Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

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1 Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a. nonmetals. c. active metals. b. semimetals. d. inactive metals. 2. Aqueous solutions of acids a. contain only two different elements. c. have very high boiling points. b. carry electricity. d. cannot be prepared. 3. Bases taste a. soapy. c. sweet. b. sour. d. bitter. 4. Bases react with a. acids to produce salts and water. c. water to produce acids and salts. b. salts to produce acids and water. d. neither acids, salts, nor water. 5. Aqueous solutions of bases a. contain only two different elements. c. have very high boiling points. b. carry electricity. d. cannot be prepared. 6. Which of the following is a binary acid? a. H 2 SO 4 c. HBr b. CH 3 COOH d. NaOH 7. The name of a binary acid a. has no prefix. c. ends with the suffix -ous. b. begins with the prefix bi-. d. begins with the prefix hydro-. 8. An oxyacid contains a. oxygen and hydrogen only. b. oxygen, hydrogen, and one other element. c. oxygen, hydrogen, and two other elements. d. oxygen and an element other than hydrogen. 9. Which of the following is perchloric acid? a. HClO c. HClO 3 b. HClO 2 d. HClO Which of the following is chlorous acid? a. HClO c. HClO 3 b. HClO 2 d. HClO Which of the following is chloric acid? a. HClO c. HClO 3 b. HClO 2 d. HClO 4 1

2 Name: 12. An acid ending with the suffix -ic produces an anion with the a. suffix -ate. c. prefix hydro-. b. suffix -ite. d. suffix -ous. 13. Which acid is produced in the stomach? a. hydrochloric acid c. nitric acid b. phosphoric acid d. sulfuric acid 14. The traditional definition of acids is based on the observations of a. Brønsted and Lowry. c. Arrhenius. b. Lewis. d. Mendeleev. 15. An Arrhenius acid contains a. hydrogen that does not ionize. b. hydrogen that ionizes to form hydrogen ions. c. oxygen that ionizes to form hydroxide ions. d. oxygen that ionizes to form oxygen ions. 16. Arrhenius theorized that an acid is a chemical compound that a. increases the concentration of hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. b. increases the concentration of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. c. decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. d. decreases the concentration of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. 17. Arrhenius theorized that a base is a chemical compound that a. increases the concentration of hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. b. increases the concentration of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. c. decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. d. decreases the concentration of hydroxide ions when dissolved in water. 18. Which of the following is not a strong acid? a. HNO 3 c. H 2 SO 4 b. CH 3 COOH d. HCl 19. Which of the following is a strong acid? a. HSO 4 c. CH 3 COOH b. H 2 SO 4 d. H 3 PO In water, hydroxides of Group 2 metals a. are all strong bases. c. are all acids. b. are all weak bases. d. are nonelectrolytes. 21. Which of the following is a weak base? a. NH 3 c. NaOH b. KOH d. Ba(OH) Many organic compounds, such as codeine, that contain nitrogen are a. strong bases. c. strong acids. b. weak bases. d. weak acids. 2

3 Name: 23. Which of the following is a diprotic acid? a. H 2 SO 4 c. HCl b. CH 3 COOH d. H 3 PO Whose definition of acids and bases emphasizes the role of protons? a. Brønsted and Lowry c. Arrhenius b. Lewis d. Bohr 25. A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a(n) a. electron-pair acceptor. c. proton acceptor. b. electron-pair donor. d. proton donor. 26. A Lewis acid is a. an electron-pair acceptor. c. a proton acceptor. b. an electron-pair donor. d. a proton donor. 27. Whose acid definition is the broadest? a. Arrhenius c. Brønsted-Lowry b. Lewis d. Faraday 28. A Lewis base is a(n) a. producer of OH ions. c. electron-pair donor. b. proton acceptor. d. electron-pair acceptor. 29. An electron-pair donor is a a. Arrhenius acid. c. Brønsted-Lowry base. b. Brønsted-Lowry acid. d. Lewis base. 30. A base is weak if its tendency to a. attract a proton is great. c. donate a proton is great. b. attract a proton is slight. d. donate a proton is slight. 31. An amphoteric species is one that reacts as a(n) a. acid only. c. acid or base. b. base only. d. None of the above 32. A species that can react as either an acid or a base is a(n) a. Lewis acid. c. oxyacid. b. amphoteric substance. d. salt. 33. The substances produced when KOH(aq) neutralizes HCl(aq) are a. HClO(aq) and KH(aq). c. H 2 O(l) and KCl(aq). b. KH 2 O + (aq) and Cl (aq). d. H 3 O + (aq) and KCl(aq). 34. A salt is not a. an ionic compound composed of a metal cation from a base. b. an ionic compound composed of an anion from an acid. c. a product of neutralization. d. a proton donor. 3

4 Name: 35. Which of the following is not a reactant in a neutralization reaction? a. H 3 O + ion b. OH ion c. an acid and a base in an aqueous solution d. a salt 36. Which compound is produced by a neutralization? a. H 2 O(l) c. Ca(OH) 2 (s) b. HNO 3 (aq) d. H 3 PO 4 (aq) 37. Which of the following gases does not dissolve in atmospheric water to produce acidic solutions? a. NO c. O 2 b. NO 2 d. CO Why is freezing-point depression a colligative property? a. It is inversely proportional to the molal concentration of a solution. b. It is directly proportional to the molal concentration of a solution. c. It does not depend on a molal freezing-point constant for each solvent. d. It depends on the properties of an electrolyte in a solvent. 39. Why is boiling-point elevation a colligative property? a. It is inversely proportional to the molal concentration of a solution. b. It is directly proportional to the molal concentration of a solution. c. It does not depend on a molal boiling-point constant for each solvent. d. It is independent of changes in vapor pressure. 40. A water solution containing an unknown quantity of a nonelectrolyte solute has a freezing point of 0.21 C. What is the molal concentration of the solution if K f = 1.86 C/m? a m c m b m d m 41. A water solution containing an unknown quantity of a nonelectrolyte solute has a freezing point of C. What is the molal concentration of the solution if K f = 1.86 C/m? a m c m b m d m 42. What is the approximate freezing-point depression of a m aqueous NaBr solution? K f = 1.86 C/m. a C c C b C d C 43. What is the approximate freezing-point depression of a m aqueous CaCl 2 solution? K f = 1.86 C/m. a C c C b C d C 44. What is the approximate freezing-point depression of a m aqueous FeCl 3 solution? K f = 1.86 C/m. a C c C b C d C 4

5 Name: 45. What is the approximate freezing-point depression of a m aqueous Na 2 SO 4 solution? K f = 1.86 C/m. a C c C b C d C 46. What is the actual freezing-point depression of a m aqueous NaCl solution? K f = 1.86 C/m. a. slightly less than C c. slightly more than C b. exactly C d. exactly 0 C 47. Actual freezing-point depressions of electrolyte solutions are slightly lower than the calculated values because of a. ion repulsion. b. more complete ionization than is expected. c. ion attraction. d. higher-than-expected effective concentration. 48. Compared with a 0.01 m sugar solution, a 0.01 m KCl solution has a. the same freezing-point depression. b. about twice the freezing-point depression. c. the same freezing-point elevation. d. about six times the freezing-point elevation. 49. Compared with a 0.01 m sugar solution, a 0.01 m MgCl 2 solution has a. the same freezing-point depression. b. about twice the freezing-point depression. c. about three times the freezing-point depression. d. about four times the freezing-point depression. 50. Compared with a 0.01 m sugar solution, a 0.01 m KCl solution has a. the same boiling-point elevation. b. roughly twice the boiling-point elevation. c. the same boiling-point depression. d. about half the boiling-point depression. 51. Compared with the freezing-point depression of a 0.01 m sugar solution, the freezing-point depression of 0.01 m HCl solution is a. exactly the same. c. exactly twice as great. b. slightly lower. d. almost twice as great. 52. Electrolytes have a greater effect on freezing-point depression than nonelectrolytes because electrolytes a. have lower freezing points. b. are volatile. c. produce more moles of solute per mole of solvent. d. are attracted to one another in solution. 5

6 Name: 53. Compared with the actual freezing-point depression for a solution of an electrolyte that dissociates into a 2+ and a 2 ion, the freezing-point depression for an equally concentrated solution of an electrolyte that dissociates into a 1+ and a 1 ion is likely to be a. lower. c. greater. b. the same. d. Not possible to tell with data provided Short Answer 54. What determines the behavior of an amphoteric compound? 55. Explain how industrial processes create acid rain. 56. Use the following equation to explain acid rain: SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(l) H 2 SO 4 (aq) Essay 57. Is the reaction to the left or the reaction to the right more favorable in the following reaction? Explain your answer in terms of acid and base strengths. CH 3 COOH(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + CH 3 COO (aq) Problem 58. Calculate the boiling-point elevation of a solution made from 15.0 g of a nonelectrolyte solute and g of water. The molar mass of the solute is 50.0 g and K b =0.51 C/m g of a nonelectrolyte is dissolved in 1.00 kg of water. The boiling point of the solution is then measured to be C. What is the molar mass of the compound? The K b for water is 0.51 C/m. 60. Consider a solution of 50g KCl, a strong electrolyte, dissolved in 1.5 kg of water. a. Determine the expected freezing point of the solution. The molar mass of KCl is g and K f = 1.86 C/m. b. Would the actual freezing point be higher or lower than your calculated value? Why? 61. What concentration of ethylene glycol is needed to raise the boiling point of water to 105 C? (K b =0.51 C/m) 62. The freezing point of an aqueous solution that contains a nonelectrolyte is 4.0 C. What is the molal concentration of the solution? (K f = 1.86 C/m) 6

7 Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 2. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 3. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 4. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 5. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 6. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: 1 7. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 8. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 9. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 OBJ: 5 1

8 22. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: 1 OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: 2 2

9 45. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 2 OBJ: 4 SHORT ANSWER 54. ANS: The behavior of an amphoteric substance is determined by the strength of the acid or base with which it is reacting. PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: Industrial processes produce compounds that dissolve in the atmospheric water in clouds. This creates acidic solutions that fall to the ground in rain or snow. PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: ANS: Sulfur trioxide gas is produced in industrial processes and released into the atmosphere. It dissolves in atmospheric water in clouds and produces sulfuric acid, which falls to the earth as acid rain or snow. PTS: 1 DIF: II REF: 3 ESSAY 57. ANS: The reaction to the left is more favorable. The H 3 O + ion is a stronger acid than the CH 3 COOH molecule and can donate its proton much more easily. The CH 3 COO ion is a stronger base than the H 2 O molecule and will attract a donated proton much more easily. PTS: 1 DIF: I REF: 3 3

10 PROBLEM 58. ANS: T = 0.61 C Solution: 15.0 g 1 mol = mol 50.0 g m = mol kg mol kg = 1.20m 1.20 m 0.51 C m C = 0.61 C PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: ANS: 68.0g Solution: 1.5 C 1 m 0.51 C = 2.94 m m = mol kg mol kg 200. g = mol 1.00 kg = mol 200. g = 68.0 g/mol mol PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: 2 4

11 60. ANS: a C Solution: 1 mol KCl 0 g KCl = molkcl g KCl m = mol KCl kg mol 1.5 kg = mol KCl kg mol kg 2 molions 1.86 C kg = 1.66 C 1 mol KCl mol ions b. It would be higher (i.e., the magnitude of the freezing-point depression would be less) because the attraction between the K + and Cl ions in solution would lower the effective concentration. PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: ANS: 9.8 m Solution: 5 C 1 m 0.51 C = m = 9.8 m PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: ANS: 2.15 m PTS: 1 DIF: III REF: 2 5

12 Chapter Practice Exam [Answer Strip] _ A 12. _ A 23. _ D 35. _ B 45. _ C 1. _ A 13. _ A 24. _ A 36. _ A 46. _ C 14. _ D 25. _ B 2. _ C 37. _ C 47. _ B 15. _ A 26. _ D 3. _ B 38. _ B 27. _ A 4. _ A 16. _ B 48. _ C 28. _ B 39. _ B 5. _ B 17. _ D 29. _ C 49. _ C 6. _ B 30. _ A 40. _ D 7. _ B 18. _ B 50. _ C 31. _ C 41. _ B 8. _ B 19. _ B 32. _ D 42. _ D 51. _ D 9. _ B 10. _ A 20. _ A 21. _ C 33. _ D 34. _ C 43. _ C 52. _ C 11. _ B 22. _ D 44.

13 Chapter Practice Exam [Answer Strip] _ D 53.

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