Welcome to Human Anatomy & Physiology Z333

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1 Welcome to Human Anatomy & Physiology Z333 Instructor: Office: Phone: Office Hours: Mike LeMaster 2025 Cordley Hall (Zoology office) MWF 3:00-4:00 pm or by appointment Lectures: MWRF 1:00-2:50 pm CORD 2113 Required ext: Human Anatomy and Physiology (Marieb - 5th Ed.) Grading: Exam 1 (28 August) 150 Exam 2 (6 September) esting Format: Grading Scale: Multiple Choice rue/false Matching (w/ diagrams) Fill-in-the-blank Short Answer A = % D = 55-64% B = 80-89% F = < 55% C = 65-79% Curve implemented if average falls below 75% (+/- given accordingly) Web Site: Molecules/Cells/issues Z331-1st Session Covering, support and movement of the human body Integumentary System Skeletal System Review #1: What is wrong with this Picture? Muscular System

2 Nervous System Z332-2nd Session Regulation and integration of the human body Cardiovascular System Z333-3rd Session Maintenance of the human body Endocrine System Respiratory System FSH Reproductive System Review #2: What is wrong with this Picture? Digestive System Nutrients Waste O 2 CO 2 Immune System Urinary System Levels of structural organization: (Figure 1.1) ENAIVE SCHEDULE Week Date opic Chapter Material Covered 1 19 Aug Introduction Cardiovascular System 18: Course information and outline Blood 20 Aug Blood, cont. 21 Aug 19: Heart anatomy & physiology 22 Aug 20: Vessels anatomy & physiology 23 Aug Urinary System 26: Kidney - anatomy 2 26 Aug Kidney - physiology 27 Aug Respiratory System 23: Anatomy; Mechanism of breathing 28 Aug EXAM I Chapters and Aug Respiratory System Gas exchange 30 Aug Gas transport 3 02 Sept Labor Day Enjoy! 03 Sept Digestive System 24: Oral cavity; Esophagus 04 Sept Stomach; Small Intestine 05 Sept Liver; Pancreas; Large Intestine 06 Sept EXAM II Chapters 23 and 24 How to get the most out of Z333: (1) Attend lecture (2) ake notes (& re-write notes) (3) Read text (4) Utilize multiple resources Review questions (Book) Interactive Physiology CD s World-wide web (5) Utilize office hours (6) Have Fun! - You are what you learn... Extra Credit (10 points): (a) Select a drug (pharmaceutical) associated with a system of the body studied this session (b) Briefly describe how / why the drug is of importance and potential side affects (if applicable) (c) Specifically describe how the drug works physiologically in written and diagrammatic form. Should be no longer than 2 pages (double-spaced) Due before the final (Sept. 6th)

3 Example: Background: Androgen Receptor = 24 months estosterone Reductase Androgen Receptor estosterone 5 α Dihydrotestosterone he Warning: Women who are pregnant should not take or handle this product... Male pattern baldness = DH in scalp Shortening of the growing phase of hair Progressive miniaturization of hair follicles Decrease in number of visible hairs he Cure: P he Problem: Reductase Genotypic Sex Determination: estosterone 5 α Dihydrotestosterone Fertilization Gonadal Determining Genes estosterone Reductase 5 α Dihydrotestosterone Hormones Gonad Formation Sexual Differentiation of phenotype Lower levels of DH: Inhibit further miniaturization of hair follicles Restore miniaturized hair follicles (re-grow visible hair) Sexual Development: (Wollfian ducts differentiate) XY SRY Gene ransport system of the body: O 2 CO 2 Cell Nutrients Waste Source O 2 / Energy Propecia Reductase estes MIS (Mullarian ducts degenerate) External environment: OO MUCH IME Sink (Development of male external anatomy) (Development of female external anatomy) O 2 / Nutrients

4 ransport system of the body: O 2 CO 2 Cell Nutrients Waste Source O 2 / Energy A. Blood B. Heart C. Blood Vessels External environment: Sink O 2 / Nutrients Blood: Only fluid tissue in body (connective tissue) ph = (slightly alkaline) emp. slightly higher than body temp. (37 C / F) Approx. 8% body weight (4-6 liters) Function ( River of Life ): 1) Distribution Deliver oxygen/nutrients ransport metabolic wastes / Hormones 2) Regulation Maintain body temperature / ph Maintain fluid volumes 3) Protection Prevent blood loss Prevent infection 1) Formed Elements (living cells) Erythrocytes (RBC s) Leukocytes (WBC s) Platelets 2) Plasma Non-cellular fluid matrix (dissolved proteins) Plasma Formed Elements Buffy Coat (~1%) Erythrocytes (~45%) 1) Plasma Distributes materials/heat Composition precisely maintained (homeostatic mechanisms) 90% water 8% protein Albumin (~ 60%): Maintains osmotic pressure Globulins (~ 36%): ransport proteins (α, β), antibodies (γ) Clotting Proteins (~ 4%) 2% other solutes; (>100 different solutes present - able 18.1) Nitrogenous solutes (e.g. urea) Electrolytes (e.g. Na + ) Nutrients (e.g. glucose) Respiratory gases (e.g. O 2 ) 2) Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells - RBCs) Small (~ 7 µm); biconcave ( certs ) Anucleate (very few organelles) Contain hemoglobin (gas transport protein) ransports O 2 and CO 2 Heme (O 2 -binding pigment w/ iron) + Globin (protein) 4 globins / hemoglobin (2α & 2β) = 4 molecules O 2

5 Structure of Hemoglobin: 2) Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells - RBCs) Structure = Function: 1) Small size and shape = large surface area / volume 2) 97% hemoglobin / RBC (250 million hemoglobin molecules) 3) Lack mitochondria - don t burn oxygen (increased efficiency) (Figure 18.4) Erythropoiesis (red blood cell formation): ~ 2 million RBCs produced per second Formation occurs in red bone marrow RBC production High Low ibia Femur Long bones Vertebra Sternum Ribs Axial skeleton (Figure 18.5) Young Age (years) Old

6 Normoblast (nucleus ejected) Normoblast (nucleus ejected) Reticulocyte (immature - enter blood stream) Normoblast (nucleus ejected) Lives for days Broken down by spleen/liver Iron/amino acids recovered Waste disposed of in bile Erythrocyte 2 days Reticulocyte (immature - enter blood stream)

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