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1 Steady Heat Conduction In thermodynamics, we considered the amount of heat transfer as a system undergoes a process from one equilibrium state to another. hermodynamics gives no indication of how long the process takes. In heat transfer, we are more concerned about the rate of heat transfer. he basic requirement for heat transfer is the presence of a temperature difference. he temperature difference is the driving force for heat transfer, just as voltage difference for electrical current. he amount of heat transfer during a time interval can be determined from: t 0 dt he rate of heat transfer per unit area is called heat flux, and the average heat flux on a surface is expressed as q Steady Heat Conduction in Plane Walls W / m Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as result of interactions between the particles. Consider steady conduction through a large plane wall of thickness Δx = and surface area. he temperature difference across the wall is Δ =. Note that heat transfer is the only energy interaction; the energy balance for the wall can be expressed: For steady state operation, in in out out de dt kj wall const. It has been experimentally observed that the rate of heat conduction through a layer is proportional to the temperature difference across the layer and the heat transfer area, but it is inversely proportional to the thickness of the layer. (surface area)(temperature difference) rate of heat transfer thickness Cond k x W M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer

2 Δx Fig. : Heat conduction through a large plane wall. he constant proportionality k is the thermal conductivity of the material. In the limiting case where Δx 0, the equation above reduces to the differential form: Cond k which is called Fourier s law of heat conduction. he term d/dx is called the temperature gradient, which is the slope of the temperature curve (the rate of change of temperature with length x). hermal Conductivity hermal conductivity k [W/mK] is a measure of a material s ability to conduct heat. he thermal conductivity is deed as the rate of heat transfer through a unit thickness of material per unit area per unit temperature difference. hermal conductivity changes with temperature and is determined through experiments. he thermal conductivity of certain materials show a dramatic change at temperatures near absolute zero, when these solids become superconductors. n isotropic material is a material that has uniform properties in all directions. Insulators are materials used primarily to provide resistance to heat flow. hey have low thermal conductivity. d dx W M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer

4 h, 3 k k h,, / h, conv, conv, 3, / k / k / h 3 3,, wall, wall, wall, wall, conv, conv, Note that is constant area for a plane wall. lso note that the thermal resistances are in series and equivalent resistance is determined by simply adding thermal resistances., 3 4, h k k 3 h, Fig. : hermal resistance network. he rate of heat transfer between two surfaces is equal to the temperature difference divided by the thermal resistance between two surfaces. It can be written: Δ = he thermal resistance concept is widely used in practice; however, its use is limited to systems through which the rate of heat transfer remains constant. It other words, to systems involving steady heat transfer with no heat generation. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer 4

5 hermal esistances in Parallel he thermal resistance concept can be used to solve steady state heat transfer problem in parallel layers or combined series parallel arrangements. It should be noted that these problems are often two or three dimensional, but approximate solutions can be obtained by assuming one dimensional heat transfer (using thermal resistance network). k k = + Insulation Fig. 3: Parallel resistances. Example : hermal esistance Network Consider the combined series parallel arrangement shown in figure below. ssuming one dimensional heat transfer, determine the rate of heat transfer. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer 5

6 k k 3 3 h, k Insulation 3 3 conv Fig. 4: Schematic for example. Solution: he rate of heat transfer through this composite system can be expressed as: 3 conv wo approximations commonly used in solving complex multi dimensional heat transfer problems by transfer problems by treating them as one dimensional, using the thermal resistance network: ssume any plane wall normal to the x axis to be isothermal, i.e. temperature to vary in one direction only = (x) ssume any plane parallel to the x axis to be adiabatic, i.e. heat transfer occurs in the x direction only. hese two assumptions result in different networks (different results). he actual result lies between these two results. Heat Conduction in Cylinders and Spheres Steady state heat transfer through pipes is in the normal direction to the wall surface (no significant heat transfer occurs in other directions). herefore, the heat transfer can be 3 conv M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer 6

7 modeled as steady state and one dimensional, and the temperature of the pipe will depend only on the radial direction, = (r). Since, there is no heat generation in the layer and thermal conductivity is constant, the Fourier law becomes: cond, cyl k r d dr ( W ) r cond,cyl r Fig. 5: Steady, one dimensional heat conduction in a cylindrical layer. fter integration: r r cyl cond, cyl cond, cyl cond, cyl dr k ln r / r cyl ln r / r k kd r where cyl is the conduction resistance of the cylinder layer. Following the analysis above, the conduction resistance for the spherical layer can be found: M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer 7

8 cond, sph sph sph r r 4 r r k he convection resistance remains the same in both cylindrical and spherical coordinates, conv = /h. However, note that the surface area = πr (cylindrical) and = 4πr (spherical) are functions of radius. Example : Multilayer cylindrical thermal resistance network Steam at, = 30 C flows in a cast iron pipe [k = 80 W/ m. C] whose inner and outer diameter are D = 5 cm and D = 5.5 cm, respectively. he pipe is covered with a 3 cmthick glass wool insulation [k = 0.05 W/ m. C]. Heat is lost to the surroundings at, = 5 C by natural convection and radiation, with a combined heat transfer coefficient of h = 8 W/m. C. aking the heat transfer coefficient inside the pipe to be h = 60 W/m K, determine the rate of heat loss from the steam per unit length of the pipe. lso determine the temperature drop across the pipe shell and the insulation. ssumptions: Steady state and one dimensional heat transfer. Solution: aking = m, the areas of the surfaces exposed to convection are: = πr = 0.57 m = πr = 0.36 m conv, h 60 W / m. C0.57m conv, pipe insulation h ln r / r k conv, ln r3 / r k C / W.35 C / W C / W conv,.6 C / W 0.06 C / W M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer 8

9 r 3 3 cond,cyl r r r h,, h,, Insulation 3 conv, conv,,, Fig. 6: Schematic for example. he steady state rate of heat loss from the steam becomes,, 0.7 W (per m pipe length) he heat loss for a given length can be determined by multiplying the above quantity by the pipe length. he temperature drop across the pipe and the insulation are: pipe insulation pipe 0.7 W C / W 0.0 C 0.7 W.35 C / W 84 C insulation Note that the temperature difference (thermal resistance) across the pipe is too small relative to other resistances and can be ignored. Critical adius of Insulation o insulate a plane wall, the thicker the insulator, the lower the heat transfer rate (since the area is constant). However, for cylindrical pipes or spherical shells, adding insulation results in increasing the surface area which in turns results in increasing the convection heat transfer. s a result of these two competing trends the heat transfer may increase or decrease. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer 9

10 ins conv lnr / r k r h k r h r Insulation critical r critical = k / h bare r r critical r Fig. 7: Critical radius of insulation. he variation of with the outer radius of the insulation reaches a maximum that can be determined from d / dr = 0. he value of the critical radius for the cylindrical pipes and spherical shells are: r cr, cylinder r cr, spherer k h k h Note that for most applications, the critical radius is so small. hus, we can insulate hot water or steam pipes without worrying about the possibility of increasing the heat transfer by insulating the pipe. ( m) ( m) M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer 0

11 Heat Generation in Solids Conversion of some form of energy into heat energy in a medium is called heat generation. Heat generation leads to a temperature rise throughout the medium. Some examples of heat generation are resistance heating in wires, exothermic chemical reactions in solids, and nuclear reaction. Heat generation is usually expressed per unit volume (W/m 3 ). In most applications, we are interested in maximum temperature max and surface temperature s of solids which are involved with heat generation. he maximum temperature max in a solid that involves uniform heat generation will occur at a location furthest away from the outer surface when the outer surface is maintained at a constant temperature, s. max Δ max s s Heat generation Symmetry line Fig. 8: Maximum temperature with heat generation. Consider a solid medium of surface area, volume V, and constant thermal conductivity k, where heat is generated at a constant rate of g per unit volume. Heat is transferred from the solid to the surroundings medium at. Under steady conditions, the energy balance for the solid can be expressed as: rate of heat transfer from the solid = rate of energy generation within the solid = g V (W) From the Newton s law of cooling, = h ( s ). Combining these equations, relationship for the surface temperature can be found: s g V h a M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer

12 Using the above relationship, the surface temperature can be calculated for a plane wall of thickness, a long cylinder of radius r 0, and a sphere of radius r 0, as follows: s,plane wall s,cylinder s,sphere g h g r0 h g r0 3h Note that the rise in temperature is due to heat generation. Using the Fourier s law, we can derive a relationship for the center (maximum) temperature of long cylinder of radius r 0. d kr g Vr dr fter integrating, max 0 s g r 4k r 0 r V r r where 0 is the centerline temperature of the cylinder ( max ). Using the approach, the maximum temperature can be found for plane walls and spheres. max,cylinder max,plane wall max,sphere Heat ransfer from Finned Surfaces g r0 4k g k g r0 6k From the Newton s law of cooling, conv = h ( s ), the rate of convective heat transfer from a surface at a temperature s can be increased by two methods: ) Increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient, h ) Increasing the surface area. Increasing the convective heat transfer coefficient may not be practical and/or adequate. n increase in surface area by attaching extended surfaces called s to the surface is more convenient. Finned surfaces are commonly used in practice to enhance heat transfer. In the analysis of the s, we consider steady operation with no heat generation in the. We also assume that the convection heat transfer coefficient h to be constant and uniform over the entire surface of the. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer

13 h, b b Fig. 9: emperature of a drops gradually along the. In the limiting case of zero thermal resistance (k ), the temperature of the will be uniform at the base value of b. he heat transfer from the will be maximized in this case: Fin efficiency can be deed as:,max 0 x, max h b actual heat transfer rate from the ideal heat transfer rate from the (if the entire were at base temperature) where is surface area of the. his enables us to determine the heat transfer from a when its efficiency is known:, max h Fin efficiency for various profiles can be read from Fig. 0 4, 0 43 in Cengel s book. he following must be noted for a proper selection: the longer the, the larger the heat transfer area and thus the higher the rate of heat transfer from the the larger the, the bigger the mass, the higher the price, and larger the fluid friction b M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer 3

14 also, the efficiency decreases with increasing length because of the decrease in temperature with length. Fin Effectiveness he performance of s is judged on the basis of the enhancement in heat transfer relative to the no case, and expressed in terms of the effectiveness: no h b heat transfer rate from the heat transfer rate from the surface area of b b acts as insulation does not affect heat transfer enhances heat transfer For a sufficiently long of uniform cross section c, the temperature at the tip of the will approach the environment temperature,. By writing energy balance and solving the differential equation, one ds: x b long exp x hpk where c is the cross sectional area, x is the distance from the base, and p is perimeter. he effectiveness becomes: c b hp k c long kp h c o increase effectiveness, one can conclude: the thermal conductivity of the material must be as high as possible the ratio of perimeter to the cross sectional area p/ c should be as high as possible the use of is most effective in applications that involve low convection heat transfer coefficient, i.e. natural convection. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat ransfer 4

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