# Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases. Define and identify Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases, and identify conjugate acid-base pairs. Relate the strength of an acid to the strength of its conjugate base. Understand how the equilibrium position of a proton transfer reaction relates the strengths of acids and bases involved. Describe the autoionization of water and understand how [H 3 O + ] and [OH - ] are related Calculate the ph of a solution given [H 3 O + ] or [OH - ] Calculate the ph of a strong acid or strong base given its concentration Calculate K a or K b for a weak acid or weak base given its concentration and the ph of the solution Calculate ph of a weak acid or weak base or its percent ionization given its concentration and K a or K b. Calculate K b for a weak base given K a of its conjugate acid, and similarly calculate K a from K b. Predict whether and aqueous solution of a salt will be acidic, basic, or neutral Predict the relative strength of a series of acids from their molecular structures Define and identify Lewis acids and bases. Acids and Bases Arrhenius -An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. -A base is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions. Brønsted-Lowry -An acid is a proton donor. -A base is a proton acceptor. Acids and bases may be inorganic (7 strong acids, 8 strong bases) or organic (acids have COOH group): Amphiprotic a substance that is capable of acting as an acid or a base e.g. HCO 3-,HSO 4-,H 2 O 1

2 What happens when an acid dissolves in water? HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Cl (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Water acts as a Brønsted-Lowry base and abstracts a proton (H + ) from the acid. As a result, the conjugate base of the acid and a hydronium ion are formed. Conjugate acids and bases HCN (aq) + H 2 O (l) HClO (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) CN - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) ClO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) Acid and base strength Strong acids are completely dissociated in water. Their conjugate bases are weak. Weak acids only dissociate partially in water. Their conjugate bases are strong. 2

3 Acid and Base Strength In any acid-base reaction, the equilibrium will favor the reaction that moves the proton to the stronger base. H 2 O is a much stronger base than Cl -, so the equilibrium lies so far to the right that K is not measured (K>>1). HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Acetate is a stronger base than H 2 O, so the equilibrium favors the left side (K<1). CH 3 CO 2 H (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + CH 3 CO 2 - (aq) 3

4 Auto-ionization of water As we have seen, water is amphoteric. In pure water, a few molecules act as bases and a few act as acids. H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) This is referred to as autoionization. K w = [H 3 O + ] [OH ] This special equilibrium constant is referred to as the ion-product constant for water, K w. At 25 C, K w = The ion-product constant for water Temperature K w = [H 3 O + ] [OH ] 0 C C C C C ph and poh scale ph = -log [H 3 O + ] poh = -log [OH - ] At 25 C in pure water, K w = [H 3 O + ] [OH ] = Since in pure water [H 3 O + ] = [OH - ], [H 3 O + ] = =

5 ph = -log [H 3 O + ] These are the ph values for several common substances. Three ways to measure ph Litmus paper red-to-blue: basic, ph > 8 blue-to-red: acidic, ph < 5 An indicator A ph meter Seven strong acids Strong acids completely ionize. 100% hydrochloric acid HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) hydrobromic acid hydroiodic acid chloric acid 100% perchloric acid HClO 4 (aq) H + (aq) + ClO - 4 (aq) nitric acid 100% sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4 (aq) 5

6 Acids: nomenclature Anion name Acid name S 2-, sulfide ion CN -, cyanide ion H 2 S, hydrosulfuric acid HCN, hydrocyanic acid CO 3 2-, carbonate ion CrO 4 2-, chromate ion H 2 CO 3, carbonic acid H 2 CrO 4, chromic acid BrO -, hypobromite ion NO 2-, nitrite ion HBrO, hypobromous acid HNO 2, nitrous acid Acids: nomenclature Anion name Acid name ide ion Cl -,chloride ion hydro ic acid HCl, hydrochloric acid ate ion ClO 3-, chlorate ion ic acid HClO 3, chloric acid ite ion ClO 2-, chlorite ion ous acid HClO 2, chlorous acid Strong bases Strong bases completely dissociate. Hydroxides of the alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs) 100% NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) heavy alkaline earth metals (Ca, Sr, Ba) (although these have limited solubility) 6

7 K a and K b HA (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + A - (aq) K c = [H 3 O + ] [A - ] [HA] This equilibrium constant is called the acid-dissociation constant, K a. K a = [H 3 O + ] [A - ] [HA] Dissociation Constants The greater the value of K a, the stronger is the acid. Calculating K a from the ph The ph of a M solution of formic acid, HCOOH, at 25 C is Calculate K a for formic acid at this temperature. HCOOH (aq) + H 2 O (l) We know that H 3 O + (aq) + HCOO - (aq) K a = [H 3 O + ] [HCOO - ] [HCOOH] To calculate K a, we need the equilibrium concentrations of all three things. We can find [H 3 O + ], which is the same as [HCOO - ], from the ph. 7

8 Calculating K a from ph Now we can set up an ICE table [HCOOH], M [H 3 O + ], M [HCOO - ], M Initially Change Equilibrium = Calculating Percent Ionization Percent Ionization = concentration ionized original concentration 100% In this example, Percent Ionization = [H 3 O + ] eq 100% [HA] initial [H 3 O + ] eq = M [HCOOH] initial = 0.10 M Percent Ionization = % 0.10 = 4.2% Calculating ph from K a Calculate the ph of a 0.30 M solution of acetic acid, HC 2 H 3 O 2, at 25 C. HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 - (aq) K a for acetic acid at 25 C is K a = [H 3 O + ] [C 2 H 3 O 2- ] [HC 2 H 3 O 2 ] 8

9 Calculating ph from K a We next set up an ICE table [HC 2 H 3 O 2 ], M [H 3 O + ], M [C 2 H 3 O 2- ], M Initially Change -x +x +x Equilibrium x 0.30 x x We are assuming that x will be very small compared to 0.30 and can, therefore, be ignored. 100*K a = 100*( ) = x = (using sign. figures) In general, the approximation that [HA] eq is effectively equal to [HA] 0 is valid whenever [HA] 0 is greater than 100*K a. Polyprotic Acids have more than one acidic proton If the difference between the K a for the first dissociation and subsequent K a values is 10 4 or more, the ph generally depends only on the first dissociation. Example (polyprotic acids) H 3 PO 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + H 2 PO 4 - (aq) K a1 = H 2 PO 4 - (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + HPO 4 2- (aq) K a2 = HPO 2-4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + PO 3-4 (aq) K a3 = H 2 C 2 O 4 (aq) H 3 O + (aq) + HC 2 O 4- (aq) K a1 = 6.5x10-2 HC 2 O 4- (aq) H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 O 2-4 (aq) K a2 = 6.1x10-5 9

10 Weak Bases Bases react with water to produce hydroxide ion. Weak Bases B (aq) + H 2 O(l) HB + (aq) + OH - (aq) The equilibrium constant expression for this reaction is: [HB + ] [OH - ] K b = [B] where K b is the base-dissociation constant. Weak Bases K b can be used to find [OH - ] and, through it, ph. 10

11 ph of Basic Solutions What is the ph of a 0.15 M solution of NH 3 at 25 C? NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH - (aq) [NH 4+ ] [OH - ] K b = = [NH 3 ] -5 ph of Basic Solutions Tabulate the data. [NH 3 ], M [NH 4+ ], M [OH - ], M Initially At Equilibrium x 0.15 x x K a andk b at 25 C K a andk b are related in this way: K a K b = K w Therefore, if you know one of them, you can calculate the other. 11

12 Reactions of Anions with Water Anions are bases (conjugate base of an acid). As such, they can react with water in a hydrolysis reaction to form OH - and the conjugate acid: X - (aq) + H 2 O (l) HX (aq) + OH - (aq) Reactions of Cations with Water Cations with acidic protons (like NH 4+ ) will lower the ph of a solution. Most metal cations that are hydrated in solution also lower the ph of the solution. Reactions of Cations with Water Attraction between nonbonding electrons on oxygen and the metal causes a shift of the electron density in water. This makes the O-H bond more polar and the water more acidic. Greater charge and smaller size make a cation more acidic. 12

13 Effect of Cations and Anions 1. An anion that is the conjugate base of a strong acid will not affect the ph. 2. An anion that is the conjugate base of a weak acid will increase the ph. 3. A cation that is the conjugate acid of a weak base will decrease the ph. Effect of Cations and Anions 4. Cations of the strong Arrhenius bases will not affect the ph. 5. Other metal ions will cause a decrease in ph. 6. When a solution contains both the conjugate base of a weak acid and the conjugate acid of a weak base, the affect on ph depends on the K a and K b values. Factors Affecting Acid Strength The more polar the H-X bond and/or the weaker the H-X bond strength, the more acidic the compound. So acidity increases from left to right across a row and from top to bottom down a group. 13

14 Factors Affecting Acid Strength In oxyacids, in which an -OH is bonded to another atom, Y, the more electronegative Y is, the more acidic the acid. Factors Affecting Acid Strength For a series of oxyacids, acidity increases with the number of oxygens. Strength of an acid increases as additional electronegative atoms are added Arrange the following oxoacids in order of decreasing acid strength: HClO, HClO 2, HClO 3, HBrO (rank strongest to weakest) 14

15 Factors Affecting Acid Strength Resonance in the conjugate bases of carboxylic acids stabilizes the base and makes the conjugate acid more acidic. Lewis Acids adduct Lewis acids are defined as electron-pair acceptors. Atoms with an empty valence orbital can be Lewis acids. Lewis Bases Lewis bases are defined as electron-pair donors. Anything that could be a Brønsted-Lowry base is a Lewis base. Lewis bases can interact with things other than protons, however. 15

16 16

### Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry

### Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Name: Score: / 50

Chapter 19: Acids and Bases Homework Packet (50 pts) Topic pg Section 19.1 1-3 Section 19.2 3-6 Section 19.3 6-7 Section 19.4 8 Naming Acids 9 Properties of Acids/Bases 10-11 Conjugate Acid/Base Pairs

### Acids and Bases: A Brief Review

Acids and : A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. : taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H ] bases increase [OH ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid base salt water.

### Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water

Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Problems: 16.2-16.86 16.1 ACIDS AND BASES: THE BRØNSTED-LOWRY MODEL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Acids produce hydrogen ions,

### Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

### Write the acid-base equilibria connecting all components in the aqueous solution. Now list all of the species present.

Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Concept Check 16.1 Chemists in the seventeenth century discovered that the substance that gives red ants their irritating bite is an acid with the formula HCHO 2. They called

### Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the behavior of water.

Acids and Bases Know the definition of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid and base. Autoionization of Water Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the

### CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS. 1. According to the Brønsted Lowry definition, which species can function both as an acid and as a base?

You might need to know the following K values: CHAPTERS 15 FAKE TEST QUESTIONS CH 3 COOH K a = 1.8 x 10 5 Benzoic Acid K a = 6.5 x 10 5 HNO 2 K a = 4.5 x 10 4 NH 3 K b = 1.8 x 10 5 HF K a = 7.2 x 10 4

### CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES

CHAPTER 16: ACIDS AND BASES Active Learning: 4, 6, 14; End-of-Chapter Problems: 2-25, 27-58, 66-68, 70, 75-77, 83, 90-91, 93-104 Chapter 15 End-of-Chapter Problems: 69-74, 125, 129, 133 16.1 ACIDS AND

### UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES

UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that

### Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2-

AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +

### Topic 5. Acid and Bases

Topic 5 5-1 Acid and Bases Acid and Bases 5-2 There are a number definitions for aicd and bases, depending on what is convenient to use in a particular situation: Arrhenius and Ostwald: Theory of electrolyte

### Acid-Base Chemistry. Brønsted-Lowry Acids & Bases

Acid-Base Chemistry ν There are a couple of ways to define acids and bases ν Brønsted-Lowry acids and bases ν Acid: H + ion donor ν Base: H + ion acceptor ν Lewis acids and bases ν Acid: electron pair

### Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid

### Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours

Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Hydronium ion (H3O + ) = more stable form of hydrogen ion (H + ) H + + H2O H3O + 8.1 Theories of acids and bases 2 hours 1. Arrhenius H-X / M-OH ACID a substance that dissociates

### CHAPTER 18 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA

CHAPTER 18 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA 18.1 The Arrhenius definition classified substances as being acids or bases by their behavior in the solvent water. 18. All Arrhenius acids contain hydrogen and produce

### Acid-Base Equilibrium

AcidBaseEquil 1 Acid-Base Equilibrium See AqueousIons in Chemistry 1110 online notes for review of acid-base fundamentals! Acid- Base Reaction in Aqueous Salt Solutions Recall that use [ ] to mean concentration

### Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases

: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water

### Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases. CHAPTER 10 Acids, Bases and Salts. Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases

CAPTER Acids, Bases and Salts Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Strong and Weak Acids Acids are substances that generate in aqueous solutions. Strong acids ionize 0% in water. That is,

### QUESTION (2012:3) (a) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN -

QUESTION (2012:3) (i) Complete the table below showing the conjugate acids and bases. Conjugate acid Conjugate base - HCO 3 2 CO 3 H 2 O OH HCN CN - (ii) HPO 4 2 (aq) Write equations for the reactions

### p3 Recognizing Acid/Base Properties when p11 Recognizing Basic versus Nonbasic

General Chemistry II Jasperse Acid-Base Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems 1 General Types/Groups of problems: Conceptual Questions. Acids, Bases, and p1 K b and pk b, Base Strength, and using K b or p7-10

### NH 3 + H 2 O + OH - NH 4. Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 + H + Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs: - H + base. acid

Acid-Base Concepts -- Chapter 15 1. Arrhenius Acid-Base Concept (last semester) Acid: H+ supplier Base: OH- supplier 2. Brønsted-Lowry Acid-Base Concept (more general) (a) Definition (H+ transfer) Acid:

### Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry

Acids and Bases HW PSI Chemistry Name 1) According to the Arrhenius concept, an acid is a substance that. A) is capable of donating one or more H + B) causes an increase in the concentration of H + in

### Arrhenius Definition. Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Brønsted-Lowry Concept. Brønsted-Lowry Concept. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs

John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definition Arrhenius: any substance which ionizes in water to produce: Protons

### Unit Two: Acids and Bases

Section One: Theoretical Stuff Unit Two: Acids and Bases The concept of acids and bases has existed for centuries. We can discuss them two ways, operational definitions and theoretical definitions. 1.

### CHEM 1212 Test II. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHEM 1212 Test II MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that est completes the statement or answers the question. 1) At 1000 K, the equilirium constant for the reaction is K p = 0.013. 2NO (g) +

### Aqueous Ions and Reactions

Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for

### Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria. Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon

Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3. Basic solutions

### ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT.

Dr Mike Lyons School of Chemistry Trinity College Dublin. melyons@tcd.ie ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Chemistry Preliminary Course 2011 1 Lecture topics. 2 lectures dealing with some core chemistry

### Acids and Bases. An Introduction. David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA

Acids and Bases An Introduction David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA Properties of Acids 1. Sour taste (examples: vinegar, citric acid, lemon juice) 2. Turns litmus

### An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Definitions Arrhenius definitions: An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.

### Chemistry 3202. Unit 2 Acids and Bases

Chemistry 3202 Unit 2 Acids and Bases Definitions of Acids and Bases An operational definition is one that is based on the observable properties, behaviours or uses of an entity. The earliest definitions

### Chapter 15 Acids and Bases. Fu-Yin Hsu

Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Fu-Yin Hsu Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria To help break down food To activate enzymes that break

### Suggested Problems: p. 625-627 #58, 59, 65, 69, 74, 80, 85, 86, 90, 92, 93, 98, 99

Chemistry I Accelerated Study Guideline - Chapter 19 Acids, Bases and Salts ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ By the end of this unit, the skills you should

JF Chemistry 1101 2014-2015 Introduction to Physical Chemistry: Acid Base and Solution Equilibria. Professor Mike Lyons School of Chemistry melyons@tcd.ie Required Reading Material. Kotz, Treichel and

### 3/6/2014. Chapter 15. Acids and Bases. Stomach Acid and Heartburn GERD. Curing Heartburn. Common Acids. Properties of Acids. Lecture Presentation

Lecture Presentation Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria

### Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see

### Ch 15: Acids and Bases

Ch 15: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 5 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 15 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Bonus problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,

### BASIC CONCEPTS of CHEMISTRY Please revise: names of element, Periodic Table (understanding the notation), acid, base and salt nomenclature

BASIC CONCEPTS of CHEMISTRY Please revise: names of element, Periodic Table (understanding the notation), acid, base and salt nomenclature 1. Definitions of acid and base There are several methods of defining

### Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium

Name period Unit 9: acid/base equilibrium 1. What is the difference between the Arrhenius and the BronstedLowry definition of an acid? Arrhenious acids give H + in water BronstedLowry acids are proton

### Lecture 22 The Acid-Base Character of Oxides and Hydroxides in Aqueous Solution

2P32 Principles of Inorganic Chemistry Dr. M. Pilkington Lecture 22 The Acid-Base Character of Oxides and Hydroxides in Aqueous Solution Oxides; acidic, basic, amphoteric Classification of oxides - oxide

### 6) Which compound is manufactured in larger quantities in the U.S. than any other industrial chemical?

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must

### 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts. Acids and bases. 10.1 Arrhenius Acid-Base Theory. 10.2 Bronsted-Lowry Acid-Base Theory

10. Acids, Bases, and Salts Acids and bases For centuries people have known acids are in vinegar, lemon juice and many other foods taste sour. Only few hundred years ago that it was discovered that acids

### Acids and Bases. Chapter 16

Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following

### AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases

AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases "ACID"--Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI"--Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and

### Q.1 Classify the following according to Lewis theory and Brønsted-Lowry theory.

Acid-base 2816 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H +, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N + BF

### Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds. Section I: Writing the Name from the Formula

Purpose: Theory: Nomenclature and Formulas of Ionic Compounds 1. To become familiar with the rules of chemical nomenclature, based on the classification of compounds. 2. To write the proper name of the

### AP Chemistry Summary Acids, Bases and Buffers Definitions:

AP Chemistry Summary Acids, Bases and Buffers Definitions: Arrhenius: Acid - Produces H + ions in solution HCl H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Base - Produces OH - ions in solution NaOH Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Dissociation

### Titrations. Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves. Shapes of Titration Curves. A titration curve is a graphical history of a titration

Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves Titrations In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical

### Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds

Nomenclature of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are composed of ions. An ion is an atom or molecule with an electrical charge. Monatomic ions are formed from single atoms that have gained or lost electrons.

### Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius

### 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

### Answer Key, Problem Set 5 (With explanations)--complete

Chemistry 122 Mines, Spring 2016 Answer Key, Problem Set 5 (With explanations)complete 1. NT1; 2. NT2; 3. MP; 4. MP (15.38); 5. MP (15.40); 6. MP (15.42); 7. NT3; 8. NT4; 9. MP; 10. NT5; 11. NT6; 12. MP;

### Notes on Unit 4 Acids and Bases

Ionization of Water DEMONSTRATION OF CONDUCTIVITY OF TAP WATER AND DISTILLED WATER Pure distilled water still has a small conductivity. Why? There are a few ions present. Almost all the pure water is H

### 4. Acid Base Chemistry

4. Acid Base Chemistry 4.1. Terminology: 4.1.1. Bronsted / Lowry Acid: "An acid is a substance which can donate a hydrogen ion (H+) or a proton, while a base is a substance that accepts a proton. B + HA

### Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 1 According to Brønsted and Lowry, an acid-base reaction is defined in terms of a proton transfer. By this definition, the reaction of Cl in water is: Cl(aq) + Cl (aq) +

### Acid/base Definitions. Acid/Base Definitions. Acid / Base Chemistry. Acid/Base Definitions. Identifying Acids and Bases

Acids Identifying Acids and Bases Acid (anhydrides) contains H+ ions as the cation, with and other element as the anion Non-metal oxide H2SO4 HI P2O5 Bases Base (anhydrides) Contains OH- as the anion Combined

### Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium

Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium Educational Goals 1. Given a chemical equation, write the law of mass action. 2. Given the equilibrium constant (K eq ) for a reaction, predict whether

### Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CHE 1400 - Spring 2015 - Chapter 7 Homework 7 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1)According to Arrhenius, an acid and a base will react

### Oxidation States of Nitrogen

Oxidation States of Nitrogen HNO 3 NH 3 HNO 2 NO N 2 O N 2 HN 3 N 2 H 5 + +3 +2 +1 0-1/3-2 Oxidation +5-3 Reduction Oxidation States of Chlorine HClO 4 HClO 3 ClO 2 HClO 2 HClO Cl 2 HCl +5 +4 +3 +1 0 Oxidation

### 3.4 BRØNSTED LOWRY ACIDS AND BASES

96 CAPTER 3 ACIDS AND BASES. TE CURVED-ARROW NOTATION and that the unshared electron pair (and negative charge) is shared equally by the two terminal carbons. C L C A C 1 allyl anion (c) Using the curved-arrow

### CHM1 Review for Exam 12

Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and

### Chemistry 52. Reacts with active metals to produce hydrogen gas. Have a slippery, soapy feeling. React with carbonates to produce CO 2

ACID AND BASE STRENGTH Experiment #2 PURPOSE: 1. To distinguish between acids, bases and neutral substances, by observing their effect on some common indicators. 2. To distinguish between strong and weak

### ph: Measurement and Uses

ph: Measurement and Uses One of the most important properties of aqueous solutions is the concentration of hydrogen ion. The concentration of H + (or H 3 O + ) affects the solubility of inorganic and organic

### CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH

1. Is H 3 O + polar or non-polar? (1 point) a) Polar b) Non-polar CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 2. The bond strength is considerably greater in HF than in the other three hydrogen halides

### Chapter 4: Nonionic Compounds and Their Nomenclature

50 Chapter 4: Nonionic Compounds and Their Nomenclature A nonionic compound is a substance composed of atoms held together by chemical bonding forces, called covalent bonds. Covalent bonds are formed by

### Acid/Base Definition. Acid/Base Reactions. Major vs. Minor Species. Terms/Items you Need to Know. you need to memorize these!!

Acid/Base Reactions some covalent compounds have weakly bound H atoms and can lose them to water (acids) some compounds produce OH in water solutions when they dissolve (bases) acid/base reaction are very

### Auto-ionization of Water

2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH Hydronium ion hydroxide ion Q: But how often does this happen? This is the fundamental concept of all acid-base chemistry In pure water, how much of it is water and how much is ions?

### TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases

TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases ELECTROLYTES are substances that when dissolves in water conduct electricity. They conduct electricity because they will break apart into Ex. NaCl(s)! Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), and

### Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

### Chapter 17. The best buffer choice for ph 7 is NaH 2 PO 4 /Na 2 HPO 4. 19)

Chapter 17 2) a) HCl and CH 3 COOH are both acids. A buffer must have an acid/base conjugate pair. b) NaH 2 PO 4 and Na 2 HPO 4 are an acid/base conjugate pair. They will make an excellent buffer. c) H

### Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases

John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases Javier E. Horta, M.D., Ph.D. University of Massachusetts Lowell Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity

### I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

### Chapter 16 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 16 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) What is the conjugate acid of NH3? A) NH3 + B) NH4OH C)NH2 + D) NH3 E) NH4 + 1) 2) The

Sample Exercise 17.1 Calculating the ph When a Common Ion is Involved What is the ph of a solution made by adding 0.30 mol of acetic acid and 0.30 mol of sodium acetate to enough water to make 1.0 L of

### CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS

CHAPTER 5: MOLECULES AND COMPOUNDS Problems: 1-6, 9-13, 16, 20, 31-40, 43-64, 65 (a,b,c,e), 66(a-d,f), 69(a-d,f), 70(a-e), 71-78, 81-82, 87-96 A compound will display the same properties (e.g. melting

### CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE

CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE Chemical nomenclature The process of giving unambiguous chemical formulas or chemical names to elements and compounds Introduction Chemistry is the study of matter (elements and compounds)

### Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

### Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq)

Lesson Objectives Students will: Create a physical representation of the autoionization of water using the water kit. Describe and produce a physical representation of the dissociation of a strong acid

### Classification of Reagents in Chemistry I: Acids and Bases

University of Califnia, Davis F use with UC Davis Chem 8 and 118 Series Classification of Reagents in Chemistry I: Acids and Bases There are 3 definitions of acids and bases. All three are used in both

### ORGANIC CHEMISTRY I PRACTICE PROBLEMS FOR BRONSTED-LOWRY ACID-BASE CHEMISTRY

RGANIC CHEMISTRY I PRACTICE PRBLEMS FR BRNSTED-LWRY ACID-BASE CHEMISTRY 1. For each of the species below, identify the most acidic proton and provide the structure of the corresponding conjugate base.

### Chem 116 POGIL Worksheet - Week 10 - Solutions Weak Acid and Base Equilibria

Chem 116 POGIL Worksheet - Week 10 - Solutions Weak Acid and Base Equilibria Key Questions 1. A 0.0100 M solution of a weak acid HA has a ph of 2.60. What is the value of K a for the acid? [Hint: What

### Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent

1 Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent % (v/v) = volume of solute x 100 volume of solution filled

### The Determination of Acid Content in Vinegar

The Determination of Acid Content in Vinegar Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pages 153-156. Goals We will use a titration to determine the concentration of acetic acid in a sample of

### Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4)

Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Chemical Equations 1. Balancing Chemical Equations (from Chapter 3) Adjust coefficients to get equal numbers of each kind of element on both sides of arrow.

### ph. Weak acids. A. Introduction

ph. Weak acids. A. Introduction... 1 B. Weak acids: overview... 1 C. Weak acids: an example; finding K a... 2 D. Given K a, calculate ph... 3 E. A variety of weak acids... 5 F. So where do strong acids

### Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions I) Ions in Aqueous Solution many reactions take place in water form ions in solution aq solution = solute + solvent solute: substance being dissolved and present in lesser

### NAME PER DATE DUE ACTIVE LEARNING IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION "ALICE" CHAPTER 21 ACIDS AND BASES. Behavior In Water. 21-1 1997, A.J.

NAME PER DATE DUE ACTIVE LEARNING IN CEMISTRY EDUCATIN "ALICE" CAPTER 21 ACIDS AND BASES Behavior In Water 21-1 1997, A.J. Girondi NTICE F RIGTS All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced

### Chemistry Unit Test Review

SNC 2DI Chemistry Unit Test Review Note: this review sheet only covers the second half of our chemistry unit. You should use our mid-unit test review sheet to recall concepts from the first half of the

### Naming Compounds. There are three steps involved in naming ionic compounds- naming the cation, naming the anion, and naming the entire compound.

Naming Compounds Naming compounds is an important part of chemistry. Most compounds fall in to one of three categories ionic compounds, molecular compounds, or acids. Part One: Naming Ionic Compounds Identifying

### WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULA For ionic compounds, the chemical formula must be worked out. You will no longer have the list of ions in the exam (like at GCSE). Instead you must learn some and work out others.

### Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

### Acids and Bases CHAPTER 12. Opening Essay

CHAPTER 12 Acids and Bases Opening Essay Formerly there were rather campy science-fiction television shows in which the hero was always being threatened with death by being plunged into a vat of boiling

### 16.2 THE BRØNSTED LOWRY ACID BASE CONCEPT

16.2 THE RØNSTED LOWRY ACID ASE CONCEPT Practice (Page 724) 1. (a) According to Arrhenius original theory, acids are substances that ionize in an aqueous solution, to produce aqueous hydrogen ions. (b)

### Rules for Naming and Writing Compounds

Rules for Naming and Writing Compounds I. Ionic Bonds bonding between a metal and nonmetal or the bond between a positive ion and a negative ion forming a binary compound. end in the suffix "ide" Or bonding

### 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436 #1, 7, 8, 11

SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436

### Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values

Q1: What is the ph Scale? Q6: As acids become more acidic, their ph values increase or decrease? Q2: The range of values of the ph scale is: Q7: As bases become more alkaline, their ph values increase