REPUBLIC OF TURKEY OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF PRESS AND INFORMATION TURKISH MEDIA AT A GLANCE

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3 REPUBLIC OF TURKEY OFFICE OF THE PRIME MINISTER DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF PRESS AND INFORMATION TURKISH MEDIA AT A GLANCE 2013

4 TURKISH MEDIA AT A GLANCE Owner on behalf of Directorate General Of Press and Information: Murat Karakaya, Director General Editorial Coordinator: Ali Güneş, Head of Press and Publication Department Editorial Board: Arif Başaran, Zeynep Boz, Semiha Eryol, Zeynep Hamurdan, Hakan Kocaer, Serkan Ökten, Simla Özçelikel, Mariana Popescu, Özhan Tutar Layout: Yunus Emre Yüce Statistics and Graphics: Zeynep Boz, Simla Özçelikel, Hakan Kocaer Photograps: Images submitted by several media organs, DGPI archives, Photographers Doğan Girgin and Rıza Özel (TFMD) Headquarters: Ceyhun Atuf Kansu cad. No.122 Balgat, ANKARA Phone: Web Address: Printed at: Altan Matbaası Matbaacılar Sanayi Sitesi 1515 Sok. D: 16 Yenimahalle, Ankara Phone: ISBN:

5 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD...5 TURKISH MEDIA AT A GLANCE...7 HISTORY OF TURKISH MEDIA...8 STRUCTURE OF MEDIA OWNERSHIP...10 MEDIA AND ADVERTISING...12 INTERNET MEDIA...14 SOCIAL MEDIA...18 MOBILE BROADCASTING...22 HUMOR PRESS...24 TV SERIES...26 AUDIO-VISUAL MEDIA STATISTICS...28 PRINTED MEDIA STATISTICS...30 MEDIA GROUPS AND MEDIA ORGANS...32 NEWS AGENCIES...67 PUBLIC ACTORS...68 PROFESSIONAL MEDIA ORGANIZATIONS...70 PERMANENT FOREIGN MEDIA...72 COMMUNICATION FACULTIES...74 MEDIA LEGISLATION...76 SOCIAL SECURITY...78 PRESS CARDS...80 LIST OF GRAPHICS...82

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7 FOREWORD Turkey is one of the most influential countries in the world today, thanks to its quality population, strong economy, stable political structure, freedoms-oriented, independent regime and more importantly the well-established culture of democracy. Over the past decade, our country has managed to overcome its all chronic problems by introducing many historic reforms in a wide range of fields, from foreign policy and education to justice in line with the EU membership criteria. Murat KARAKAYA Director General Having achieved to become one of the 15 biggest economies in the world owing to its economic moves, Turkey is now a gradually prospering country with a stable course of economic growth. Thanks to the legal and judicial reforms, level of democracy has risen and all the problems concerning individual rights and freedoms have been removed. Today s Turkey is a country of which people enjoy freedoms of expression and travel and do not meet any prohibition or restriction. Accordingly, Turkey has a clear guarantee for democracy with its free and independent media sector which is mainly built on the private corporations along with two public institutions, the Anadolu Agency and the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, providing a great competitive advantage and adaptive capacity to technological innovations. With a deep-rooted media tradition, Turkish public administration is conducted with a great sense of responsibility for making legislative regulations to address the needs of the media sector. All the impediments has been removed, press freedom has been guaranteed and foreign investment share in the sector has been increased through some legislative efforts including the Press Law based on a widespread consensus, the improvements made on Turkish Criminal Law, and a law governing radio-television broadcasting. Media sector is provided with technical and financial support through the such media organizations as the Director General of Press and Information and the Press Advertising Institution. Currently, Turkish media has a dynamic and vibrant climate with nearly 6800 newspapers and magazines, and totally 263 television outlets and 1058 radio stations. Thus, the work in your hands, Turkish Media at a Glance, aims at giving insight into a century-long media adventure dating from Ottoman era till today as well as taking a detailed picture of today s media as a fast-changing sector in Turkey. So, I believe and hope that this work will not only be a reference source for both national and foreign journalists, scholars, students and the others concerned about the media but also an inspiration to similar works in the future.

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9 TURKISH MEDIA AT A GLANCE Turkish media embarked on its long adventure in a small printing house in İstanbul, in 1727 and since then, it has proceeded at dizzying speed despite all the ups and downs till today. Having acted as an initiator of democratization movement and then becoming people s voice during the national struggle, Turkish media has obtained a more liberal atmosphere with the establishment of the Republic. Today, Turkey has an explosive media sector with about 6800 papers and magazines, 263 TV channels and 1058 radio stations. Of these papers and magazines; approximately 60 % is local, 5 % regional and 36 % national. Daily papers have got 88 % share in the total annual circulation. Moreover, the Official Gazette, issued by the state for announcing the new legislation and making other official announcements, has been published since 1920 when it was issued under the title of Ceride-i Resmiye. It has been in the stage under the name of Resmi Gazete since In Turkey, TV broadcasting has recently come further and further to the forefront, exceeding the printed media in terms of its scope and economical dimension. Today great majority of 18 million households reached by broadcasts can access multi-channel platforms. In recent years particularly the productions by TV serial sector have promoted Turkey to the rank of the most important content producers in the world. Turkey, as a party to The European Convention on Transfrontier Television and EU Audio-Visual Media Services Directive, guarantees the freedom of expression in its Press Law. Share of foreign capital in the Turkish media has been maximized to 50% thanks to the adoption of a new Radio and Television Law (RTUK Law) prepared in pursuant to the EU Acquis. Following these developments, world s prominent media groups, such as Times Warner, News Corp., Al-Jazeera and GB Times, have launched into large-scale investments in Turkey. TRT has recently added a new channel to its thematic channels covering news, music, children, documentary, sports and education based on the concept of public service broadcasting and started Kurdish TV broadcasting, which was previously banned. Besides its 24 hours Arabic language channel, TRT today meets with the audience through a certain broadcast streaming in multiple languages including Bosnian, Kazakh, Georgian, Greek, German and Romanian during a certain broadcast streaming. In Turkey, HDTV broadcasts via Türksat satellite are also available as well as transmissions in an analog-terrestrial mode. DIGITURK, one of the digital satellite subscription based platforms, has an estimated reach of 3.3 million households, while D-SMART reaches 1,7 million. There are 1,2 million analog cable TV subscribers and 130 thousand digital TV subscribers. Besides, there is an IPTV service launched by Turk Telekom in Turkey. Audience can easily watch many national, local and international broadcasts. Having made a breakthrough in recent years, the Anadolu Agency (AA), one of the world s oldest agencies, has become among ten big agencies. The Agency started to restructure itself in the Balkans, Arab countries, Caucasia and the Central Asia with a view to ranking one of the five big agencies in its centenary. Multiplication of actors within a sector, which has witnessed the advertisement revenues up to 2,5 billion USD and a cutthroat competition, creates a free and pluralistic climate which is open to opinions and ideologies of all descriptions. Almost half of the population has access to the Internet. With over 32 million registered users, Turkey ranks as the seventh country among others in terms of Internet usage. Moreover, given its nearly 8 million Twitter users, video sharing sites also receive a great deal of attention in our country. Each year 80 or 100 new serials are released on Turkish TV stations. There is also a strong foreign demand for TV productions including mostly the prime-time soap operas. In 2011 alone the revenue recorded from serial exports to the countries ranging from South America to the Middle East and the Balkans to Africa was over 60 million USD. 7

10 HISTORY OF TURKISH MEDIA PRE-TANZIMAT PERIOD December, 1727 the first Turkish printing press was established. September 1795 Bulletin des Nouvelles, the first newspaper of the Ottoman era, was issued Vekay-i Mısriye, the first Turkish-Arabic newspaper, was pressed. 11 November 1831, Takvim-i Vekayi, the first Turkish newspaper, entered into press world. 1840, Ceride-i Havadis, the first semi-official Turkish newspaper, was published by an Englishman, William Churchill 1850 Vekayi-i Tıbbiye, the first medical journal, was appeared in Turkish press history 1860 Tercüman-ı Ahval, the first private Turkish newspaper, was founded Matbuat Nizamnamesi, the first legal press regulation, entered into force Terakki/Progress and Development, the first women paper, was issued Hürriyet was printed on behalf of the New Ottomans Society in London Mümeyyiz/Compos Mentis, the first newspaper for children, was issued. Other important publications: Muhbir (1866), Ayine-i Vatan (1866), Hürriyet (1868), Terakki (1868), Basiret (1869), İbret (1871), Devir (1872), Bedir (1872), İnkılap (1870) TANZIMAT PERIOD 1876, Newspapers were censored officially for the first time. 1877, The earliest press law draft was released. 1901, Turkish press history witnessed the first strike. 1908, Turkish Press Association was established 1908, "Gave", the first socialist newspaper of Ottoman era, was issued in İzmir. 1911, Ottoman Telegraph Agency, the first national news agency, was founded. 1914, Ottoman National Telegraph Agency was established. Many newspapers and periodicals were published from the declaration of the Second Constitutionalist Monarchy till the end of 1918, including Yeni Gazete, Mizan, Hukuk-u Umumiye, Serbesti, Sada-yı Millet, Şura-yı Ümmet, Takvim-i Vekayi, Osmanlı and Tercüman. Important publications of the period: Tercüman-ı Hakikat (1878), Sabah (1882), Servet-i Fünun (periodical) and İkdam CONSTITUTIONALIST PERIOD 7 June 1920, the Republic of Turkey s Office of the Prime Minister, Directorate General of Press and Information was founded under the name of Matbuat ve İstihbarat Müdüriyeti Umumiyesi at the behest of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Turkish Republic 1920, Anadolu Agency was founded. 1920, Turkey-Havas-Reuters Agency was founded. Certain newspapers and periodicals, such as İleri, Yeni Gün, Akşam, Vakit, İrade-i Milliye, Hakimiyet-i Milliye, playing key role in reaching the fighting spirit to to the masses, were published Provincial press: Hakimiyet-i Milliye (1920), Yeni Gün (1920), İrade-i Milliye (1920), İzmir e Doğru (1919) Periodicals: Ümid, Aydede, Büyük Mecmua, Aydınlık PERIOD OF NATIONAL STRUGGLE 8

11 THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD 1924 Cumhuriyet newspaper were first published 1927 The first radio broadcasting started 1931 The first press law of Pepublican period was adopted The first Turkish Press Congress was held The first private school of journalism was opened 1950 Turkish News Agency (THA) was established 1950 Press Law, which is still in effect with some changes, came into force Istanbul Technical University launched Turkey s first TV broadcasting, namely İTÜ TV 1960 Press Honor Council was established Press Advertising Institution was established 1964 Turkish Radio and Television Corporation was established, laying the foundations of visual media 1972 An independent news agency, ANKA, was established in Ankara TRT changed all transmissions to all colour television Notable newspapers of the period: Cumhuriyet, Milliyet, Hürriyet, Dünya, Sabah, Tercüman, Zaman, Güneş 1990 The first private TV channel, Magic Box Star 1, launched broadcast 1990s Internet broadcasting launched 1992 Cable TV broadcasting started 1992 Journals, Atlas, Aydınlıka and Aksiyon and newspapers, Fotospor, Yeni Yüzyıl and Takvim were issued State monopoly over radio-television broadcasting was removed with a constitutional amendment Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) was founded 2003 Communication Council was gathered in Ankara 2011 Foreign capital share in a private radio or television enterprise was maximized to 50 % by Law No

12 STRUCTURE OF MEDIA OWNERSHIP With the new technological developments and due to some governmental problems, media sector has started to pass into the hands of outsiders in Turkey, in that big investment groups have increasingly taken control of the sector since 1980s when the sector was dominated mostly by certain journalistic families. Media sector has been on an unplanned and uncontrolled growth trend since the first private TV channel began its broadcasting life in 1990 and state monopoly over the visual broadcasting sector was broken. Having structured as such the media sector got a severe blow from the financial crisis. As a result, some media patrons of the failed banks went bankrupt, creating a grave unemployment wave in the media sector. Then, Saving Deposits Insurance Fund of Turkey seized some media companies for their failed banks. And in parallel with this process a new period began for the media ownership. Thanks to the new legal regulations, foreign shareholders and those investment groups which were previously engaged in various irrelevant fields turned towards the media sector. Thus, the ownership structure of Turkish media started to reshape with the advent of new entrepreneurs. Today s prominent media organizations are also the leading investment groups of the country. Media groups are entering into joint ventures with foreign media companies both at home and abroad. On the other hand, foreign companies can also own media organs in Turkey. For example, News Corporation & Atlantic Records purchased TGRT and now continue its broadcasting under the name of Fox TV. Turkish Broadcasting Law No dated 2011 raised the maximum share of foreign investment in a private media organ up to 50%. As a result of this certain media companies such as Qatar-financed Al-Jazeera and Chinafinanced GB Times embarked on making investments in the fields of television and radio broadcastings, and webcasting in Turkey. Graphic 1 Group Share By Ratings Doğan; %13,74 Turkuvaz; %10,95 Çukurova; %6,05 Source: TV Viewing Surveys Inc News Corp; %7,82 Samanyolu; %6,54 Kanal 7; %3,51 Doğuş; %11,48 İpek; %2,25 Ciner; %0,75 Doğan; %20 Turkuvaz; %10 Demirören; %5 Ciner; %5 Çukurova; %4 Albayrak; %2 Feza; %21 İhlas; %2 İpek; %2 Star; %3 Sözcü; %5 Cumhuriyet; %1 Diğer; %15 Graphic 2 Group Share By Circulations Source: Press Advertising Corporation Data Star; %0,08 MNG; %1,05 Diğer; %35,78 10

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14 MEDIA AND ADVERTISING Advertising sector has been on a stable growth curve in parallel with the economic development in Turkey since Annual advertisement spending increased by 262 % growth and rose to 2,5 billion USD in 2011 in reference to 953 million USD in In the first half of 2012 the sector realized a growth of 1,3 billion USD, but a 8 % rise is expected for the end of the year. Another striking point is that the digital media channels such as web-casting and mobile-casting, which are defined as New Media, have recorded significant surge in their ad revenue shares, getting 8 % slice of the ad pie in The lion s share of ad revenue is of television with 57 %, followed by respectively newspapers (22 %), Internet (8 %), billboards (7 %), radio (3 %), periodicals (2 %) and cinema (1 %). Graphic-3 Percent Change in Ad Spending per year Source: Turkish Association of Advertising Agencies (the first half) TV Newspaper Magazine Radio Digital Cinema Billboards Graphic-4 Ad Spending Distribution by fields Source: Turkish Association of Advertising Agencies TV 57% Newspaper 22 % Magazine 2% Radio 3% Digital 8% Cinema 1% Billboards 7% Graphic-5 Advertisement Investments Source: Association of Advertising Agencies ilk altı ay

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16 INTERNET MEDIA Internet has profoundly influenced the media sector in Turkey as it is in the world. Increase in Internet usage and rapid developments of broadcasting technologies have changed classical broadcasting approach. Turkey has been undergoing a rapid change in webcast and mocast as in the world. According to September 2012 data by Information Technologies and Communication Authority (BTK) there are about 37 million Internet subscribers including 19,3 million broadband Internet subscribers. Mainstream national newspapers attain a digital readership decupling the daily newsstand sales. Having seen the choice of Turkish people, the media companies have been increasing web based investments day by day. Rapid growth of Internet both in quality and quantity has led to a speedy rise in digital ad investments. According to IAB (Interactive Advertising Bureau) Turkey declared that in the first half of 2012 digital advertisement investments reached 416,77 million TL with a rise of % 34.4 compared to the same period last year. Graphic-6 Top 20 Countries with Highest Number of Internet Users Source: Source: Internet World Stats, June internetworldstats.com/top20.htm *Turkey is ranked 15th in the world. China USA India Japan Brasil Russia Germany Indonesia United Kingdom France Nigeria Persia Mexico South Korea Turkey Italy Philippines Spain Vietnam Egypt ,2 88, , ,7 52,2 48, ,3 36,5 35,8 33,6 31, ,8 245,2 538 Million Graphic-7 Total Numbers of Internet Subscribers Source: BTK, 2012 Q3 (July-August-September) Report Milyonlar Million Total Numbers of Internet Subscribers 0 xdsl Internet via Mobile Computer. Internet via Mobile Phone Cable Internet Fiber Internet Other

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18 INTERNET MEDIA Of top five most popular Europe-wide broadcasting news websites with maximum readers, two are daily newspapers from Turkey. According to April 2012 data released by Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜİK), in Turkey, 72,5% of Internet users read newspapers and magazines via Internet. A 2012 August survey conducted by comscore Inc. reveals that the ratio of TV viewing over the Internet has also increased in such a way that 2012 August saw the ratio of 32%, up from 25% in the same month last year. Graphic-8 News Portal Choices of European Internet Users % 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Mail Online Guardian.co.uk Hürriyet.com.tr Blind.de Milliyet.com.tr Graphic-9 Field Preferences of Internet Users * Based on April 2012 Survey on Households Use of Information Technologies conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜİK). 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 16

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20 SOCIAL MEDIA Rapid change in information technologies reflects on the world of publishing and broadcasting world simultaneously. As the use of Internet and mobile devices has become widespread, classical approach of publishing and broadcasting via newspapers and TV screens has started to change. Mobile devices are alternative channels joining previously widespread communications medium. Social media has turned into the most effective communications channel of the world in a short time thanks to its networking sites with capacity of informing, entertaining and influencing the masses. Social Media is keeping up with global progress in Turkey where web and mobile communication are widespread. Given the size of active social networking users, Turkey outdistanced many countries in social media use. This great interest leads to many digital agencies to launch, while heading conventional media to social media. Graphic-10 Amount of Time Spent on Social Networking Sites by Countries November 2012 Argentine Brasil 9,8 9,7 *As it is seen from this chart, Argentina is the most social addicted country, with an average of 9.8 hours on social networking sites, closely followed by Brazil (9.7 hours), Russia (9,6 hours), Tailand (8,7 hours) and Turkey (8,6 hours). Russia Tailand Turkey Israel 8,7 8,6 8,2 9,6 Source: ComScore Latin America Peru Canada 8,1 7,9 7,9 Chile 7,7 Mexico 7,5 World Average 5,2 Hour

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22 SOCIAL MEDIA According to the October 2012 data by ComScore s Inc., with its over 32 million Facebook users Turkey ranks 7th in the world, while for Twitter use, it is ranked as the 11th. Additionally, Istanbul is the 12nd one among the 20 most active twitter cities in the world. Graphic-11 Countries with Most Facebook Users Source: Maxus Turkey-Social Media Developments January 2013 Turkey United Kingdom Mexico Indonesia India Brasil USA Million Graphic-12 Countries with Most Twitter Users Source: Maxus Turkey-Social Media Developments January 2012 Turkey Philippines Spain Canada Mexico India Indonesia United Kingdom Japan Brasil USA Million Graphic-13 Most Active Twitter Cities Source: Maxus Turkey-Social Media Developments January 2012 İstanbul Singapore Riyadh Chicago Los Angeles Paris Bandung New York Sao Paulo London Tokyo Jakarta Million 0,0% 0,5% 1,0% 1,5% 2,0% 2,5% 20

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24 MOBILE BROADCASTING The latest media sector, mobile broadcasting, inaugurated information/news transfer via SMS in 2000s and then expanded thanks to the collaboration with media groups. Mobile broadcast access has increased rapidly following G licence tender which formed a source of income for the sector. Of 67,160,000 mobile users by 2012 September, 40,300,000 are 3G subscribers. Moreover, some of the broadcast bands will be assigned to the 4th generation GSM services upon the transition to terrestrial digital broadcasting under a decision taken by the International Telecommunication Union. Therefore, better quality GSM services will be available in Turkey just like other countries. Graphic-14 Numbers of 3G and mobile subscribers-september 2012 Source: Turkey Electronic Communication Sector Market Data, BTK 70 60İstanbul Singapore 50 Riyadh Chicago Los 40Angeles Paris 30Bandung New York 20 Sao Paulo London 10 Tokyo 0 Jakarta Million Milyon 0,0% 0,5% 1,0% 1,5% 2,0% 2,5% 2G 3G 22

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26 HUMOR PRESS Humor publishing is one of most successful publishing examples in the Turkish press history. Diyojen, which appeared on publishing scene in 1870 and teamed up with prominent figures including Namık Kemal, Ebuziya Tevfik and Ali Bey, is the first political humor newspaper of the country. Since then, thousands of periodicals, newspapers and cartoons have been published, mirroring the Turkish humor. Akbaba, Marko Paşa, Karakedi, Taş, Dolmuş, Gırgır, Fırt, Ustura, Leman, Penguen and Uykusuz are the most important humor magazines. In Turkey, humor magazine publishing owes its present popularity to the cartoonist Oğuz Aral who is founder and chief editor of Gırgır. He made Gırgır the third largest magazine of the world by circulation over 500 thousand. Following Gırgır with a large readership especially among the youth, number of humor journals proliferated. According to 2012 data, Uykusuz and Penguen are two top-selling humor journals. Current humor publishing is carried out with weekly humor magazines rather than the cartoon pages of daily newspapers. Graphic-15 Average Sales of Humor Magazines Source: Dogan Distribution Inc., Graphic-16 Distribution of Total Sale of Humor Magazines Source: Dogan Distribution Inc., 2012 UYKUSUZ ; %42 PENGUEN ; %35 LEMAN ; %12 GIRGIR ; %6 L-MANYAK ; %2 BAYAN YANI ; %1 LM ÖZEL ; %1 64 MİZAH DERGİSİ ; %0,5 DİĞER ; %1 24

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28 TV SERIES In recent years Turkish TV channels have made big progress in content producing, while previously having relied on almost all the program formats including serials, game and entertainment shows and movies in particular from outside. Furthermore, today this sector is well positioned to launch homemade TV productions with global competitiveness and nearly all of the Turkish TV channels can offer homemade production to their viewers. For the last few years, 80 or 100 new homemade productions have appeared on the scene annually. Production quality has moved Turkish serials to the international markets. Today Turkey is among the most important content-production centers. Turkish serials became famous in the world ranging from Middle East to Balkans and South America. As Turkish serials have gained popularity in those countries where they are featured on TV, demand for them has increased day by day and Turkish artists gained ground in being a world star as well. For instance, the last episode of Gümüş, a serial which is shown as among the most popular ones, was watched by 84 million people across the Middle East. According to the data given by Ministry of Culture and Tourism, Turkey exported totally 10,500 hours of serials and contents to many countries across in the Middle East, Africa and the Balkans by the end of Thanks to this exportation, the yield was over 60 million USD. EXPORTED TV SERIES Europe and the Balkans Annem Arka Sokaklar Aşk-ı Memnu Benden Baba Olmaz Bir Bulut Olsam Bütün Çocuklarım Çemberimde Gül Oya Elveda Derken Fatmagül ün Suçu Ne? Fırtına Geniş Zamanlar Hanımın Çiftliği Haziran Gecesi İki Aile Kampusistan Kavak Yelleri Kaybolan Yıllar Keşanlı Ali Destanı Kınalı Kar Kuzey Güney Küçük Sırlar Menekşe ile Halil Öyle Bir Geçer Zaman ki Sonbahar Türkan Vazgeç Gönlüm Middle East and North Africa Annem Aşk-ı Memnu Azad Berivan Bir Bulut Olsam Bütün Çocuklarım Düğün Şarkıcısı Fatmagül ün Suçu Ne? Genco Hanımın Çiftliği Haziran Gecesi Kod Adı Kuzey Güney Küçük Kadınlar Küçük Sırlar Öyle Bir Geçer Zaman Ki Sonbahar Türkan Unutabilsem Yılan Hikayesi Yol Arkadaşım South America Kurtlar Vadisi Central Asia Annem Arka Sokaklar Asi Aşk-ı Memnu Berivan Bir Bulut Olsam Bütün Çocuklarım Candan Öte Çemberimde Gül Oya Elveda Derken Fatmagül ün Suçu Ne? Fırtına Gece Gündüz Genco Geniş Zamanlar Gümüş Hanımın Çiftliği Haziran Gecesi Ihlamurlar Altında İki Aile Kavak Yelleri Kuzey Güney Küçük Kadınlar Menekşe ile Halil Öyle Bir Geçer Zaman Ki Sağır Oda Sonbahar Vazgeç Gönlüm Yaprak Dökümü Yılan Hikayesi Yol Arkadaşım Zoraki Koca 26

29 Gümüş, D Yapım Ezel, Ay Yapım Muhteşem Yüzyıl, Tims Yapım Kurtlar Vadisi Pusu, Pana Film Yaprak Dökümü, Ay Yapım 27

30 AUDIO-VISUAL MEDIA STATISTICS According to the 2012 records of RTUK, there are 248 private TV channels in total of which 24 are nationwide, 15 are regional and 209 are local and this number amounts to 263 with 15 TRT channels. Besides these broadcasts there are 93 cable and 193 satellite TV channels. Graphic-17 Distribution of TV Channels by Coverage Local 81 % Regional 6 % Nationwide 13 % Graphic-18 Distribution of TV Channels by Broadcasting Modes Terrestial 48 % Cable 17 % Satellite 35 % Audio Broadcasting involves 38 nationwide, 98 regional and 922 local private radio stations other than 62 satellite radio broadcasters. In addition TRT has 16 stations in total. Graphic-19 Distribution of Radio Stations by Broadcasting Modes Local 86 % Regional 10 % Nationwide 4 % Graphic-20 Distribution of Radio Stations by Coverage Terrestial 95 % Satellite 5 % In Turkey, both public and private radio-television corporations broadcast via cable infrastructure operated by Türksat Inc. which has a monopoly in cablecasting. Additionally, there are two digital broadcasting platforms, namely Digiturk (Cukurova Group) and D-Smart (Dogan Group). Digiturk has nearly 3 million subscribers, while D-Smart has 1 million 700 thousand subscribers. 28

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32 PRINTED MEDIA STATISTICS According to the 2011 data, 6,778 newspapers and magazines are published in our country in total, of which 3,873 (57 %) are magazines, 2,905 are newspapers (42 %). *Compiled from the TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute) Print Media Statistics 2011 Newspapers Magazines TOTAL Local Regional National TOTAL Graphic-21 Distribution of Distribution Areas Local 59 % Regional 5 % National 36 % Graphic-22 Distribution of Broadcasting Mode by Number Newspapers 43 % Magazines 57 % Annual circulation of newspapers and magazines is 2,265,538,153 of which 94 % is constituted by newspapers in 2011 when total circulation is shared by 17,4 % regional, 2 % nationwide and 80,6 % nationwide newspapers and magazines. *Compiled from the TUIK (Turkish Statistical Institute) Print Media Statistics 2011 Newspapers Magazines TOTAL Local Regional National TOTAL Graphic-23 Distribution of Distribution Areas Local 17 % Regional 2 % National 81 % Graphic-24 Distribution of Publication Type Newspapers 94 % Magazines 6 % 30

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34 MEDIA GROUPS AND MEDIA ORGANS TURKISH RADIO AND TELEVISION CORPORATION (TRT) Established in

35 Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) with an autonomous statute was founded to conduct public broadcasting by a Law on the Establishment of Radio and Television Enterprises and their Broadcasts (Law No. 6112) on 1 May, In the early 1990s TRT remained as the sole broadcaster until the first private TV and radio channels launched on the broadcasting venture. Today TRT reaches out to a large number of people both at home and abroad and render broadcasting services in 35 languages and dialects with 15 TV channels, 15 radio stations, websites trt.net.tr and trt-world.com, teletext broadcasts and the magazines, TeleVİZYON, TRT Çocuk and Pepee. This trailblazer public broadcaster materialized Kurdish broadcast TRT-6, which was previously banned. Since its establishment TRT-6 has distinguished itself by its 24 hours streaming filled with news and entertainment contents. The other striking channel is TRT-Arabic which was launched to meet demands of Arabic speaking people in Turkey as well as concerns of Middle Eastern and North African countries and is on air for 24 hours with news and entertainment coverage. TRT, having the largest news network, is recently preparing for an English language channel. TV CHANNELS NAME OF CORPORATION FOUNDATION DATE CONTENT MEDIUM SLOGAN WEB PORTAL TRT General Satellite, Cable, Terrestial Number one channel of Turkey TRT 1 HD 2012 General Satellite, Digital, IPTV - TRT HABER 2010 News Satellite, Cable, Terrestial TRT News is everywhere TRT SPOR 1989 Sports Satellite, Cable, Terrestial New star of the arena TRT ÇOCUK 2008 Children Satellite, Cable, Terrestial My style, my television TRT OKUL 2011 Education Satellite, Cable, Terrestial Life-long education TRT AVAZ 2009 General Satellite, Cable Voice of common geography TRT TÜRK 2009 General Satellite, Cable, Terrestial Watch the world in Turkish TRT HD 2010 General Satellite, Cable, Terrestial Clarity is everything TRT ARAPÇA 2010 General Satellite, Cable, Terrestial TRT MÜZİK 2009 Music Satellite, Cable, Terrestial Everything about music TRT BELGESEL 2009 Documentary Satellite, Cable, Terrestial Are you ready to witness? TRT ŞEŞ 2009 General Satellite, Cable TRT ANADOLU 2009 General Satellite, Cable, Terrestial One screen hundred screens TRT GAP RADIOS NAME OF CORPORATION FOUNDATION DATE CONTENT MEDIUM SLOGAN WEB PORTAL TRT RADYO /1987 General Satellite-Internet - TRT FM (RADYO 2) - Music Satellite-Internet Radio that closes the distance TRT RADYO 3 - Music, News Satellite-Internet Epitome of quality in music TRT RADYO 4 - Music, News Satellite-Internet Where the longing ends TRT TÜRKÜ 2009 Music Satellite-Internet - TRT NAĞME 2009 Music Satellite-Internet - TRT RADYO HABER - News Satellite-Internet - ANTALYA RADYOSU 1962 Music, News - - DİYARBAKIR RADYOSU 1964 Music, News - - ÇUKUROVA RADYOSU 1968 Music, News - - ERZURUM RADYOSU 1960 Music, Folklore - - TRABZON RADYOSU 1968 Music, News - - ANTALYA RADYOSU RADYO Music, News - - TRT AVRUPA FM 2010 General - One more woice from Turkey TÜRKİYE'NİN SESİ RADYOSU MAGAZINES NAME OF CORPORATION CONTENT WEB PORTAL VİZYON DERGİSİ News, Actuality - TRT ÇOCUK DERGİSİ - - PEPEE DERGİSİ Children 33

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