Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases"

Transcription

1 Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties Turns blue litmus red Turns red litmus blue Reacts with some metals => H 2 gas released - Denatures proteins React with carbonates => CO 2 released Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) in water Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Brønsted-Lowry Concept At the molecular level: Acids are proton (H + ) donors in aqueous solutions Hydrogen ions, H + aqua = water Bases are proton (H + ) acceptors in aqueous solutions Arrhenius base is a substance that produces OH - in water 1

2 An example of a Brønsted-Lowry Acid: Here s an example of a Brønsted-Lowry Base: H 3 O + is called a hydronium ion, and is how acids exist in water. Water here is acting as a base, even though we don t normally think of it that way. A hydroxide ion (OH - ) is produced. This is how bases are usually expressed in water. Notice that here the water is acting as an acid. When acids and bases react together, the result is a salt, plus water. Here are some examples: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O Hydrochloric sodium sodium water acid hydroxide chloride Polyprotic Acids & Bases Some acids have more than one hydrogen to donate; some bases can accept more than one hydrogen. They are polyprotic (more than one proton). HNO 3 + KOH KNO 3 + H 2 O Nitric potassium potassium water acid hydroxide nitrate 2HCl + Ca(OH) 2 CaCl 2 + H 2 O Hydrochloric calcium calcium water acid hydroxide chloride A salt is a soluble ionic compound. Other examples include H 2 CO 3, H 3 PO 4, citric acid, etc.. 2

3 Conjugate acids and bases In most acid base reactions, there is an equilibrium; all four components are present. (But not at equal concentrations). This is what happens when acetic acid (the acid in vinegar) dissolves in water. In this case, the equilibrium lies very strongly to the left. The equilibrium constant, K, is a very small number. In an equilibrium involving a weak acid or base, we call the acid & base on the right the conjugate acid and conjugate base. You can identify these by remembering the Brønsted-Lowry definition: acids donate protons (H + ), bases accept protons. So in the previous reaction: C 2 H 3 O 2 H + H 2 O C 2 H 3 O H 3 O + acid base conj. base conj. acid The pattern is always the same: you have all four components; an acid reacts with a base; the acid s partner on the other side is a base, and the base s partner is an acid. Acid-Base Properties of Water H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H O + H O H H 3 O + (aq) + OH- (aq) autoionization of water H base H O H + - H O [ ] + H conjugate acid H 2 O + H 2 O H 3 O + + OH - acid conjugate base At 25 C, [H 3 O + ] = 1.0 x 10-7 = [OH - ] The Equilibrium Expression for Water H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH- (aq) K - w = [H 3 O + ][OH ] K c = [H 3O + ][OH - ] [H 2 O] 2 [H 2 O] = constant The equilibrium constant for the ionization of water (K w ) is the product of the molar concentrations of H + and OH - ions at a particular temperature. At 25 C K w = [H 3 O + ][OH - ] = 1.0 x [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ] [H 3 O + ] > [OH - ] [H 3 O + ] < [OH - ] Solution Is neutral acidic basic See Problem

4 ph and the ph scale ph and the ph scale ph is a way to put a number on how acidic or basic a solution is. Mathematically, ph is found by: ph = -log [H 3 O + ] Since the ph scale is logarithmic, a change of one ph unit is a ten-fold increase (or decrease) in acid concentration. Example: A ph of 3 is ten times more acid than a ph of 4 and 1000 times more acid than a ph of 6. Since ph is a negative log, the lower the ph, the more acid it is. The ph scale usually runs from 0 to 14. Since [H 3 O + ] of pure water is 1.0 x 10-7, its ph is 7.0. When the ph is <7, there is more H 3 O + (the acid component), so the solution is acidic. When the ph is >7, there is more OH - (the base component). So the solution is basic. If you know the ph, then [H 3 O + ] = 10 -ph ph scale (cont.) The ph scale can be used to measure how acidic or basic many common substances are: Acidic Basic Calculating ph and poh ph = -log [H 3 O + ] So [H -ph 3 O + ] = 10 Similarly, poh = -log[oh - ], and [OH - ] = 10 -poh battery acid soda urine sea water household ammonia gastric juice blood baking rain soda drain cleaners (Drano, Liquid Plumr) Since K w = [H O + ][OH - 3 ], taking negative logs gives: ph + poh = See Review & Check,

5 Acids and bases can be strong or weak. When you dissolve HCl in water, there is (for all intents and purposes) no equilibrium; all you have is chloride ion and hydronium ion. Strong Acid 100% dissociation HCl (g) H 2 O H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) No equilibrium K is huge Weak Acid not completely dissociated CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO - (aq) + H + (aq) Equilibrium present K is < 1 This makes HCl a strong acid. There are only three common strong acids: HCl, HNO 3, and H 2 SO 4. All other acids are weak. ph of Strong Acids Strong Acids are strong electrolytes HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl- (aq) With strong acids, there is no equilibrium, all the acid is dissociated in water: HA H + + A - So the H + concentration is the same as the HA concentration, and ph can be found assuming all the HA is converted to H + and A - HNO 3(aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 - (aq) H 2 SO 4(aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + HSO 4 - (aq) Weak Acids are weak electrolytes HF (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + F- (aq) HNO 2(aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 2 - (aq) HSO 4 - (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + SO 4 2- (aq) H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH- (aq) 5

6 Strong Bases Soluble metal hydroxides (e. g., NaOH, KOH) are strong bases; all other bases are weak. The ph of a strong base may be calculated in a fashion similar to that for strong acids. Except that you will need to derive the ph from K w = [H + ][OH - ] or, ph + poh = Acid - Base Equilibrium In an equilibrium we have: 1. All compounds present at once, 2. but not all in the same concentration. 3. These concentrations remain constant over time. Since the concentrations don t change, we can define an equilibrium constant. For the reaction: aa + bb cc + dd We can express an equilibrium constant as: K = [C]c [D] d [A] a [B] b The ionization of a weak acid is: HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A - Relative strength of some weak acids Since this is an equilibrium, we can have an equilibrium expression: K = [H 3 O + ][A - ] [HA][H 2 O] Since water is a pure liquid, we can ignore it and simplify this to: K a = [H 3 O + ][A - ] [HA] Here K a is the acid dissociation constant. We can also have similar expressions for bases. Smaller K a means a weaker acid. Identical concentrations of a weaker acid will have a higher ph ([H 3 O + ] is lower). 6

7 ph of Weak Acids To find the ph of a weak acid: In weak acids, there is an equilibrium, so the equilibrium expression will need to be used: K a = [H 3 O + ][A - ] [HA] K a must be known. Solve for [H + 3 O ] using the ICE (Initial / Change / Equilibrium) method. Assume x is much smaller than [HA] (so we can avoid using the quadratic formula). What is the ph of a 0.50 M HF solution (at 25 C)? HF (aq) H + (aq) + F - (aq) K a = [H+ ][F - ] = 7.1 x 10 [HF] -4 Initial (M) Change (M) Equilibrium (M) K a = x 2 HF (aq) x +x x H + (aq) + F - (aq) x x - = 7.1 x 10-4 K a << 1 So 0.50 x x x 2 K a 0.50 = 7.1 x 10-4 x 2 = 3.55 x 10-4 x = M [H + ] = [F - ] = M ph = -log [H + ] = 1.72 x [HF] = 0.50 x = 0.48 M See Problem 17.5 When can I use the approximation? When K a is less than A 0 / 100. K a << x 0.50? K a = 7.1 x /100 = 5.0 x 10-3 Approximation OK. What is the ph of a 0.05 M HF solution (at 25 0 C)? K a = 7.1 x /100 = 5.0 x 10-4 Approximation not OK. Must solve for x exactly using quadratic equation. Solving Weak Acid Equilibrium Problems 1. List the major species in solution. 2. Choose the species which can produce H + (i. e., are acids) and write balanced equations. 3. Choose which reaction will dominate in making H + (i. e., greatest K a ). H 2 O H + + OH - can usually be ignored. 4. Write the equilibrium expression for this reaction. 5. Use ICE method list initial concentration(s). 6. Define change to reach equilibrium (i. e., x) 7. Add up to get equilibrium concentrations, in terms of x. 8. Substitute equilibrium concentrations into equilibrium expression. 9. Use approximation x is small compared to original [HA]. 10. See if approximation is valid. 11. Calculate [H + ] and ph 7

8 Solving Weak Acid Equilibrium Problems In a similar way, we can use the ph to calculate the K a. So, for the generic reaction: HA H + + A - We can get [H + ] from the ph; [A - ] must be the same as [H + ] (why?); and [HA] is the given concentration. So the only thing we don t know is K a. See Problem 17.4 NH 3(aq) + H 2 O (l) = [NH 4 + ][OH - ] K b [NH3 ] Weak Bases or, NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) = [BH+ ][OH - ] K b [B] K b is the base ionization constant K b weak base strength Solve weak base problems like weak acids except solve for [OH - ] instead of [H + ], and then calculate ph. Some examples of weak bases. Notice that they are all organic compounds (amines) except NH 3 Conjugate Acids & Bases To form the conjugate acid of a compound or ion, you add a hydrogen; to form the conjugate base you remove a hydrogen. So, for example, the conjugate acid of the bicarbonate ion (HCO 3- ) is carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3 ), and its conjugate base is carbonate ion (CO -2 3 ). A relatively strong acid will have a relatively weak conjugate base, and vice versa. A relatively strong base will have a relatively weak conjugate acid, and vice versa. 8

9 Conjugate Acids & Bases Conjugate acid & base K s are mathematically related: For carbonic acid: H 2 CO 3 H + + HCO 3 - K a = 4.2 x 10-7 HCO H 2 O H 2 CO 3 + OH - K b = 2.4 x 10-8 Polyprotic Acids Polyprotic acids can lose more than one proton (H + ). Thus there are several K a s: K a1, K a2, etc. Usually the K a s for the loss of each proton are quite different, making calculations easier. If you add these two reactions up, you get: H 2 O H + + OH - K w = 1.0 x So, for a conjugate acid base pair: K a K b = K w See Problem 17.9 Acid-Base Properties of Salts Salts can be acidic, basic, or neutral. A salt of a strong acid and a strong base will be neutral (ph=7). Ex.: NaCl will be neutral because NaOH is a strong base and HCl is a strong acid. A salt of a weak acid and a strong base will be basic (ph>7). Ex.: KCN is basic because KOH is a strong base and HCN is a weak acid. A salt of a strong acid and a weak base will be acidic (ph<7). Ex.: NH 4 Cl is acidic because NH 4 OH is a weak base and HCl is a strong acid. See Problem 17.2 Acid-Base Properties of Salts The ph of a salt of a weak acid and a weak base depends on the relative strength of the acid and base (K a and K b ). Ex.: The ph of NH 4 C 2 H 3 O 2 is around 7 because the K a of C 2 H 3 O 2 H is approximately equal to the K b of NH 4 OH. 9

10 Acid-Base Properties of Salts You can calculate the ph of (for example) the salt of a weak acid and a strong base by using the same ICE method as before, but with a different equilibrium: u A - + H 2 O HA + OH - This equilibrium is used because you start off with the anion A - totally dissociated, from (e. g.) Na + A -, plus the solution must be basic (OH - > H 3 O + ). See Problems 17.7, 17.8 Acid-Base Properties of Oxides Covalent oxides (oxides of non-metals) form acids: SO 3 + H 2 O H 2 SO 4 CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 Ionic oxides (oxides of metals) form bases: CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 Fe 2 O 3 + 3H 2 O 2Fe(OH) 3 Molecular Structure and Acid Strength - + Z O H Z O - + H + The O-H bond will be more polar and easier to break if: Z is very electronegative or Z is in a high oxidation state (more oxygens attached) Lewis Acids and Bases The Lewis Acid-Base Model is yet more general (more inclusive) than the Brønsted-Lowry model. A Lewis acid is an electron-pair acceptor. A Lewis base is an electron-pair donor. Weak acid weaker than weaker than Strong acid 10

11 Here s an example: Lewis Acids & Bases Lewis Acids & Bases Many reactions of organic compounds involve Lewis acids & bases. Here s a simple example: Here Cu +2 accepts the electron pair, so it s a Lewis Acid. The ammonia donates the electrons, so it s a Lewis Base. Notice no hydrogens involved! This is why CO 2 is considered an acidic oxide it s a Lewis acid. This is a complex ion more about them in the next chapter. Lewis Acids & Bases Almost all the bases in organic chemistry contain nitrogen. It has a free electron pair which it can donate thus it s a Lewis Base. Note all these can accept protons, and so can also be Brønsted bases. 11

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES Active Learning: 4, 6, 14; End-of-Chapter Problems: 2-25, 27-58, 66-68, 70, 75-77, 83, 90-91, 93-104 Chapter 15 End-of-Chapter Problems: 69-74, 125, 129, 133 16.1 ACIDS AND

More information

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry

More information

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review

Acids and Bases: A Brief Review Acids and : A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. : taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H ] bases increase [OH ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid base salt water.

More information

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid

More information

Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours

Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Hydronium ion (H3O + ) = more stable form of hydrogen ion (H + ) H + + H2O H3O + 8.1 Theories of acids and bases 2 hours 1. Arrhenius H-X / M-OH ACID a substance that dissociates

More information

Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water.

Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water. Acids and Bases Know the definition of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid and base. Autoionization of Water Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the

More information

Unit Two: Acids and Bases

Unit Two: Acids and Bases Section One: Theoretical Stuff Unit Two: Acids and Bases The concept of acids and bases has existed for centuries. We can discuss them two ways, operational definitions and theoretical definitions. 1.

More information

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases : General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water

More information

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory. Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see

More information

Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water

Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Problems: 16.2-16.86 16.1 ACIDS AND BASES: THE BRØNSTED-LOWRY MODEL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Acids produce hydrogen ions,

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.

More information

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50 Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Topic pg Section 19.1 1-3 Section 19.2 3-6 Section 19.3 6-7 Section 19.4 8 Naming Acids 9 Properties of Acids/Bases 10-11 Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs

More information

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical?

6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical? MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 12

CHM1 Review for Exam 12 Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and

More information

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases ELECTROLYTES are substances that when dissolves in water conduct electricity. They conduct electricity because they will break apart into Ex. NaCl(s)! Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), and

More information

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present.

Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Concept Check 16.1 Chemists in the seventeenth century discovered that the substance that gives red ants their irritating bite is an acid with the formula HCHO 2. They called

More information

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

More information

Acids and Bases. An Introduction. David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA

Acids and Bases. An Introduction. David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Acids and Bases An Introduction David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Properties of Acids 1. Sour taste (examples: vinegar, citric acid, lemon juice) 2. Turns litmus

More information

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory. Acid-base 2816 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H +, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N + BF

More information

Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases

Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases Chemistry 3202 Unit 2 Acids and Bases Definitions of Acids and Bases An operational definition is one that is based on the observable properties, behaviours or uses of an entity. The earliest definitions

More information

Acid-Base Chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases

Acid-Base Chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases Acid-Base Chemistry ν There are a couple of ways to define acids and bases ν Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases ν Acid: H + ion donor ν Base: H + ion acceptor ν Lewis acids and bases ν Acid: electron pair

More information

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base?

CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base? You might need to know the following K values: CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS CH 3 COOH K a = 1.8 x 10 5 Benzoic Acid K a = 6.5 x 10 5 HNO 2 K a = 4.5 x 10 4 NH 3 K b = 1.8 x 10 5 HF K a = 7.2 x 10 4

More information

Chemistry 52. Reacts with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Have a slippery, soapy feeling. React with carbonates to produce CO 2

Chemistry 52. Reacts with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Have a slippery, soapy feeling. React with carbonates to produce CO 2 ACID AND BASE STRENGTH Experiment #2 PURPOSE: 1. To distinguish between acids, bases and neutral substances, by observing their effect on some common indicators. 2. To distinguish between strong and weak

More information

Acids, Bases, and ph

Acids, Bases, and ph CHAPTER 9 1 SECTION Acids, Bases, and Salts Acids, Bases, and ph KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What properties do acids have? What properties do bases have? How can

More information

QUESTION (2012:3) (a) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN -

QUESTION (2012:3) (a) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN - QUESTION (2012:3) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. Conjugate acid Conjugate base - HCO 3 2 CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN - (ii) HPO 4 2 (aq) Write equations for the reactions

More information

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Fu-Yin Hsu

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Fu-Yin Hsu Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Fu-Yin Hsu Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria To help break down food To activate enzymes that break

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHE 1400 - Spring 2015 - Chapter 7 Homework 7 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1)According to Arrhenius, an acid and a base will react

More information

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2-

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2- AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +

More information

An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution. Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Definitions Arrhenius definitions: An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

More information

NH 3 + H 2 O + OH - NH 4. Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 + H + Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: - H + base. acid

NH 3 + H 2 O + OH - NH 4. Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 + H + Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: - H + base. acid Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 1. Arrhenius Acid-Base Concept (last semester) Acid: H+ supplier Base: OH- supplier 2. Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Concept (more general) (a) Definition (H+ transfer) Acid:

More information

ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT.

ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Dr Mike Lyons School of Chemistry Trinity College Dublin. melyons@tcd.ie ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Chemistry Preliminary Course 2011 1 Lecture topics. 2 lectures dealing with some core chemistry

More information

Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases. CHAPTER 10 Acids, Bases and Salts. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases

Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases. CHAPTER 10 Acids, Bases and Salts. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases CAPTER Acids, Bases and Salts Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Strong and Weak Acids Acids are substances that generate in aqueous solutions. Strong acids ionize 0% in water. That is,

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

Suggested Problems: p. 625-627 #58, 59, 65, 69, 74, 80, 85, 86, 90, 92, 93, 98, 99

Suggested Problems: p. 625-627 #58, 59, 65, 69, 74, 80, 85, 86, 90, 92, 93, 98, 99 Chemistry I Accelerated Study Guideline - Chapter 19 Acids, Bases and Salts ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ By the end of this unit, the skills you should

More information

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium Educational Goals 1. Given a chemical equation, write the law of mass action. 2. Given the equilibrium constant (K eq ) for a reaction, predict whether

More information

EXPERIMENT 20: Determination of ph of Common Substances

EXPERIMENT 20: Determination of ph of Common Substances Materials: ph paper and color chart (ph range 3 to 12) or ph meter distilled water white vinegar household ammonia (or baking soda) spot plate test or 3 small test tubes stirring rod solutions / fruits

More information

Properties of Acids and Bases

Properties of Acids and Bases Lab 22 Properties of Acids and Bases TN Standard 4.2: The student will investigate the characteristics of acids and bases. Have you ever brushed your teeth and then drank a glass of orange juice? What

More information

3/6/2014. Chapter 15. Acids and Bases. Stomach Acid and Heartburn GERD. Curing Heartburn. Common Acids. Properties of Acids. Lecture Presentation

3/6/2014. Chapter 15. Acids and Bases. Stomach Acid and Heartburn GERD. Curing Heartburn. Common Acids. Properties of Acids. Lecture Presentation Lecture Presentation Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria

More information

Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry

Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry Name 1) According to the Arrhenius concept, an acid is a substance that. A) is capable of donating one or more H + B) causes an increase in the concentration of H + in

More information

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium 1. What is the difference between the Arrhenius and the BronstedLowry definition of an acid? Arrhenious acids give H + in water BronstedLowry acids are proton

More information

Titrations. Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves. Shapes of Titration Curves. A titration curve is a graphical history of a titration

Titrations. Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves. Shapes of Titration Curves. A titration curve is a graphical history of a titration Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves Titrations In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical

More information

Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values

Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values increase or decrease? Q2: The range of values of the ph scale is: Q7: As bases become more alkaline, their ph values increase

More information

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases

Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases Acids Identifying Acids and Bases Acid (anhydrides) contains H+ ions as the cation, with and other element as the anion Non-metal oxide H2SO4 HI P2O5 Bases Base (anhydrides) Contains OH- as the anion Combined

More information

p3 Recognizing Acid/Base Properties when p11 Recognizing Basic versus Nonbasic

p3 Recognizing Acid/Base Properties when p11 Recognizing Basic versus Nonbasic General Chemistry II Jasperse Acid-Base Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems 1 General Types/Groups of problems: Conceptual Questions. Acids, Bases, and p1 K b and pk b, Base Strength, and using K b or p7-10

More information

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria. Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria. Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3. Basic solutions

More information

Notes on Unit 4 Acids and Bases

Notes on Unit 4 Acids and Bases Ionization of Water DEMONSTRATION OF CONDUCTIVITY OF TAP WATER AND DISTILLED WATER Pure distilled water still has a small conductivity. Why? There are a few ions present. Almost all the pure water is H

More information

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

More information

Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

More information

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16

Acids and Bases. Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following

More information

Topic 5. Acid and Bases

Topic 5. Acid and Bases Topic 5 5-1 Acid and Bases Acid and Bases 5-2 There are a number definitions for aicd and bases, depending on what is convenient to use in a particular situation: Arrhenius and Ostwald: Theory of electrolyte

More information

AP Chemistry Summary Acids, Bases and Buffers Definitions:

AP Chemistry Summary Acids, Bases and Buffers Definitions: AP Chemistry Summary Acids, Bases and Buffers Definitions: Arrhenius: Acid - Produces H + ions in solution HCl H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Base - Produces OH - ions in solution NaOH Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Dissociation

More information

Arrhenius Definition. Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Concept. Brønsted-Lowry Concept. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

Arrhenius Definition. Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Concept. Brønsted-Lowry Concept. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definition Arrhenius: any substance which ionizes in water to produce: Protons

More information

Acid-Base Equilibrium

Acid-Base Equilibrium AcidBaseEquil 1 Acid-Base Equilibrium See AqueousIons in Chemistry 1110 online notes for review of acid-base fundamentals! Acid- Base Reaction in Aqueous Salt Solutions Recall that use [ ] to mean concentration

More information

Experiment 16-Acids, Bases and ph

Experiment 16-Acids, Bases and ph Definitions acid-an ionic compound that releases or reacts with water to form hydrogen ion (H + ) in aqueous solution. They taste sour and turn litmus red. Acids react with certain metals such as zinc,

More information

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius

More information

ph: Measurement and Uses

ph: Measurement and Uses ph: Measurement and Uses One of the most important properties of aqueous solutions is the concentration of hydrogen ion. The concentration of H + (or H 3 O + ) affects the solubility of inorganic and organic

More information

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq)

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq) Lesson Objectives Students will: Create a physical representation of the autoionization of water using the water kit. Describe and produce a physical representation of the dissociation of a strong acid

More information

Required Reading Material.

Required Reading Material. JF Chemistry 1101 2014-2015 Introduction to Physical Chemistry: Acid Base and Solution Equilibria. Professor Mike Lyons School of Chemistry melyons@tcd.ie Required Reading Material. Kotz, Treichel and

More information

EXPERIMENT 4 Acid Strength

EXPERIMENT 4 Acid Strength EXPERIMENT 4 Acid Strength Introduction Many common substances are either acids or bases. Some acids, like stomach acid are necessary for our health, while others, like sulfuric acid are dangerous and

More information

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH

CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 1. Is H 3 O + polar or non-polar? (1 point) a) Polar b) Non-polar CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 2. The bond strength is considerably greater in HF than in the other three hydrogen halides

More information

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11 SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

More information

Classification of Reagents in Chemistry I: Acids and Bases

Classification of Reagents in Chemistry I: Acids and Bases University of Califnia, Davis F use with UC Davis Chem 8 and 118 Series Classification of Reagents in Chemistry I: Acids and Bases There are 3 definitions of acids and bases. All three are used in both

More information

Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 1 According to Brønsted and Lowry, an acid-base reaction is defined in terms of a proton transfer. By this definition, the reaction of Cl in water is: Cl(aq) + Cl (aq) +

More information

10. Acids, Bases, and Salts. Acids and bases. 10.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory. 10.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory

10. Acids, Bases, and Salts. Acids and bases. 10.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory. 10.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts Acids and bases For centuries people have known acids are in vinegar, lemon juice and many other foods taste sour. Only few hundred years ago that it was discovered that acids

More information

4.1 Aqueous Solutions. Chapter 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution. Electrolytes. Strong Electrolytes. Weak Electrolytes

4.1 Aqueous Solutions. Chapter 4. Reactions in Aqueous Solution. Electrolytes. Strong Electrolytes. Weak Electrolytes Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution 4.1 Aqueous Solutions Solution homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances Solute the substance present in a smaller amount (usually solid in Chap. 4) Solvent the

More information

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction.

stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 1 REACTIONS AND YIELD ANSWERS stoichiometry = the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction. 2C 8 H 18 (l) + 25O 2 16CO 2 (g) + 18H 2 O(g) From the equation, 16 moles of CO 2 (a greenhouse

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4)

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Chemical Equations 1. Balancing Chemical Equations (from Chapter 3) Adjust coefficients to get equal numbers of each kind of element on both sides of arrow.

More information

Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety of solutions, and classify these as acidic, basic or neutral

Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety of solutions, and classify these as acidic, basic or neutral Chemistry: 9. Acids and Bases Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety

More information

General Chemistry II Chapter 20

General Chemistry II Chapter 20 1 General Chemistry II Chapter 0 Ionic Equilibria: Principle There are many compounds that appear to be insoluble in aqueous solution (nonelectrolytes). That is, when we add a certain compound to water

More information

Chemistry Unit Test Review

Chemistry Unit Test Review SNC 2DI Chemistry Unit Test Review Note: this review sheet only covers the second half of our chemistry unit. You should use our mid-unit test review sheet to recall concepts from the first half of the

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

More information

Acid/Base Definition. Acid/Base Reactions. Major vs. Minor Species. Terms/Items you Need to Know. you need to memorize these!!

Acid/Base Definition. Acid/Base Reactions. Major vs. Minor Species. Terms/Items you Need to Know. you need to memorize these!! Acid/Base Reactions some covalent compounds have weakly bound H atoms and can lose them to water (acids) some compounds produce OH in water solutions when they dissolve (bases) acid/base reaction are very

More information

Ch 15: Acids and Bases

Ch 15: Acids and Bases Ch 15: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 5 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 15 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Bonus problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,

More information

Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent

Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent 1 Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent % (v/v) = volume of solute x 100 volume of solution filled

More information

Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19)

Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19) Chapter 17 2) a) HCl and CH 3 COOH are both acids. A buffer must have an acid/base conjugate pair. b) NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are an acid/base conjugate pair. They will make an excellent buffer. c) H

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Acids and Bases CHAPTER 12. Opening Essay

Acids and Bases CHAPTER 12. Opening Essay CHAPTER 12 Acids and Bases Opening Essay Formerly there were rather campy science-fiction television shows in which the hero was always being threatened with death by being plunged into a vat of boiling

More information

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases Chapter 6 Solution, Acids and Bases Mixtures Two or more substances Heterogeneous- different from place to place Types of heterogeneous mixtures Suspensions- Large particles that eventually settle out

More information

Letter to the Student... 5 Test-Taking Checklist... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart... 7

Letter to the Student... 5 Test-Taking Checklist... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart... 7 Table of Contents Letter to the Student..................................... 5 Test-Taking Checklist.................................... 6 Next Generation Sunshine State Standards Correlation Chart...

More information

Acid 7 Base. 1. Describe two things hydrochloric acid does in your body system. 2. What does sodium hydrogencarbonate do in your body system?

Acid 7 Base. 1. Describe two things hydrochloric acid does in your body system. 2. What does sodium hydrogencarbonate do in your body system? Acids and Bases acid: a compound that, when dissolved in water, forms a solution with a ph less than 7 base: a compound that, when dissolved in water, forms a solution with a ph greater than 7 ph: the

More information

ph. Weak acids. A. Introduction

ph. Weak acids. A. Introduction ph. Weak acids. A. Introduction... 1 B. Weak acids: overview... 1 C. Weak acids: an example; finding K a... 2 D. Given K a, calculate ph... 3 E. A variety of weak acids... 5 F. So where do strong acids

More information

Auto-ionization of Water

Auto-ionization of Water 2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH Hydronium ion hydroxide ion Q: But how often does this happen? This is the fundamental concept of all acid-base chemistry In pure water, how much of it is water and how much is ions?

More information

CHEM 1212 Test II. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHEM 1212 Test II. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. CHEM 1212 Test II MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that est completes the statement or answers the question. 1) At 1000 K, the equilirium constant for the reaction is K p = 0.013. 2NO (g) +

More information

- electrolytes: substances that dissolve in water to form charge-carrying solutions

- electrolytes: substances that dissolve in water to form charge-carrying solutions 111 Electrolytes and Ionic Theory - electrolytes: substances that dissolve in water to form charge-carrying solutions * Electrolytes form ions in solution - (ions that are mobile are able to carry charge!).

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

More information

Review for Solving ph Problems:

Review for Solving ph Problems: Review for Solving ph Problems: Acid Ionization: HA H 2 O A - H 3 O CH 3 COOH H 2 O CH 3 COO - H 3 O Base Ionization: B H 2 O BH OH - 1) Strong Acid complete dissociation [H ] is equal to original [HA]

More information

Molarity of Ions in Solution

Molarity of Ions in Solution APPENDIX A Molarity of Ions in Solution ften it is necessary to calculate not only the concentration (in molarity) of a compound in aqueous solution but also the concentration of each ion in aqueous solution.

More information

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases "ACID"--Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI"--Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and

More information

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent

Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Solution a homogeneous mixture = A solvent + solute(s) Aqueous solution water is the solvent Water a polar solvent: dissolves most ionic compounds as well as many molecular compounds Aqueous solution:

More information

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.

Copyright 2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Sample Exercise 17.1 Calculating the ph When a Common Ion is Involved What is the ph of a solution made by adding 0.30 mol of acetic acid and 0.30 mol of sodium acetate to enough water to make 1.0 L of

More information

Chem 116 POGIL Worksheet - Week 10 - Solutions Weak Acid and Base Equilibria

Chem 116 POGIL Worksheet - Week 10 - Solutions Weak Acid and Base Equilibria Chem 116 POGIL Worksheet - Week 10 - Solutions Weak Acid and Base Equilibria Key Questions 1. A 0.0100 M solution of a weak acid HA has a ph of 2.60. What is the value of K a for the acid? [Hint: What

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

Acid-Base Indicator Useful Indicators

Acid-Base Indicator Useful Indicators Chemistry 101 - H Acids and Bases This presentation was created by Professor Carl H. Snyder Chemistry Department University of Miami Coral Gables, FL 33124 CSnyder@miami.edu Chapter 10 - Acids and Bases

More information

Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

More information

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information