FI, kg/d <0.001 FCR Effect of high copper, T 7 as % of T1-6 Effect of high copper (T7) on faecal consistency wk 1-2 wk 3-4 wk 5-6 wk 7-8 ADG FI FCR T 1-6 T 7 soft liquid soft liquid soft liquid soft liquid soft liquid week 1 week 2 week 3 week 4 week 1-4 Level and duration of Cu supplementation Experimental observations Added Cu, mg/kg T 1 T 2 T 3 T 4 T 5 T 6 T 7 T 8 Week Week Week Week Week Zn, added 45 mg/kg Phytase added 500 FTU/kg D0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70: body weight, feed intake Daily: health, medical treatments, losses 2x / wk: faecal consistency 15, (80), 160 mg Cu/kg: D0, 56: blood samples Cu D0, 56: body tissues liver Cu, Zn, bile Cu Mucosal scrapings, transporters 4

5 Effect of level of Cu supplementation Effect of duration of Cu supplementation After wk 6 from nursery to GF unit Effect of duration of Cu supplementation Level and duration of Cu supplement on faeces Effect of diet copper on tissue levels, D56 Plasma T 1 15 mg T 2 80 mg T mg SEM P Cu, µmol/l 23.8 a 24.4 a 27.5 b Liver, mg/kg Cu 23.0 a 20.4 a 32.1 b Zn Bile, mg/l 1.36 a 1.60 a 2.40 b Mode of actions high Cu supplement Effect microbiota population in GIT (Fuller et al., 1960) Increase in feed intake (less effect in restricted pigs) mediated by hypothalamus NPY (Li et al., 2008) Endocrine system, increase in GH in pituitary or hypothalamus (Zhou et al., 1994; Yan et al., 2011) Similar effect after continuous Cu-histidine injection Moderate increase in plasma and liver Cu-levels (several authors); far higher in injected pigs Interactions with Zn and phytase on liver Cu, not on growth performance... several mechanisms, no final answers 5

6 Influence on methallothionein and Cu and Zn-transporters in GI-tract Will be addressed by Jurgen van Baal Conclusions Minor effects of Cu content (<25 mg kg) in the diet; physiological requirements are met with 7-10 mg/kg Phytase may reduce Cu absorption, mediated by Zn Cu (160 mg/kg) promotes performance and health Linear effect from mg/kg on ADG (via FI) Sign. effect of 160 vs 15 mg/kg in each 2 wk-period Transient dip in ADG after removal of high Cu No effect in finisher period (>50 kg BW) High Cu persistently improved faecal consistency Cost of Cu-reduction on BW gain can be estimated More insight in mechanisms may alleviate effects Thank you for your kind attention 6

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