# Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent"

Transcription

1 Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution: Strong electrolyte contains lots of freely moving ions Weak electrolyte contains a little amount of freely moving ions Nonelectrolyte does not contain ions Solution concentrations: Percent (by mass) = Mass of Solute Mass of Solution x 100% For example, if 1.00 kg of seawater contains 35 g of sodium chloride, the percent of NaCl in seawater is 35 g x 100% = 3.5% 1000 g If a solution contains 25 g NaCl dissolved in 100. g of water, the mass percent of NaCl in the solution is 25 g x 100% = 20.% ( ) g (A solution that contains 20.% (by mass) of NaCl means that for every 100 g of the solution, there will be 20 g of NaCl. Therefore, if seawater contains 3.5% NaCl, for every 100 g of seawater, there are 3.5 g of NaCl.) Percent (by volume) = Volume of Solute Volume of Solution x 100% For example, if 750 ml of white wine contains 80. ml of ethanol, the percent of ethanol by volume is 80. ml x 100% = 11% 750 ml (A solution that contains 11% ethanol (by volume) means that for every 100 ml of the solution, there will be 11 ml of ethanol in it. However, unlike mass, volume addition is not always additive meaning that if you add 11 ml of ethanol and 89 ml of water, the total is not 100 ml. In this case, the total volume is slightly larger than 100 ml. Therefore, in many mixtures, percent by volume is only an approximation.) 1

2 Molar concentration (Molarity) = Mole of Solute Liter of Solution For example, if a solution contains 0.25 mole of NaCl in 440 ml of the solution, the molar concentration of sodium chloride in this solution is 0.25 mole L of solution = 0.57 M (mol/l) If you dissolve 36.0 g of NaCl in 250. ml of solution, the molar concentration of NaCl will be 1 mole NaCl (36.0 g NaCl x ) L = 2.46 mol/l = 2.46 M g NaCl Exercises #1: 1. What types of particles are presents in an aqueous solution of: (a) strong electrolytes - (b) weak electrolytes - (c) nonelectrolyte 2. Which of these solutions will strongly conduct electric current? (a) H 2 SO 4 (aq) (b) BaCl 2 (aq) (c) CH 3 OH(aq) (d) NaOH(aq) (e) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) 3. Which of these solutions will not conduct electric current? (a) C 2 H 6 O 2 (aq) (b) NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) (c) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) (d) C 12 H 22 O 11 (aq) 4. Which of the following is/are weak electrolytes and will conduct electricity to some extent? (a) C 2 H 5 OH(aq) (b) HNO 2 (aq) (c) NH 3 (aq) (d) KOH(aq) (e) HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) 5. Write the formula of the particles (ions and/or molecules) found in aqueous solution of each of the following compounds and indicate whether the solution is a strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, or nonelectrolyte. (a) NH 4 Cl: (d) HNO 3 : (b) C 2 H 5 OH (ethanol): (c) C 6 H 12 O 6 (glucose): (f) HC 2 H 3 O 2 : (e) NaOH: 2

3 6. Write an equation for the dissociation of calcium nitrate, Ca(NO 3 ) 2 (a strong electrolyte), is aqueous solution. 7. Write an equation for the dissociation of acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2, a weak electrolyte), in aqueous solution. 8. Which of the following compounds will NOT form ions in aqueous solutions? (a) HNO 2 (b) C 2 H 6 O 2 (c) C 6 H 12 O 6 (d) Al(NO 3 ) 3 (e) C 3 H 7 OH 9. A solution of sodium chloride is prepared by dissolving 25.0 g of NaCl in 135 g of distilled water. Calculate the mass percent of NaCl in the solution. (Answer: 15.6%) 10. (a) If grams of potassium dichromate, K 2 Cr 2 O 7, are dissolved in 750. ml of aqueous solution, how many moles of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 is dissolved? (b) What is the molar concentration of potassium dichromate in the solution? (c) Potassium dichromate is an ionic compound that completely dissolves in water. Write an equation for the dissociation of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 in aqueous solution. (d) What is the molar concentration of the total ions in the solution? (e) How many moles of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 are present in 25.0 ml of this solution? (Answer: (a) mol; (b) M; (d) M; (e) 6.25 x 10 3 mol) 3

4 Exercises #2: Write balanced molecular equation (m.e.) total ionic equation (t.i.e.), and net ionic equation (n.i.e.) for each reaction described below. 1. When lead(ii) nitrate solution is reacted with potassium chromate solution, it yields a bright yellow precipitate of lead(ii) chromate and aqueous potassium nitrate solution. 2. A pale yellow precipitate of silver phosphate is formed when aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and sodium phosphate are mixed. 3. Aqueous calcium hydroxide solution reacts with nitric acid solution to form water and calcium nitrate solution. 4. When solid calcium carbonate is reacted with hydrochloric acid, it produces aqueous calcium chloride, water, and carbon dioxide gas. 5. When sulfuric acid is neutralized with barium hydroxide solution, the products are water and barium sulfate precipitate. 4

5 Exercises #3: 1. The molarity of ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) in some gasoline is 0.22 M. (a) Determine how many moles of ethanol are present in 1.00 gallon of gasoline. (1 gallon = L) (b) How many grams of ethanol are present in 1.00 gallon of gasoline? (c) How many gallons of gasoline contain 1.00 kg of ethanol? (Answer: (a) 0.83 mol; (b) 38 g; (c) 26 gallons) 2. How many moles of Al 3+ and SO 4 2- ions, respectively, are present in a 500- ml sample of M Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 solution? (Answer: mol Al 3+ and mol SO 4 2 ) 3. A 125-mL solution contains Ba 2+ ions of unknown concentration. If it requires 65.0 ml of M H 2 SO 4 to precipitate all of Ba 2+ as BaSO 4, determine the concentration of Ba 2+ ion in the solution. The net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction is (Answer: [Ba 2+ ] = M) Ba 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) BaSO 4 (s) 4. A vinegar sample was titrated with M NaOH solution to the end-point using phenolphthalein as indicator. It requires ml of the NaOH solution to completely neutralize the acetic acid in a ml vinegar sample. Determine the molar concentration of acetic acid in the vinegar. The reaction between acetic acid and sodium hydroxide is represented by the following equation. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + NaOH(aq) NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) (Answer: [HC 2 H 3 O 2 ] = M) 5. How many grams of calcium oxalate, CaC 2 O 4, are produced when 125 ml of M CaCl 2 solution is added to 75.0 ml of M Na 2 C 2 O 4 solution and the following reaction occurs? Na 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) + CaCl 2 (aq) CaC 2 O 4 (s) + 2NaCl(aq) (Answer: 2.40 g of CaC 2 O 4 ) 5

6 6. A g mineral sample is treated with concentrated nitric acid to dissolve the silver in the mineral sample. The dissolved silver is then precipitated as silver thiocyanate (AgSCN) by adding an excess amount of potassium thiocyanate solution. (a) Write the net ionic equation for the precipitation reaction. (b) If 3.42 g of AgSCN were precipitated, calculate the mass percent of silver in the mineral sample. (c) If the molar concentration of KSCN solution were M, what volume (in ml) is just enough to completely react with Ag + is the sample? (Answer: (b) 29.4% Ag; (c) 82.4 ml) 7. (a) Balance the following equation using the smallest integer coefficient. Fe(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) + KOH(aq) Fe(OH) 3 (s) + KNO 3 (aq) (b) How many grams of Fe(OH) 3 are produced when 25.0 ml of M Fe(NO 3 ) 3 and 50.0 ml of M KOH solutions are mixed and the following reaction occurs. (c) How many moles of the excess reactant remain in solution? (Answer: (b) g of Fe(OH) 3 ; (c) KOH in excess by mol) 8. Balance the following equation using the smallest integer coefficients. H 2 SO 4 (aq) + NaOH(aq) H 2 O(l) + Na 2 SO 4 (aq) (b) A 5.00 ml sample of an old battery acid containing H 2 SO 4 is diluted with de-ionized water in a 100- ml volumetric flask. A mL sample of the diluted is titrated with M NaOH solution, which requires ml of the base to reach the end-point. Calculate the molar concentrations of H 2 SO 4 (i) in dilute battery solution, and (ii) in undiluted battery acid solution. (Answer: (b) (i) M; (ii) 3.62 M) 6

7 Exercises #4: Redox Reactions 1. Determine the oxidation number (o.n.) of each atom in the following formula (compounds or polyatomic ions): (a) CaCO 3 : (d) KClO 3 : (b) Cr 2 O 7 2- : (d) MnO 4 - : (c) HNO 3 : 2. Determine whether each of the following reactions is a redox or non-redox? Explain. (a) CaCO 3 (s) CaO(s) + CO 2 (g) (b) 2 KClO 3 (s) 2 KCl(s) + 3 O 2 (g) (c) (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 (s) Cr 2 O 3 (s) + N 2 (g) + 4H 2 O(g) (d) 2KMnO 4 (aq) + 10FeSO 4 (aq) + 8H 2 SO 4 (aq) 2MnSO 4 (aq) + K 2 SO 4 (aq) + 5Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 (aq) + 8H 2 O(l) (e) CaO(s) + SO 2 (g) CaSO 3 (s) 3. Balance the following redox reactions under acidic condition using half-reaction method. In each case, identify the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the element being oxidized, and the element being reduced. (a) KMnO 4 (aq) + NaHSO 3 (aq) MnSO 4 (aq) + NaHSO 4 (aq) (b) Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) + H 2 O 2 (aq) Cr 3+ (aq) + H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) 4. Balanced the following redox reactions under basic condition. In each case, identify the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the element being oxidized, and the element being reduced. (a) Cr(OH) 4 (aq) + H2 O 2 (aq) CrO 4 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) (b) Br 2 (aq) + OH (aq) BrO 3 (aq) + Br (aq) + H2 O(l) 7

### Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

### Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY. Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution.

T-27 Tutorial 4 SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY Solution stoichiometry calculations involve chemical reactions taking place in solution. Of the various methods of expressing solution concentration the most convenient

### Molarity of Ions in Solution

APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

### stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

### Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

### Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

### Chemistry 51 Chapter 8 TYPES OF SOLUTIONS. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent.

TYPES OF SOLUTIONS A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two substances: a solute and a solvent. Solute: substance being dissolved; present in lesser amount. Solvent: substance doing the dissolving; present

### 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

### 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

### Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

### Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

### Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4)

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Chemical Equations 1. Balancing Chemical Equations (from Chapter 3) Adjust coefficients to get equal numbers of each kind of element on both sides of arrow.

### UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

### Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

### Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions

Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements

### Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Example Exercise 8.1 Evidence for a Reaction Which of the following is experimental evidence for a chemical reaction? (a) Pouring vinegar on baking soda gives foamy bubbles. (b) Mixing two solutions produces

### CHM1 Review for Exam 12

Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and

### Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

### 1/7/2013. Chapter 9. Chemical Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 9.

Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby 9 Reactions in Aqueous s Chapter 9 Chemical Reactions in Aqueous s Kent L. McCorkle Cosumnes River College Sacramento, CA Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill

### IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

### 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

### MOLARITY = (moles solute) / (vol.solution in liter units)

CHEM 101/105 Stoichiometry, as applied to Aqueous Solutions containing Ionic Solutes Lect-05 MOLES - a quantity of substance. Quantities of substances can be expressed as masses, as numbers, or as moles.

### Formulas, Equations and Moles

Chapter 3 Formulas, Equations and Moles Interpreting Chemical Equations You can interpret a balanced chemical equation in many ways. On a microscopic level, two molecules of H 2 react with one molecule

### Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

### HOMEWORK 4A. Definitions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Questions

HOMEWORK 4A Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Indicate whether a reaction will occur or not in each of following. Wtiring a balcnced equation is not necessary. (a) Magnesium metal is added to hydrochloric

### Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

### Stoichiometry. 1. The total number of moles represented by 20 grams of calcium carbonate is (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 0.1; (4) 0.2.

Stoichiometry 1 The total number of moles represented by 20 grams of calcium carbonate is (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 01; (4) 02 2 A 44 gram sample of a hydrate was heated until the water of hydration was driven

### IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

### Number of moles of solute = Concentration (mol. L ) x Volume of solution (litres) or n = C x V

44 CALCULATIONS INVOLVING SOLUTIONS INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS Many chemical reactions take place in aqueous (water) solution. Quantities of such solutions are measured as volumes, while the amounts

### Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

### Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction

Introduction Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical reactions occur all around us. How do we make sense of these changes? What patterns can we find? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

### Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction

Chemistry Ch 15 (Solutions) Study Guide Introduction Name: Note: a word marked (?) is a vocabulary word you should know the meaning of. A homogeneous (?) mixture, or, is a mixture in which the individual

### PART I: MULTIPLE CHOICE (30 multiple choice questions. Each multiple choice question is worth 2 points)

CHEMISTRY 123-07 Midterm #1 Answer key October 14, 2010 Statistics: Average: 74 p (74%); Highest: 97 p (95%); Lowest: 33 p (33%) Number of students performing at or above average: 67 (57%) Number of students

### Acid-Base Titrations. Setup for a Typical Titration. Titration 1

Titration 1 Acid-Base Titrations Molarities of acidic and basic solutions can be used to convert back and forth between moles of solutes and volumes of their solutions, but how are the molarities of these

### Unit 4 Conservation of Mass and Stoichiometry

9.1 Naming Ions I. Monatomic Ions A. Monatomic ions 1. Ions formed from a single atom Unit 4 Conservation of Mass and Stoichiometry B. Naming Monatomic Ions 1. Monatomic cations are a. Identified by the

### Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

### Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept

3 Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept Content 3.1 Symbols, Formulae and Chemical equations 3.2 Concept of Relative Mass 3.3 Mole Concept and Stoichiometry Learning Outcomes Candidates should be

### W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY

INTRODUCTION W1 WORKSHOP ON STOICHIOMETRY These notes and exercises are designed to introduce you to the basic concepts required to understand a chemical formula or equation. Relative atomic masses of

### 4.1 Aqueous Solutions. Chapter 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution. Electrolytes. Strong Electrolytes. Weak Electrolytes

Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution 4.1 Aqueous Solutions Solution homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances Solute the substance present in a smaller amount (usually solid in Chap. 4) Solvent the

### Liquid phase. Balance equation Moles A Stoic. coefficient. Aqueous phase

STOICHIOMETRY Objective The purpose of this exercise is to give you some practice on some Stoichiometry calculations. Discussion The molecular mass of a compound is the sum of the atomic masses of all

### Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

### Steps for balancing a chemical equation

The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation

### Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

### I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

### 6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical?

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must

### Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ

Experiment 5 Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. To observe the various criteria that are used to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. 2. To convert word equations into balanced inorganic chemical

### Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions.

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. A chemical equation is a concise shorthand expression which represents the relative amount of reactants and products involved in a chemical

### Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Student: 1. An atom of bromine has a mass about four times greater than that of an atom of neon. Which choice makes the correct comparison of the relative

### SAMPLE PROBLEM 8.1. Solutions of Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes SOLUTION STUDY CHECK

Solutions of Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes SAMPLE PROBLEM 8.1 Indicate whether solutions of each of the following contain only ions, only molecules, or mostly molecules and a few ions: a. Na 2 SO 4,

### Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

### Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 11 Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions An oxidation and reduction reaction occurs in both aqueous solutions and in reactions where substances are burned

### YIELD YIELD REACTANTS PRODUCTS

Balancing Chemical Equations A Chemical Equation: is a representation of a chemical reaction in terms of chemical formulas Example: 1. Word Description of a Chemical Reaction When methane gas (CH 4 ) burns

### Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Stoichiometry is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

### Aqueous Chemical Reactions

Name: Date: Lab Partners: Lab section: Aqueous Chemical Reactions The purpose of this lab is to introduce you to three major categories of reactions that occur in aqueous solutions: precipitation reactions,

### Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

### WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

### UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

### H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation.

CEMICAL REACTIONS 1 ydrogen + Oxygen Water 2 + O 2 2 O reactants product(s) reactant substance before chemical change product substance after chemical change Conservation of Mass During a chemical reaction,

### Chapter 3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry. Lecture Presentation. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT

Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions and Reaction James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT The study of the mass relationships in chemistry Based on the Law of Conservation of Mass

### Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium 1. What is the difference between the Arrhenius and the BronstedLowry definition of an acid? Arrhenious acids give H + in water BronstedLowry acids are proton

### CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH

1. Is H 3 O + polar or non-polar? (1 point) a) Polar b) Non-polar CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 2. The bond strength is considerably greater in HF than in the other three hydrogen halides

### Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

### NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

### SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

### Decomposition. Composition

Decomposition 1. Solid ammonium carbonate is heated. 2. Solid calcium carbonate is heated. 3. Solid calcium sulfite is heated in a vacuum. Composition 1. Barium oxide is added to distilled water. 2. Phosphorus

### Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry

Chemical Equations & Stoichiometry Chapter Goals Balance equations for simple chemical reactions. Perform stoichiometry calculations using balanced chemical equations. Understand the meaning of the term

### Stoichiometry Review

Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen

### CHEMISTRY II FINAL EXAM REVIEW

Name Period CHEMISTRY II FINAL EXAM REVIEW Final Exam: approximately 75 multiple choice questions Ch 12: Stoichiometry Ch 5 & 6: Electron Configurations & Periodic Properties Ch 7 & 8: Bonding Ch 14: Gas

### Chapter 4. Chemical Composition. Chapter 4 Topics H 2 S. 4.1 Mole Quantities. The Mole Scale. Molar Mass The Mass of 1 Mole

Chapter 4 Chemical Composition Chapter 4 Topics 1. Mole Quantities 2. Moles, Masses, and Particles 3. Determining Empirical Formulas 4. Chemical Composition of Solutions Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

### 4. Balanced chemical equations tell us in what molar ratios substances combine to form products, not in what mass proportions they combine.

CHAPTER 9 1. The coefficients of the balanced chemical equation for a reaction give the relative numbers of molecules of reactants and products that are involved in the reaction.. The coefficients of the

### Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes. Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole

Topic 4 National Chemistry Summary Notes Formulae, Equations, Balancing Equations and The Mole LI 1 The chemical formula of a covalent molecular compound tells us the number of atoms of each element present

### Balance the following equation: KClO 3 + C 12 H 22 O 11 KCl + CO 2 + H 2 O

Balance the following equation: KClO 3 + C 12 H 22 O 11 KCl + CO 2 + H 2 O Ans: 8 KClO 3 + C 12 H 22 O 11 8 KCl + 12 CO 2 + 11 H 2 O 3.2 Chemical Symbols at Different levels Chemical symbols represent

### NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: Write the formulas for the following compounds: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate 2. Manganese (IV) sulfide 3. Barium permanganate 4. Sulfuric acid 5. Silver (I) carbonate 6. Aluminum acetate

### Solubility Product Constant

Solubility Product Constant Page 1 In general, when ionic compounds dissolve in water, they go into solution as ions. When the solution becomes saturated with ions, that is, unable to hold any more, the

### CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6

CHEMICAL REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms in which some of the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed to give different chemical structures. In a chemical reaction,

### Chapter 5, Calculations and the Chemical Equation

1. How many iron atoms are present in one mole of iron? Ans. 6.02 1023 atoms 2. How many grams of sulfur are found in 0.150 mol of sulfur? [Use atomic weight: S, 32.06 amu] Ans. 4.81 g 3. How many moles

### EXPERIMENT 10 Chemistry 110. Solutions Part 2 ACIDS, BASES, AND ELECTROLYTES

EXPERIMENT 10 Chemistry 110 Solutions Part 2 ACIDS, BASES, AND ELECTROLYTES PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the properties of solutions of acids, bases and electrolytes. Students

### Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses B. Calculations of moles C. Calculations of number of atoms from moles/molar masses 1. Avagadro

### Writing Chemical Equations

Writing Chemical Equations Chemical equations for solution reactions can be written in three different forms; molecular l equations, complete ionic i equations, and net ionic equations. In class, so far,

### CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS Problems: 1-6, 9-13, 16, 20, 31-40, 43-64, 65 (a,b,c,e), 66(a-d,f), 69(a-d,f), 70(a-e), 71-78, 81-82, 87-96 A compound will display the same properties (e.g. melting

### Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

### Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

### Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole. The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects.

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Mole-Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Concept 1. The meaning and usefulness of the mole The mole (or mol) represents a certain number of objects. SI def.: the amount of

### Appendix D. Reaction Stoichiometry D.1 INTRODUCTION

Appendix D Reaction Stoichiometry D.1 INTRODUCTION In Appendix A, the stoichiometry of elements and compounds was presented. There, the relationships among grams, moles and number of atoms and molecules

### CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND REACTING MASSES AND VOLUMES

CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND REACTING MASSES AND VOLUMES The meaning of stoichiometric coefficients: 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(l) number of reacting particles 2 molecules of hydrogen react with 1 molecule

### Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

### Chapter 14 Solutions

Chapter 14 Solutions 1 14.1 General properties of solutions solution a system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance two components in a solution: solute

### Auto-ionization of Water

2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH Hydronium ion hydroxide ion Q: But how often does this happen? This is the fundamental concept of all acid-base chemistry In pure water, how much of it is water and how much is ions?

### Stoichiometry. 1. The total number of moles represented by 20 grams of calcium carbonate is (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 0.1; (4) 0.2.

Stoichiometry 1 The total number of moles represented by 20 grams of calcium carbonate is (1) 1; (2) 2; (3) 01; (4) 02 2 A 44 gram sample of a hydrate was heated until the water of hydration was driven

### Stoichiometry. Unit Outline

3 Stoichiometry Unit Outline 3.1 The Mole and Molar Mass 3.2 Stoichiometry and Compound Formulas 3.3 Stoichiometry and Chemical Reactions 3.4 Stoichiometry and Limiting Reactants 3.5 Chemical Analysis

### Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

### Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3-1 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry In This Chapter As you have learned in previous chapters, much of chemistry involves using macroscopic measurements to deduce what happens between atoms

### Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

9 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 9.1 a. δ O δ + δ + H H In a water molecule, the oxygen has a partial negative charge and the hydrogens have partial positive charges. b. δ δ + O H δ + δ + δ H H

### Chemistry 52. Reacts with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Have a slippery, soapy feeling. React with carbonates to produce CO 2

ACID AND BASE STRENGTH Experiment #2 PURPOSE: 1. To distinguish between acids, bases and neutral substances, by observing their effect on some common indicators. 2. To distinguish between strong and weak

### ph: Measurement and Uses

ph: Measurement and Uses One of the most important properties of aqueous solutions is the concentration of hydrogen ion. The concentration of H + (or H 3 O + ) affects the solubility of inorganic and organic

### Atomic Structure. Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells

Atomic Structure called nucleons Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells The number of protons equals the atomic number This

### Reactions in Aqueous Solution

CHAPTER 7 1. Water is the most universal of all liquids. Water has a relatively large heat capacity and a relatively large liquid range, which means it can absorb the heat liberated by many reactions while

### Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.