1 Acids and Bases An Introduction David A Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College, Tucson, AZ, USA
2 Properties of Acids 1. Sour taste (examples: vinegar, citric acid, lemon juice) 2. Turns litmus from blue to red (also affects other indicators) 3. Reacts with metals to liberate H 2 4. Reacts with base losing its acid properties 5. Reacts with salts to give a new acid and a new salt 6. Conducts electricity (electrolyte)
3 Properties of Bases 1. Bitter taste (examples: baking soda, soap) 2. Turns litmus from red to blue (also affects other indicators best known is phenolphthalein) 3. Soapy feel 4. Reacts with acid losing its basic properties 5. Conducts electricity (electrolyte)
4 The Arrhenius Theory Svante August Arrhenius ( ) Acid: Substance that produces hydrogen ions in water solution. HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) Base: Substance that produces hydroxide ions in water solution. NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) An acid neutralizes a base H + (aq) + OH (aq) H 2 O (l)
5 The Arrhenius Theory Acid strength depends on the amount of hydrogen ions produced. Definition includes acids such as HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4, HSO 4, HC 2 H 3 O 2, etc. Base strength depends on amount of hydroxide ions produced. Definition includes bases such as NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH) 2, Mg(OH) 2, Al(OH) 3, etc.
6 The Arrhenius Theory Problems with the Arrhenius Theory The solvent is limited to water, but water is not involved in the acid base reaction A solution of CO 2 in water is acidic, but H 2 CO 3 exists at a concentration less than 1% of the CO 2 A solution of NH 3 in water is basic, but NH 4 OH does not exist (Note: the formula NH 4 OH was invented by Arrhenius to explain the basic nature of NH 3 solutions) The reaction of HCl and NH 3 results in an acidic solution
7 A Generalized Arrhenius Theory The solvent (water) can ionize to produce H + and OH ions H 2 O (l) H + (aq) + OH (aq) Acid: Substance that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in solution. HCl (aq) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) A strong acid is 100% dissociated A weak acid is only slightly dissociated
8 A Generalized Arrhenius Theory Base: Substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions in water solution. NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) A strong base is 100% dissociated A weak base is only slightly dissociated Hydrolysis reactions can change H + and OH concentration in water solution CO 2 + H 2 O H + + HCO 3 CO 2 is an acid NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4+ + OH NH 3 is a base
9 A Generalized Arrhenius Theory Solvents other than water can be used: The solvent can ionize to produce positive and negative ions Example: liquid ammonia, NH 3 2 NH 3 NH 4+ + NH 2 Acid: Substance that increases the concentration of the positive ion in solution. HCl + NH 3 NH 4+ + Cl Base: Substance that increases the concentration of the negative ion in water solution. NaOH + NH 3 Na + + NH 2 + H 2 O (l)
10 A Generalized Arrhenius Theory Solvents other than water (continued) Neutralization produces the solvent: Example: In liquid ammonia, NH 3 NH 4+ + NH 2 2 NH 3
11 The Brønsted Lowry Theory Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted ( ) and Thomas Martin Lowry ( ) independently proposed the proton definition of acids and bases in 1923 Quoting Brønsted: "... acids and bases are substances that are capable of splitting off or taking up hydrogen ions, respectively. or An acid base reaction consists of the transfer of a proton (or hydrogen ion) from an acid to a base
12 The Brønsted Lowry Theory An acid is a proton donor That is, an acid is a substance from which a proton (H + ) can be removed. A Base is a proton acceptor That is, a base is a substance that has a nonbonded electron pair that can bond with a proton (H + ) from an acid. No solvent is specified
13 The Brønsted Lowry Theory If a substance can either lose a proton or gain a proton, then it is amphiprotic Some examples are HCO 3, HSO 4, and H 2 O Using HCO 3 : as an acid: HCO 3 + H 2 O H 3 O + + CO 3 2 as a base: HCO 3 + H 3 O + H 2 CO 3 + H 2 O Note that the proton (H + ) is combined with water forming H 3 O +
14 The Brønsted Lowry Theory HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Clˉ Looking at the forward reaction: HCl is an acid, because it has a proton available to be transferred. H 2 O is a base, since it bonds with the proton that the acid lost. Looking at the reverse reaction: H 3 O + is an acid, because it can give a proton to the Clˉ Clˉ is a base, since it can bond with the proton from H 3 O + Note that each pair HCl and Clˉ, and, H 2 O and H 3 O + differ by one proton. These pairs are called conjugate acid base pairs
15 The Brønsted Lowry Theory So, in the reaction: HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Clˉ Acid Base Conjugate Conjugate Acid Base One acid base conjugate pair is HCl and Cl HCl is an acid, and Clˉ is the conjugate base of HCl The second acid base conjugate pair is H 2 O and H 3 O H 2 O is a base, and H 3 O + is the conjugate acid of H 2 O
16 Conjugate Acids and Bases: From the Latin word conjugare, meaning to join together. Reactions between acids and bases always yield their conjugate bases and acids. Another example is:
17 Strong Acids HNO 3, HCl, H 2 SO 4 and HClO 4 are the most commonly known strong acids.
18 This is a submicroscopic artist s view Strong Acids
19 Weak Acids Weak acids are much less than 100% ionized in water (usually 5% ionic or less) One of the best known weak acids is acetic acid, CH 3 CO 2 H
20 Weak Acids
21 Strong Bases A Strong Base is 100% dissociated in water. NaOH (aq) Na + (aq) + OH (aq) Other common strong bases include KOH and Ca(OH) 2 CaO (lime) + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 (slaked lime) CaO
22 Weak Bases A Weak base is less than 100% ionized in water One of the best known weak bases is ammonia NH 3(aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq)
23 Weak Bases
24 Strong Acids The seven strong acids are HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4, HClO 3, and HClO 4. These are, by definition, strong electrolytes and exist totally as ions in aqueous solution (i.e.,they are 100% ionic in solution) For the monoprotic strong acids, the concentration of H 3 O + is equal to the concentration of the acid: [H 3 O + ] = [acid]
25 Strong Bases Strong bases are the soluble hydroxides, which are the alkali metal and heavier alkaline earth metal hydroxides (Ca 2+, Sr 2+, and Ba 2+ ). Strong bases dissociate completely in aqueous solution (i.e., they are 100% ionic in solution). For a monohydroxy strong base, the concentration of OH is equal to the concentration of the base: [OH ] = [base]
26 Weak Acids Acetic acid, HC 2 H 3 O 2, is a weak acid HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) Acetate is a stronger base than H 2 O, so the molecular form (the left side of the equation) is favored. Only about 1% of the acetic acid is ionic.
27 Polyprotic Acids Have more than one ionizable H A common polyprotic acid is sulfuric acid, H 2 SO 4 The dissociation of a polyprotic acid is written to take place in steps: H 2 SO 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) HSO 4 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) HSO 4 (aq) + H 2 O (l) SO 4 2 (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) For a weak acid or weak base, all the ions shown in the equation are present in solution.
28 Polyprotic Acids
29 Polyprotic Acids
30 Autoionization of Water Water is amphoteric. In pure water, a few molecules act as bases and a few act as acids. H 2 O (l) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH (aq) This process is referred to as autoionization.
31 Autoionization of Water The product of the concentrations of H 3 O + and OH is given by the equation: K w = [H 3 O + ] [OH ] = 1.00 x at 25 o C In a neutral solution the concentrations [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] so [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] = 1.00 x 10 7 M
32 ph A common way to express acidity and basicity is with ph ph is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion (hydronium) concentration In a neutral solution, ph = log [H 3 O + ] [H 3 O + ] = [OH ] = 1.00 x 10 7 at 25 o C ph = log (1.00 x 10 7 ) = ( 7) = 7
33 ph Therefore, in pure water, ph = log ( ) = 7.00 An acid has a higher [H 3 O + ] than pure water, so its ph is <7 A base has a lower [H 3 O + ] than pure water, so its ph is >7.
34 ph The concept of ph was first introduced by Danish chemist Søren Peder Lauritz Sørensen ( ), the head of the Carlsberg Laboratory s Chemical Department, in 1909 Dr. Sørensen developed the ph scale during his pioneering research into proteins, amino acids and enzymes the basis of today s protein chemistry in a paper titled Enzyme Studies II. The Measurement and Meaning of Hydrogen Ion Concentration in Enzymatic Processes : The value of the hydrogen ion concentration will accordingly be expressed by the hydrogen ion based on the normality factor of the solution used, and this factor will have the form of a negative power of 10. Since in the following section I usually refer to this, I will explain here that I use the name "hydrogen ion exponent" and the designation P H for the numerical value of the exponents of this power. Sørensen and the Carlsberg Chemistry Department
35 ph Today, we refer to ph as meaning the power of hydrogen. The ph scale provides a simple and universal measurement of the amount of hydrogen ions in a solution, which affects its acidity and how it reacts chemically. Each value of ph means the H + concentration changes by a factor of 10 As the H + concentration decreases, the OH concentration increases ph 1 ph 7 ph 14 strong weak neutral acid acid weak strong base base The ph scale according to the late Dr. Hubert Alyea, Princeton University
36 ph values for some common substances
37 The Leveling Effect The ph scale ranges from 0 to 14 Can an acid or base have a ph lower than 0 or higher than 14? When a strong acid, such as HCl, is dissolved in water, it reacts to form H 3 O + in the following reaction: HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) Any acid that is stronger than H 3 O + reacts with H 2 O to form H 3 O + ; therefore, no acid can be stronger than H 3 O + in H 2 O.
38 The Leveling Effect In the same way, a base which is stronger than the conjugate base of water, such as sodium oxide, will react with water to give the weaker base which is the hydroxide ion, OH : Na 2 O (s) + H 2 O 2OH (aq) + 2Na + (aq) Note: The actual base here is the oxide ion since the sodium ion is an extremely weak acid or base. All bases which are stronger than the hydroxide ion will react with water to produce hydroxide ion. Although oxide ion, amide ion, ethoxide ion, and methoxide ion are all stronger bases than hydroxide ion, their strength in aqueous solution is leveled to that of hydroxide ion. Any base that is stronger than OH reacts with H 2 O to form OH ; therefore, no base can be stronger than OH in H 2 O.
39 The Leveling Effect Can the strengths of strong acids or bases can be differentiated? The leveling effect operates in any protonic solvent. If a solvent other than water is used, differences between strengths of strong acids or bases can be measured. In liquid ammonia, for example, all acids are levelled to the strength of the ammonium ion, NH 4+, and all bases are leveled to the strength of the amide ion, NH 2. 2 NH 3 NH 4+ + NH 2 Many of the acids which are weak in water act as strong acids in liquid ammonia because they are stronger than ammonium ion. Not all of the bases which are strong in water are also strong in liquid ammonia.
40 The Leveling Effect Glacial acetic acid is another protonic solvent in which the leveling effect takes place. HC 2 H 3 O 2 H + + C 2 H 3 O 2 Glacial acetic acid can be used to show that hydrogen chloride is a weaker acid than is perchloric acid, since hydrogen chloride behaves as a weak acid in glacial acetic acid. Methanol is also a protonic solvent in which some of the acids which are strong (completely dissociated) in water are found partially in molecular form
41 ph and poh Previous we saw: [H 3 O + ] [OH ] = K w = If we take the negative log of [H 3 O + ] and [OH ] log [H 3 O + ] + log [OH ] = log K w = or, in other words, ph + poh = pk w = 14.00
42 Measuring ph For a simple acid or base determination we use an indicator known as Litmus paper Litmus is a water soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens, especially Roccella tinctoria. The name litmus comes from Middle English litemose (of Scandinavian origin; akin to Old Norse litmosi, dyer's herbs : litr, color, dye + mosi, bog, moss) and Middle English lykemose (from Middle Dutch lijkmoes, variant of lēcmoes : lēken, to drip + moes, moss). Red litmus paper turns blue above ~ph = 8 Blue litmus paper turns red below ~ph = 5
43 Measuring ph ph test papers are made using a mixture of dyes to indicate ph values over a wide range or, for more accurate measurements, there are short range papers.
44 Measuring ph Indicators are dyes or mixtures of dyes that can be added to solutions of acids or bases to determine ph. Some common indicators and their color changes are shown in the chart below:
45 Measuring ph For more accurate measurements, a ph meter is used. Using special glass electrodes, the meter measures the voltage of the solution as a function of the activity of the hydrogen ions near the tip of the electrode.
46 The ph Meter First ph meter was constructed in 1934 by Arnold Beckman ( ). A glass ph electrode that had a potential dependent on activity of H + ions had been constructed in 1906 by Fritz Haber and Zygmunt Klemensiewicz, but there were technical difficulties due to a large internal resistance of glass electrodes. To obtain reliable results one was forced to use very sensitive galvanoscope expensive and difficult to maintain. To overcome the problem Arnold Beckman proposed to use simple high gain amplifier made using two vacuum tubes. Amplified current was much easier to measure with cheap miliamperometers. Beckman s first ph meter, 1934 (middle photo) The Model G ph meter, the first successful marketed ph meter, 1936 (bottom photo)
Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties
Acids and : A Brief Review Acids: taste sour and cause dyes to change color. : taste bitter and feel soapy. Arrhenius: acids increase [H ] bases increase [OH ] in solution. Arrhenius: acid base salt water.
: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water
Topics Solutions 1. Arrhenius Acids and bases a. An acid increases the H + concentration in b. A base increases the OH - concentration in 2. Strong acids and bases completely dissociate 3. Weak acids and
Topic 8 Acids and bases 6 hours Hydronium ion (H3O + ) = more stable form of hydrogen ion (H + ) H + + H2O H3O + 8.1 Theories of acids and bases 2 hours 1. Arrhenius H-X / M-OH ACID a substance that dissociates
ACID AND BASE STRENGTH Experiment #2 PURPOSE: 1. To distinguish between acids, bases and neutral substances, by observing their effect on some common indicators. 2. To distinguish between strong and weak
Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Understand the nature of the hydrated proton, represented as either H + (aq) or H 3 O + (aq) Define and identify Arrhenuis acids and bases.
Chemistry 3202 Unit 2 Acids and Bases Definitions of Acids and Bases An operational definition is one that is based on the observable properties, behaviours or uses of an entity. The earliest definitions
Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius
TOPIC 11: Acids and Bases ELECTROLYTES are substances that when dissolves in water conduct electricity. They conduct electricity because they will break apart into Ex. NaCl(s)! Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq), and
Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry
UNIT (6) ACIDS AND BASES 6.1 Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases Definitions for acids and bases were proposed by the Swedish chemist Savante Arrhenius in 1884. Acids were defined as compounds that
Ch 14 Page 1 Chapter 14: Acids and Bases Properties of Acids Sour taste React with some metals Turns blue litmus paper red React with bases Some Common Acids HCl, hydrochloric acid H 2 SO 4, sulfuric acid
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which statement concerning Arrhenius acid-base theory is not correct? A) Acid-base reactions must
Chapter 8 Acids and Bases Definitions Arrhenius definitions: An acid is a substance that produces H + (H 3 O + ) Ions in aqueous solution. A base is a substance that produces OH - ions in aqueous solution.
Chapter 16 Acids and Bases Concept Check 16.1 Chemists in the seventeenth century discovered that the substance that gives red ants their irritating bite is an acid with the formula HCHO 2. They called
Acid-base A4 1 Acid-base theories ACIDS & BASES - IONIC EQUILIBRIA 1. LEWIS acid electron pair acceptor H, AlCl 3 base electron pair donor NH 3, H 2 O, C 2 H 5 OH, OH e.g. H 3 N: -> BF 3 > H 3 N BF 3 see
Chapter 16: Acid-Base and Solubility Equilibria: Reactions in Soil and Water Problems: 16.2-16.86 16.1 ACIDS AND BASES: THE BRØNSTED-LOWRY MODEL PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES Acids produce hydrogen ions,
Materials: ph paper and color chart (ph range 3 to 12) or ph meter distilled water white vinegar household ammonia (or baking soda) spot plate test or 3 small test tubes stirring rod solutions / fruits
Acids and Bases Chapter 16 The Arrhenius Model An acid is any substance that produces hydrogen ions, H +, in an aqueous solution. Example: when hydrogen chloride gas is dissolved in water, the following
AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +
CAPTER Acids, Bases and Salts Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Acids and Bases Strong and Weak Acids Acids are substances that generate in aqueous solutions. Strong acids ionize 0% in water. That is,
CHE 1400 - Spring 2015 - Chapter 7 Homework 7 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1)According to Arrhenius, an acid and a base will react
Definitions acid-an ionic compound that releases or reacts with water to form hydrogen ion (H + ) in aqueous solution. They taste sour and turn litmus red. Acids react with certain metals such as zinc,
ph: Measurement and Uses One of the most important properties of aqueous solutions is the concentration of hydrogen ion. The concentration of H + (or H 3 O + ) affects the solubility of inorganic and organic
Acids and Bases Know the definition of Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis acid and base. Autoionization of Water Since we will be dealing with aqueous acid and base solution, first we must examine the
Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Fu-Yin Hsu Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria To help break down food To activate enzymes that break
2H 2 O H 3 O + + OH Hydronium ion hydroxide ion Q: But how often does this happen? This is the fundamental concept of all acid-base chemistry In pure water, how much of it is water and how much is ions?
Acids Identifying Acids and Bases Acid (anhydrides) contains H+ ions as the cation, with and other element as the anion Non-metal oxide H2SO4 HI P2O5 Bases Base (anhydrides) Contains OH- as the anion Combined
188 Chapter 11: Acids and Bases For our purposes, an acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ion (H + ) when dissolved in water. A base is a substance that produces hydroxide ion (OH - ) when dissolved
Lecture Presentation Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Stomach Acid and Heartburn The cells that line your stomach produce hydrochloric acid. To kill unwanted bacteria
Chapter 16 Acid-Base Equilibria Most solutions that occur in nature are slightly acidic. One reason for this is that when carbon dioxide dissolves in water, it forms carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3. Basic solutions
Chemistry I Accelerated Study Guideline - Chapter 19 Acids, Bases and Salts ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ By the end of this unit, the skills you should
Dr Mike Lyons School of Chemistry Trinity College Dublin. email@example.com ACID-BASE REACTIONS/ THE PH CONCEPT. Chemistry Preliminary Course 2011 1 Lecture topics. 2 lectures dealing with some core chemistry
6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface
EXPERIMENT 10 Chemistry 110 Solutions Part 2 ACIDS, BASES, AND ELECTROLYTES PURPOSE: The purpose of this experiment is to determine the properties of solutions of acids, bases and electrolytes. Students
John W. Moore Conrad L. Stanitski Peter C. Jurs http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/moore Chapter 15 Acids and Bases Arrhenius Definition Arrhenius: any substance which ionizes in water to produce: Protons
Aqueous Ions and Reactions (ions, acids, and bases) Demo NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl (s) Two clear and colorless solutions turn to a cloudy white when mixed Demo Special Light bulb in water can test for
10. Acids, Bases, and Salts Acids and bases For centuries people have known acids are in vinegar, lemon juice and many other foods taste sour. Only few hundred years ago that it was discovered that acids
Topic 5 5-1 Acid and Bases Acid and Bases 5-2 There are a number definitions for aicd and bases, depending on what is convenient to use in a particular situation: Arrhenius and Ostwald: Theory of electrolyte
General Chemistry II Jasperse Acid-Base Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems 1 General Types/Groups of problems: Conceptual Questions. Acids, Bases, and p1 K b and pk b, Base Strength, and using K b or p7-10
AcidBaseEquil 1 Acid-Base Equilibrium See AqueousIons in Chemistry 1110 online notes for review of acid-base fundamentals! Acid- Base Reaction in Aqueous Salt Solutions Recall that use [ ] to mean concentration
Stoichiometry and Aqueous Reactions (Chapter 4) Chemical Equations 1. Balancing Chemical Equations (from Chapter 3) Adjust coefficients to get equal numbers of each kind of element on both sides of arrow.
Chapter 9 Lecture Notes: Acids, Bases and Equilibrium Educational Goals 1. Given a chemical equation, write the law of mass action. 2. Given the equilibrium constant (K eq ) for a reaction, predict whether
CHAPTER 12 Acids and Bases Opening Essay Formerly there were rather campy science-fiction television shows in which the hero was always being threatened with death by being plunged into a vat of boiling
SNC 2DI Chemistry Unit Test Review Note: this review sheet only covers the second half of our chemistry unit. You should use our mid-unit test review sheet to recall concepts from the first half of the
Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification
Acid-Base Indicators and Titration Curves Titrations In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added to another solution of unknown concentration until the chemical
Visualizing ph 2010, 1992 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission granted for classroom use. All reproductions must include original copyright. David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator,
Return to Lab Menu Acids and Bases in Your House OBJECTIVES Isolate a natural acid-base indicator. Determine the acid-base properties of common household solutions. INTRODUCTION Acids and bases are among
Ch 15: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 5 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 15 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Bonus problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,
Chemistry: 9. Acids and Bases Please remember to photocopy 4 pages onto one sheet by going A3 A4 and using back to back on the photocopier Syllabus OC18 Use litmus or a universal indicator to test a variety
1. Is H 3 O + polar or non-polar? (1 point) a) Polar b) Non-polar CHEMISTRY 101 EXAM 3 (FORM B) DR. SIMON NORTH 2. The bond strength is considerably greater in HF than in the other three hydrogen halides
Ionization of Water DEMONSTRATION OF CONDUCTIVITY OF TAP WATER AND DISTILLED WATER Pure distilled water still has a small conductivity. Why? There are a few ions present. Almost all the pure water is H
SCH3U- R.H.KING ACADEMY SOLUTION & ACID/BASE WORKSHEET Name: The importance of water - MAKING CONNECTION READING 1. Read P. 368-375, P. 382-387 & P. 429-436; P. 375 # 1-11 & P. 389 # 1,7,9,12,15; P. 436
Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.
1 Ch 8.5 Solution Concentration Units % (m/m or w/w) = mass of solute x 100 total mass of solution mass of solution = mass solute + mass solvent % (v/v) = volume of solute x 100 volume of solution filled
Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration
Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution 4.1 Aqueous Solutions Solution homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances Solute the substance present in a smaller amount (usually solid in Chap. 4) Solvent the
Acid/Base Reactions some covalent compounds have weakly bound H atoms and can lose them to water (acids) some compounds produce OH in water solutions when they dissolve (bases) acid/base reaction are very
Cool Chemistry Show Activity 7 Acids, Bases, and Indicators Colorful Chemistry GOALS In this activity you will: Identify common household acids and bases. Identify characteristic properties of acids and
Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are
University of Califnia, Davis F use with UC Davis Chem 8 and 118 Series Classification of Reagents in Chemistry I: Acids and Bases There are 3 definitions of acids and bases. All three are used in both
111 Electrolytes and Ionic Theory - electrolytes: substances that dissolve in water to form charge-carrying solutions * Electrolytes form ions in solution - (ions that are mobile are able to carry charge!).
Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical
Health Science Chemistry I CHEM-1180 Experiment No. 12 Acids, Bases, ph, Hydrolysis and Buffers (Revised 05/27/2015) Introduction Hydrogen Ion Concentration The acidity of aqueous solutions and its measurement
BASIC CONCEPTS of CHEMISTRY Please revise: names of element, Periodic Table (understanding the notation), acid, base and salt nomenclature 1. Definitions of acid and base There are several methods of defining
Volumetric Analysis Lecture 5 Experiment 9 in Beran page 109 Prelab = Page 115 Experimental Aims To prepare and standardize (determine concentration) a NaOH solution Using your standardized NaOH calculate
AP*Chemistry The Chemistry of Acids and Bases "ACID"--Latin word acidus, meaning sour. (lemon) "ALKALI"--Arabic word for the ashes that come from burning certain plants; water solutions feel slippery and
Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds
Balancing Act Teacher Information Objectives In this activity, students neutralize a base with an acid. Students determine the point of neutralization of an acid mixed with a base while they: Recognize
CHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF EVERYDAY HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS Purpose: It is important for chemists to be able to determine the composition of unknown chemicals. This can often be done by way of chemical tests.
Topic 18 Acids and Bases 18.1 Exercises 1. Define: (a) ph The negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. i.e. ph = log[h 3 O + ] (b) poh The negative log of hydroxide ion concentration
Chemistry 101 - H Acids and Bases This presentation was created by Professor Carl H. Snyder Chemistry Department University of Miami Coral Gables, FL 33124 CSnyder@miami.edu Chapter 10 - Acids and Bases
Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that